Bhagawat geeta 1

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Bhagawat geeta 1

References:

S = Sankara; R = Ramanuja; RN = Radhakrishnan.

Monier-Williams, 'Sanskrit-English Dictionary'

Chapter 01: Arjuna's distress

Original date of web publication: May 10, 2009

 

धृतराष्ट्र उवाच 

धर्मक्षेत्रे कुरुक्षेत्रे समवेता युयुत्सवः ।

मामकाः पाण्डवाश्चैव किमकुर्वत सञ्जय ॥१-१॥ 1.1

dhṛtarāṣṭra uvāca
dharmakṣetre kurukṣetre samavetā yuyutsavaḥ
māmakāḥ pāṇḍavāś cai 'va kim akurvata sañjaya 1.1

dhṛtarāṣṭra uvāca
dharmakṣetraḥ
1 kuru-kṣetre2 samavetāḥ3 yuyutsavaḥ4
māmakāḥ5 pāṇḍavāḥ6 ca7 eva8 kim9 akurvata
10 sañjaya11 1.1

 

dhṛtarāṣṭra uvāca = Dhrtarastra said:

sañjaya11 = O Sanjaya [a charioteer, a friend and secretary was acting as a reporter to the blind king Dhrtarastra, the father of Kauravas]; samavetā3 = assembled in; dharmakṣetraḥ1 = Dharmaksetra [the Field of Dharma or righteousness];  kuru-kṣetre2 = Kuruksetra [the Field of the Kurus]; yuyutsavaḥ4 = desiring battle; eva8 & kim9 = exactly what; māmakāḥ5 = my people [Kauravas]; ca7 = and; pāṇḍavāḥ6 = Pandavas; akurvata10 = did do?  1.1

 

1.1: Dhritarāstra said:

Assembled in Dharmaksetra and Kuruksetra eager for battle, what did my people and the sons of Pandu do, O Sanjaya? 

 

 

सञ्जय उवाच 

दृष्ट्वा तु पाण्डवानीकं व्यूढं दुर्योधनस्तदा ।

आचार्यमुपसंगम्य राजा वचनमब्रवीत्  ॥१-२॥ 1.2

sañjaya uvāca
dṛṣṭ
vā tu pāṇḍavānīkaṁ vyūḍhaṁ duryodhanas tadā
ācāryam upasa
gamya rājā vacanam abravīt 1.2

Sañjaya uvāca
dṛṣṭ
1 tu2 pāṇḍav-ānīkam3 vyūḍham4 duryodhana5 tadā6

ācāryam7 upasagamya8 rājā9 vacanam10 abravīt11     1.2

 

Sañjaya uvāca = Sanjaya said: tadā6 = When, at that time; rājā9 duryodhana5 = King Duryodhana; dṛṣṭ1 tu2 = upon seeing; pāṇḍav-ānīkam3 =  the soldiers of the Pandavas; vyūḍham4 = in battle formation; upasagamya8 = approached; ācāryam7 = Acharya Drona; [and] abravīt11 = uttered; vacanam10 = [these] words.   1.2

 

1.2: Sanjaya said:

Seeing the Pandava army in battle formation, Duryodhana approached his teacher and spoke these words.

Drona was his Guru. 

 

 

पश्यैतां पाण्डुपुत्राणामाचार्य महतीं चमूम् ।

व्यूढां द्रुपदपुत्रेण तव शिष्येण धीमता ॥१-३॥ 1.3

paśyaitāṁ pāṇḍuputrāṇām ācārya mahatīṁ camūm
vyūḍhāṁ drupadaputreṇa tava śiṣyeṇa dhīmatā 1.3

paśya1 etāṁ2 pāṇḍu-putrāṇām3 ācārya4 mahatīm5 camūm6
vyūḍhām7
drupada-putreṇa8 tava9 śiṣyeṇa10 dhīmatā11

 

ācārya4 = O Acharya Drona; paśya1 = behold; etām2 = this; mahatīm5 = very great; camūm6 = army; pāṇḍu-putrāṇām3 = of the sons of Pandu; vyūḍhām7 = in battle formation; [deployed] drupada-putreṇa8 =  by the son of Drupada; tava9 = your; dhīmatā11 = intelligent; śiṣyeṇa10 = disciple.  1.3


1.3: Behold this great army of the sons of Pandu deployed in battle formation by the son of Drupada, your intelligent disciple, O teacher. 

 

 

अत्र शूरा महेष्वासा भीमार्जुनसमा युधि ।

युयुधानो विराटश्च द्रुपदश्च महारथः ॥१-४॥ 1.4

atra śūrā maheṣvāsā bhīmārjunasamā yudhi
yuyudhāno virāṭaś ca drupadaś ca mahārathaḥ 1.4

atra1 śūrāḥ2  maheṣvāsāḥ3  bhīmārjuna4 samāḥ5  yudhi6
yuyudhānaḥ7  virāṭaḥ8 ca9 drupadaḥ
10 ca11 mahārathaḥ12 1.4

 

atra1 =  Here; [are] śūrāḥ2  = the heroes; ca9 = and; maheṣvāsāḥ3 = the Great archers; samā5 = equal; [to] bhīmārjuna4 = Bhima and Arjuna; yudhi6 = in battle: yuyudhānaḥ7 = Yuyudhana; virāṭaḥ8 = Virata;   drupadaḥ10 = Drupada; ca11 = and; mahārathaḥ12 = Great Charioteer. 1.4


1.4: Here are the heroes and the great archers equal to Bhima and Arjuna in battle: Yuyudhana, Virata, and Drupada, the great charioteer.   

 

 

धृष्टकेतुश्चेकितानः काशिराजश्च वीर्यवान् ।

पुरुजित्कुन्तिभोजश्च शैब्यश्च नरपुङ्गवः ॥१-५॥ 1.5

dhṛṣṭaketuś cekitānaḥ kāśirājaś ca vīryavān
purujit kuntibhojaś ca śaibyaś ca narapungavaḥ 1.5

dhṛṣṭaketuḥ1 cekitānaḥ2 kāśirājaḥ3 ca4 vīryavān5
purujit6
kuntibhojaḥ7 ca8 śaibyaḥ9 ca10 narapungavaḥ11

 

dhṛṣṭaketuḥ1 = Dhristaketu; cekitānaḥ2 = Cekitana; vīryavān5 = valiant; kāśirājaḥ3 = Kasiraja' ca4 = and;  purujit6 = Purujit; kuntibhojaḥ7 = Kuntibhoja; ca8 = and; śaibyaḥ9 = Saibya ca10 = and;  narapungavaḥ11 = foremost among men.  1.5

 

1.5: Dhristaketu, Cekitana, valiant Kasiraja, Purujit, Kuntibhoja, and Saibya, the foremost among men. 

 

 

युधामन्युश्च विक्रान्त उत्तमौजाश्च वीर्यवान् ।

सौभद्रो द्रौपदेयाश्च सर्व एव महारथाः  ॥१-६॥ 1.6

yudhāmanyuś ca vikrānta uttamaujāś ca vīryavān
saubhadro draupadeyāś ca sarva eva mahārathāḥ 1.6

yudhāmanyuḥ1 ca2 vikrāntaḥ3 uttamaujāḥ4 ca5 vīryavān6
saubhadra
7 draupadeyāḥ8 ca9 sarva10 eva11 mahārathāḥ12  1.6

 

yudhāmanyuḥ1 = Yudhamanyu;  vikrāntaḥ3 = the valiant; ca2 = and; uttamaujāḥ4 = Uttamauja; vīryavān6 = the powerful;  ca5 = and; saubhadra7 = son of Sabhadra; ca9 = and; draupadeyāḥ8 = sons of Draupadi [are];  sarva10 = all;  eva11 = indeed;  mahārathāḥ12 = the Great Charioteers (fighters).   1.6

 

1.6: Yudhamanyu the valiant, Uttamauja the powerful, the son of Subhadra, and the sons of Draupadi are great chariot fighters. 

 

 

अस्माकं तु विशिष्टा ये तान्निबोध द्विजोत्तम ।

नायका मम सैन्यस्य संज्ञार्थं तान्ब्रवीमि ते  ॥१-७॥ 1.7

asmākaṁ tu viśiṣṭā ye tān nibodha dvijottama
nāyakā mama sainyasya saṁjñārthaṁ tān bravīmi te 1.7

asmākam1 tu2 viśiṣṭā3 ye4 tān5 nibodha6 dvijottama7
nāyakā
8 mama9  sainyasya10  saṁjñā-artham11  tān12  bravīmi13  te14  1.7

 

 tu2 = But; dvijottama7 = O the Best among Brahmanas; nibodha6 = know; tān5 =  them; [as] viśiṣṭā3 = the most distinguished; [on] asmākam1 = our [side] ;  saṁjñā-artham11 te14 = for your information; [I] bravīmi13 = will name;  tān12 = them; nāyakā8 = the leaders; [of] mama9  = my; sainyasya10  = soldiers.  1.7

 

1.7: Know also, O Dvija Uttama, the distinguished leaders of the army. I will name them for your information. Dvija-Uttama: The “twice-born supreme,” the best of the twice-born Brahmanas.   

 

 

भवान्भीष्मश्च कर्णश्च कृपश्च समितिंजयः ।

अश्वत्थामा विकर्णश्च सौमदत्तिस्तथैव च  ॥१-८॥ 1.8

bhavān bhīṣmaś ca karṇaś ca kṛpaś ca samitiṁjayaḥ
aśvatthāmā vikarṇaś ca saumadattis tathai 'va ca 1.8

bhavān1 bhīṣma2  ca3 karṇa4 ca5 kṛpa6 ca7 samitiṁjayaḥ8
aśvatthāmā9 vikarṇa
10 ca11 saumadatti12 tathā13 eva14 ca15 1.8

 

bhavān1 = [Like] Yourself; ca3 = and; bhīṣma2 = Bhisma;  ca5 = and;  karṇa4 = Karna;    kṛpa6 = Krpa;  ca7 = and; aśvatthāmā9 = Asvatthama;  ca11 = and; vikarṇa10 = Vikarna;  ca15 = and; saumadatti12 = the son of Somadatta; tathā13 & eva14 =  likewise; samitiṁjayaḥ8 = ever victorious in battle. 1.8

 

1.8: (Like) yourself, Bhishma, Karna, Kripa, Asvatthama. Vikarna, and the sons of Somadatta as well, ever victorious in battle.

 

 

अन्ये च बहवः शूरा मदर्थे त्यक्तजीविताः ।

नानाशस्त्रप्रहरणाः सर्वे युद्धविशारदाः  ॥१-९॥ 1.9

anye ca bahavaḥ śūrā madarthe tyaktajīvitāḥ
nānāśastrapraharaṇāḥ sarve yuddhaviśāradāḥ 1.9

anye1 ca2 bahavaḥ3 śūrā4 mad-arthe5 tyakta-jīvitāḥ6
nānā7 śastra8 praharaṇāḥ9 sarve
10 yuddha11 viśāradāḥ12  1.9

 

anye1 = Many others; ca2 = and; bahavaḥ3 = many;  śūrā4 = heroes; tyakta-jīvitāḥ6 = those willing to sacrifice their lives; mad-arthe5 = for me; nānā7 śastra8 praharaṇāḥ9 = ready and equipped with many weapons [many-weapons-ready and equipped with]; sarve10 = all of them; yuddha11 viśāradāḥ12 = skilled in12 war111.9

 

1.9: Many other heroes have risked their lives for my sake. They are equipped with many  weapons, and all of them are skilled in war.   

 

 

अपर्याप्तं तदस्माकं बलं भीष्माभिरक्षितम् ।

पर्याप्तं त्विदमेतेषां बलं भीमाभिरक्षितम्  ॥१-१०॥ 1.10

aparyāptaṁ tad asmākaṁ balaṁ bhīṣmābhirakṣitam
paryāptaṃ tv idam eteṣāṁ balaṁ bhīmābhirakṣitam 1.10

aparyāptam1 tat2 asmākam3 balam4 bhīṣma5 abhirakṣitam6
paryāptaṃ7 tu8 idam9 eteṣām
10 balam11 bhīma12 abhirakṣitam13     1.10 

     .

tat2 = That; balam4 = strength; asmākam3 = of ours; aparyāptam1 = is unlimited; abhirakṣitam6 = protected by; bhīṣma5 = Bhisma; tu8 = but; idam9 = this; balam11 = strength; eteṣām10 = of theirs [Pandavas]; abhirakṣitam13 = protected by; bhīma12 = Bhima; paryāptaṃ7 = is limited. 1.10

 

1.10: Our strength is unlimited, protected by Bhisma. Protected by Bhima, the strength of Pandavas is limited. 

 

 

अयनेषु च सर्वेषु यथाभागमवस्थिताः ।

भीष्ममेवाभिरक्षन्तु भवन्तः सर्व एव हि  ॥१-११॥ 1.11

ayaneṣu ca sarveṣu yathābhāgam avasthitāḥ
bhīṣmam evā  'bhirakṣantu bhavantaḥ sarva eva hi 1.11

ayaneṣu1 ca2 sarveṣu3 yathā-bhāgam4 avasthitāḥ5
bhīṣmam6 evā7  abhirakṣantu8 bhavantaḥ9 sarva
10 eva11 hi12   1.11

 

sarveṣu3 = All; ayaneṣu1 ca2 = On all fronts, yathā-bhāgam4 = whatever (allotment) rank and file; bhavantaḥ9 = you are; avasthitāḥ5 = staying fixed; [offer] abhirakṣantu8 = support; [to] bhīṣmam6 = Bhishma;  evā7 = certainly; sarva10 eva11  hi12 = all without remiss.  1.11

 

1.11: All of you, stationed everywhere on all fronts in your respective positions, protect Bhisma without remiss.

 

 

तस्य संजनयन्हर्षं कुरुवृद्धः पितामहः ।

सिंहनादं विनद्योच्चैः शङ्खं दध्मौ प्रतापवान्  ॥१-१२॥ 1.12

tasya sañjanayan harṣaṃ kuruvṛddhaḥ pitāmahaḥ
siṃhanādaṃ vinadyocchaiḥ śaṅkhaṃ dadhmau pratāpavān 1.12

tasya1 sañjanayan2 harṣaṃ3 kuru-vṛddhaḥ4 pitāmahaḥ5
siṃha-nādaṃ6 vinadya7 ucchaiḥ8 śaṅkhaṃ9 dadhmau
10 pratāpavān11  1.12   

.

pratāpavān11 = Valiant; pitāmahaḥ5 = Grandfather Bhishma; kuru-vṛddhaḥ4 = the eldest of the Kurus; sañjanayan2 = to raise; tasya1 = his (Duryodhana); harṣaṃ3 = cheer; [roared making]; vinadya7 = reverberating; siṃha-nādaṃ6 = lion's sound [and] dadhmau10 = blew; śaṅkhaṃ9 = the conch; ucchaiḥ8 = loudly.  1.12

 

1.12: The valiant Bhishma, the elder of the Kurus and the grandfather, roared like a lion and blew his conch loudly to cheer up Duryodhana.

 

 

ततः शङ्खाश्च भेर्यश्च पणवानकगोमुखाः ।

सहसैवाभ्यहन्यन्त स शब्दस्तुमुलोऽभवत्  ॥१-१३॥ 1.13

tataḥ śaṅkhāś ca bheryaś ca paṇavānakagomukhāḥ
sahasai  'vā  'bhyahanyanta sa śabdas tumulo 'bhavat 1.13

tataḥ śaṅkhāḥ ca bheryaḥ ca paṇava-anaka go-mukhāḥ
sahas
ā  evā  abhyahanyanta saḥ śabdaḥ tumulaḥ abhavat 1.13

 

tataḥ = Thereafter; śaṅkhāḥ = conch; ca = and  bheryaḥ = bugles;  ca = and; paṇava-anaka = trumpets and drums;  go-mukhāḥ = cow-horns;  sahasā  evā = all at once; abhyahanyanta = sounded.  saḥ = That;  śabdaḥ = sound;  abhavat = became; tumulaḥ = tumultuous.   1.13

 

1.13: Thereafter, conches, kettledrums, trumpets, tabors, and horns were sounded all together. It was a tumultuous riot.

 

 

ततः श्वेतैर्हयैर्युक्ते महति स्यन्दने स्थितौ ।

माधवः पाण्डवश्चैव दिव्यौ शङ्खौ प्रदध्मतुः  ॥१-१४॥ 1.14

tataḥ śvetair hayair yukte mahati syandane sthitau
mādhavaḥ pāṇḍavaś cai 'va divyau śaṅkhau pradaghmatuḥ 1.14

tataḥ1 śvetai2 hayai3 yukte4 mahati5 syandane6 sthitau7
mādhavaḥ8 pāṇḍavaḥ ca eva9 divyau10 śaṅkhau11 pradaghmatuḥ12

 

tataḥ1 = Thereafter; mādhavaḥ8 = Madhava [Krishna];  pāṇḍavaḥ ca eva9 = and Pandava [Arjuna]; sthitau7 = seated;  mahati5 = on the great;  syandane6 = chariot; yukte4 = yoked; śvetaiḥ2 = to the white;  hayaiḥ3 = horses;   pradaghmatuḥ12 = sounded; divyau10 = the divine;  śaṅkhau11 = conches.   1.14

 

1.14: Thereafter, Madhava and Pandava (Lord Krishna and Arjuna) sitting on the great chariot yoked with white horses sounded the divine conches.  

 

 

पाञ्चजन्यं हृषीकेशो देवदत्तं धनञ्जयः ।

पौण्ड्रं दध्मौ महाशङ्खं भीमकर्मा वृकोदरः  ॥१-१५॥ 1.15

pāñcajanyaṁ hṛṣīkeśo devadattaṁ dhanañjayaḥ
pauṇḍraṁ dadhmau mahāśaṅkhaṁ bhīmakarmā vṛkodaraḥ 1.15

pāñcajanyam1 hṛṣīkeśa2 devadattam3 dhanañjayaḥ4
pauṇḍram5 dadhmau6 mahā-śaṅkham7 bhīma-karmā8 vṛkodaraḥ9  1.15  

      .

hṛṣīkeśa2 = Hrisikesa [krishna]; dadhmau6 = blew; [His] pāñcajanyam1 = Panchajanya; dhanañjayaḥ4 = Arjuna; [blew] devadattam3 = Devadatta;  vṛkodaraḥ9 = Vrkodara; bhīma-karmā8 = of terrible deeds; [blew] mahā-śaṅkham7 = the Great Conch; pauṇḍram5 = Paundram.  1.15

 

1.15: Hrisikesa blew His conch, Pāchajanya; Dhanajaya blew his conch, Devadatta; and Bhima the big eater and formidable doer of deeds blew his big conch, Paundra.

  Hrisikesa is Lord Krishna, Dhananjaya is Arjuna and Virokdara [Bhima] is Arjuna's sibling. Panchajanya, Devadatta and Paundram are the names of conches of the respective personas.

Bhima means 'The Terrible', and thus are the epithet Bhima and eponymous acts, Bhima Karma (= terrible deeds).

 

 

अनन्तविजयं राजा कुन्तीपुत्रो युधिष्ठिरः ।

नकुलः सहदेवश्च सुघोषमणिपुष्पकौ  ॥१-१६॥ 1.16

anantavijayaṁ rājā kuntīputro yudhiṣṭhiraḥ
nakulaḥ sahadevaś ca sughoṣamaṇipuṣpakau 1.16

anantavijayam1 rājā2 kuntī-putra3 yudhiṣṭhiraḥ4
nakulaḥ5 sahadeva
6 ca7 sughoṣa-maṇipuṣpakau8 1.16    

 

kuntī-putra3 = Son of Kunti; rājā2 = king; yudhiṣṭhiraḥ4 = Yudhithira; [blew]; anantavijayam1 = the Conch by name Anantavijayam. nakulaḥ5 = Nakula; ca7 = and; sahadeva6 = Shadeva; [blew]; sughoṣa-maṇipuṣpakau8 = the Conches Sughosa and Manipuspaka. 1.16

 

1.16: Son of Kunti, king Yudhithira blew the Conch by name Anantavijayam; Nakula and Shadeva blew the Conches Sughosa and Manipuspaka.

 

 

काश्यश्च परमेष्वासः शिखण्डी च महारथः ।

धृष्टद्युम्नो विराटश्च सात्यकिश्चापराजितः  ॥१-१७॥ 1.17

kāśyaś ca parameṣvāsaḥ śikhaṇḍī ca mahārathaḥ
dhṛṣṭadyumno virāṭaś ca sātyakiś cā 'parājitaḥ 1.17

kāśya1 ca2 parameṣvāsaḥ3 śikhaṇḍī4 ca5 mahārathaḥ6
dhṛṣṭadyumnaḥ7 virāṭaḥ8 ca9 sātyaki
10 ca11 aparājitaḥ12  1.17         

  

kāśya1 = Kasi Raja; parameṣvāsaḥ3 = the wielder of the great bow; ca2 = and;  śikhaṇḍī4 = Sikhandi; mahārathaḥ6 = the great charioteer; ca5 = and; dhṛṣṭadyumnaḥ7 = Dhrstadhyumna; ca9 = and; virāṭaḥ8 = Virata; ca11 = and; sātyaki10 = Satyaki; aparājitaḥ12  = who has never known defeat.  1.17

 

1.17: Kasi Raja, the wielder of the great bow, Sikhandi, the great Charioteer, Dhrstadhyumna, Virata, and Satyaki, who has never known defeat...

 

 

द्रुपदो द्रौपदेयाश्च सर्वशः पृथिवीपते ।

सौभद्रश्च महाबाहुः शङ्खान्दध्मुः पृथक्पृथक्  ॥१-१८॥ 1.18
drupado draupadeyāś ca sarvaśaḥ pṛthivīpate
saubhadraś ca mahābāhuḥ śaṅkhān dadhmuḥ pṛthak-pṛthak 1.18

drupada1 draupadeyā2 ca3 sarvaśaḥ4 pṛthivī-pate5
saubhadra
6 ca7 mahā-bāhuḥ8 śaṅkhān9 dadhmuḥ10 pṛthak-pṛthak11   1.18  

 

drupada1 = King Drupada; ca3 = and; draupadeyā2 = the sons of Draupadi; ca7 = and; mahā-bāhuḥ8 = mighty-armed; saubhadra6 = son of Subhadra; sarvaśaḥ4 = all; dadhmuḥ10 = blew; śaṅkhān9 = [their respective] conches; pṛthak-pṛthak11 = separately-separately [one by one];  pṛthivīpate5 = O King of Earth. 1.18

   

1.18: O King, king Drupada, the sons of Draupadi and the mighty-armed son of Subhadra blew the conches one by one, separately.

 

Yuddhisthira, Arjuna, Bhima, Nakula and Sahadeva are the five brothers collectively known as the Pandavas [the five-some or the pentad].  Yudhisthira, Bhima and Arjuna are the sons of King Pandu and Kunti; Nakula and Sahadeva are twins born of King Pandu and Madri.  Draupadi is married to the Pandavas, the five siblings.

 

 

स घोषो धार्तराष्ट्राणां हृदयानि व्यदारयत् ।

नभश्च पृथिवीं चैव तुमुलो व्यनुनादयन्  ॥१-१९॥ 1.19

sa ghoṣo dhārtarāṣṭrāṇāṁ hṛdayāni vyadārayat
nabhaś ca pṛthivīṁ cai 'va tumulo vyanunādayan 1.19

sah1 ghoṣaḥ2 dhārtarāṣṭrāṇām3 hṛdayāni4 vyadārayat5
nabhaḥ6 ca7 pṛthivīm8 ca9  eva10  tumula
11 vyanunādayan12  1.19  

 

sah1 = That;  ghoṣaḥ2 = sound; tumula11 = tumult [tumultuous roar of the conches]; vyanunādayan12 = reverberating through; nabhaḥ6 = the sky; ca7 = and;  pṛthivīm8 = the earth; vyadārayat5 = split; hṛdayāni4 = the hearts; ca9 eva10 = indeed of;  dhārtarāṣṭrāṇām3 = the sons of Dhrtarastra.  1.19

 

1.19: The tumultuous roar (of the conches), reverberating through the sky and the earth, tore the hearts of the sons of Dhritarastra (the Kauravas). 

The Pandavas are the righteous kings and the Kauravas are the usurpers of the kingdom of Pandavas. The roar of the conches of the Pandavas shattered the hearts of the unrighteous, a clue to the outcome.

 

 

अथ व्यवस्थितान्दृष्ट्वा धार्तराष्ट्रान्कपिध्वजः ।

प्रवृत्ते शस्त्रसंपाते धनुरुद्यम्य पाण्डवः  ॥१-२०॥ 1.20

atha vyavasthitān dṛṣṭvā dhārtarāṣṭrān  kapidhvajaḥ
pravṛtte śastrasaṁpāte dhanur udyamya pāṇḍavaḥ 1.20

atha1 vyavasthitān2 dṛṣṭvā3 dhārtarāṣṭrān4  kapidhvajaḥ5
pravṛtte6 śastrasaṁpāte7 dhanu
8 udyamya9 pāṇḍavaḥ10 1.20

 

pāṇḍavaḥ10 = The Pandava [Arjuna], the son of Pandu; kapidhvajaḥ5 = one with Hanuman's flag; atha1 = thereupon;  dṛṣṭvā3 = seeing;  dhārtarāṣṭrān4 = the sons of Dhristarastra; vyavasthitān2 = standing in position; pravṛtte6 = getting ready to engage; udyamya9 = [Arjuna] hoisted up; dhanu8 = the bow; [for] śastrasaṁpāte7 = the launching of the arrows...  1.20

Arjuna takes a bird's eye view of the two armies.

1.20: O King, thereupon Arjuna, whose flag bore the crest of Hanuman, seeing the sons of Dhritarastra ready for battle, took up his bow.

 

 

हृषीकेशं तदा वाक्यमिदमाह महीपते । 

अर्जुन उवाच सेनयोरुभयोर्मध्ये रथं स्थापय मेऽच्युत  ॥१-२१॥ 1.21

hṛṣīkeśaṁ tadā vākyam idam āha mahīpate
senayor ubhayor madhye rathaṁ sthāpaya me 'cyuta 1.21

hṛṣīkeśam1  tadā2  vākyam3  idam4  āha5  mahī-pate6
senayo
7  ubhayo8  madhye9  ratham10  sthāpaya11  me12  acyuta13   1.21  

  

tadā2 = At that time; Arjuna;  āha5 = said; idam4 = these; vākyam3 = words; hṛṣīkeśam1 = To Lord Hrsikesa (Krishna): acyuta13 = O Acyuta (Krishna, the Infallible); mahī-pate6 = O Great King; sthāpaya11 = stand; me12  = my; ratham10 = chariot; madhye9 = between;  ubhayo8 = the two; senayo7 = armies.  1.21

 

1.21: At that time Arjuna said these words to Lord Krishna: O Acyuta, O Great King, stand my chariot between the two armies.

 

 

यावदेतान्निरिक्षेऽहं योद्‌धुकामानवस्थितान् ।

कैर्मया सह योद्धव्यमस्मिन् रणसमुद्यमे  ॥१-२२॥ 1.22

yāvad etān nirikṣehaṁ yoddhukāmān avasthitān
kair mayā saha yoddhavyam asmin raṇasamudyame 1.22

yāvat1 etān2 nirikṣe3 aham4 yoddhu-kāmān5 avasthitān6
kai
7 mayā8 saha9 yoddhavyam10 asmin11 raṇa12 samudyame13  1.22

 

yāvat1 = Until;  aham4 = I; nirikṣe3 =see; etān2 = all these [warriors];  kai7 & saha9 = with whom; yoddhavyam10 = [I have] to fight with; [who are] avasthitān6 = in battle formation; yoddhu-kāmān5 = lusting for a fight; mayā8 = with me; asmin11 = in this;  raṇa12 & samudyame13 = war effort.    1.22

 

I see these warriors with whom I have to fight and who are in battle formation lusting for a fight with me in this war effort.

 

 

योत्स्यमानानवेक्षेऽहं य एतेऽत्र समागताः ।

धार्तराष्ट्रस्य दुर्बुद्धेर्युद्धे प्रियचिकीर्षवः  ॥१-२३॥ 1.23

yotsyamānān avekṣe 'haṁ ya ete 'tra samāgatāḥ
dhārtarāṣṭrasya durbuddher yuddhe priyacikīrṣavaḥ 1.23

yotsyamānān1 avekṣe2 aham3 ye4 ete5 atra6 samāgatāḥ7
dhārtarāṣṭrasya8 durbuddhe
9 yuddhe10 priyacikīrṣavaḥ11  1.23

 

aham3 = I; avekṣe2 = wish to see; yotsyamānān1 = the prospective fighters; ye4 = whoever; ete5 = they; [are] samāgatāḥ7 = assembled; atra6 = here; priyacikīrṣavaḥ11 = wishing to do good; [to] durbuddhe9 = the evil-minded; dhārtarāṣṭrasya8 = son of Dhrstarastra;  yuddhe10 = in the fight.  1.23

 

1.23: I wish to see those assembled here willing to fight and serve the evil-minded son of Dhrtarāstra.

 

 

सञ्जय उवाच 

एवमुक्तो हृषीकेशो गुडाकेशेन भारत ।

सेनयोरुभयोर्मध्ये स्थापयित्वा रथोत्तमम्  ॥१-२४॥ 1.24

Sañjaya Uvāca:

evam ukto hṛṣīkeśo guḍākeśena bhārata
senayor ubhayor madhye sthāpayitvā rathottamam 1.24

Sañjaya Uvāca:

evam1 ukta2 hṛṣīkeśa3 guḍākeśena4 bhārata5

senayo7 ubhayo8 madhye9  sthāpayitvā10 rathottamam11  

Sañjaya Uvāca:= Sanjaya said:

evam1 = Thus; ukta2 = spoken to; guḍākeśena4 = by arjuna;  hṛṣīkeśa3 = Hrisikesa [Krishna]; sthāpayitvā10 = placed; rathottamam11  = the Highest Chariot. madhye9  = between; ubhayo8 = of both; senayo7 = of armies; bhārata5= O scion of Bharata Clan.   1.24

 

1.24: Sanjaya said:

O Bharata (Dhrtarāstra), having been addressed by Gudakesana (Arjuna), Hrsikesa (Lord Krishna) placed the best of chariots in the midst of both armies. 

 

 

भीष्मद्रोणप्रमुखतः सर्वेषां च महीक्षिताम् ।

उवाच पार्थ पश्यैतान्समवेतान्कुरूनिति  ॥१-२५॥ 1.25

bhīṣmadroṇapramukhataḥ sarveṣāṁ ca mahīkṣitām
uvāca pārtha paśyai 'tān samavetān kurūn iti 1.25

bhīṣma1 droṇa2 pramukhataḥ3 sarveṣāṁ4 ca5 mahīkṣitām6
uvāca7 pārtha8 paśyai9 etān
10 samavetān11 kurūn12 iti13  1.25

 

pramukhataḥ3 = Facing; bhīṣma1 = Bhishma;  droṇa2 = Drona; ca5 = and; sarveṣāṁ4 = all; mahīkṣitām6 = Great Chiefs; [Lord Krishna];  uvāca7 = said;  iti13 = thus: pārtha8 = O Partha (Arjuna);  paśya9 = behold; etān10 = these; kurūn12 = Kauravas; samavetān11 = congregated here. 1.25

 

1.25: Facing Bhisma, Drona, and all great chiefs (the Lord) said to Partha thus: Behold (all of) the Kurus gathered .

 

 

तत्रापश्यत्स्थितान्पार्थः पितॄनथ पितामहान् ।

आचार्यान्मातुलान्भ्रातॄन्पुत्रान्पौत्रान्सखींस्तथा  ॥१-२६॥ 1.26

tatrā  'paśyat sthitān pārthaḥ pitṛn atha pitāmahān
ācāryān mātulān bhrātṛn putrān pautrān sakhīṁs tathā 1.26

tatrā1 apaśyat2 sthitān3 pārthaḥ4 pitṛn5 atha6 pitāmahān7
ācāryān8 mātulān9 bhrātṛn
10 putrān11 pautrān12 sakhīn13 tathā14   

 

pārthaḥ4 = Arjuna; apaśyat2 = saw; sthitān3 = standing; tatrā1 = there; pitṛn5 = fathers; atha6 = also; pitāmahān7 = grandfathers; ācāryān8 = Gurus; mātulān9 = maternal uncles;  bhrātṛn10 = brothers; tathā14 = besides; putrān11 = sons; pautrān12 = grandsons; sakhīn13 = friends...  1.26

 

1.26: Partha could see standing there (on the battlefield) fathers, also grandfathers, teachers, maternal uncles, brothers, sons, grandsons, friends too, fathers-in-law, well-wishers and the armies of both sides...

 

 

श्वशुरान्सुहृदश्चैव सेनयोरुभयोरपि ।

तान्समीक्ष्य स कौन्तेयः सर्वान्बन्धूनवस्थितान्  ॥१-२७॥ 1.27

śvaśurān suhṛdaś cai 'va senayor ubhayor api
tān samīkṣya sa kaunteyaḥ sarvān bandhūn avasthitān 1.27

śvaśurān1 suhṛda2 ca3 eva4 senayo5 ubhayo6 api7
tān8 samīkṣya9 sa
10 kaunteyaḥ11 sarvān12 bandhūn13 avasthitān14

 

sa10 = He; kaunteyaḥ11 = Arjuna; samīkṣya9 = seeing; sarvān12 = all; śvaśurān1 = fathers-in-law; suhṛda2 = well-wishers; ca3 = and; eva4 = certainly; tān8 = those; bandhūn13 = relatives; avasthitān14 = assembled; api7 = besides; senayo5 = [of] the armies; ubhayo6 = of both sides.  1.27 continued

 

1.27 Arjuna seeing fathers-in-law, well-wishers and relatives assembled besides the armies of both sides...

 

 

कृपया परयाविष्टो विषीदन्निदमब्रवीत् । 

अर्जुन उवाच दृष्ट्वेमं स्वजनं कृष्ण युयुत्सुं समुपस्थितम्  ॥१-२८॥ 1.28

kṛpayā parayā 'viṣṭo viṣīdann idamabravīt
dṛṣṭve 'maṁ svajanaṁ kṛṣṇa yuyutsuṁ samupasthitam 1.28

kṛpayā1 parayā2 āviṣṭa3 viṣīdan4 idam5 abravīt6
dṛṣṭve7 imam8 svajanam9 kṛṣṇa
10 yuyutsum11 samupasthitam12 1.28

 

āviṣṭa3 = Overcome with; parayā2 = supreme; kṛpayā1 = compassion; viṣīdan4 = bemoaning; idam5 = this; [Arjuna] abravīt6 = spoke;  kṛṣṇa10 = O Krishna; dṛṣṭvā7 = having seen;  imam8 = these; svajanam9 = relatives;  yuyutsum11 = intending to fight; samupasthitam12 = readying for [battle]...  1.28

 

1.28: Overcome by supreme compassion and bemoaning, Arjuna spoke, O Krishna, seeing these relatives with intention to fight and readying for battle...

 

 

सीदन्ति मम गात्राणि मुखं च परिशुष्यति ।

वेपथुश्च शरीरे मे रोमहर्षश्च जायते  ॥१-२९॥ 1.29

sīdanti mama gātrāṇi mukhaṁ ca pariśuṣyati
vepathuś ca śarīre me romaharṣaś ca jāyate 1.29

sīdanti1 mama2 gātrāṇi3 mukham4 ca5 pariśuṣyati6
vepathuḥ7 ca8 śarīre9 me
10 roma-harṣa11 ca12 jāyate13   1.29

 

Arjuna continues to speak: mama2 = My; gātrāṇi3 = limbs; sīdanti1 = are afflicted with fatigue; ca5 = and; mukham4 = mouth; pariśuṣyati= is parched; ca8 = and; [I feel] vepathuḥ7 = tremulousness;  śarīre9 = of the body; ca12 = and; me10 = my; roma-harṣa11 = horripilation;  jāyate13 = is happening.   1.29

 

1.29: My limbs are afflicted with fatigue; my mouth is parched; my body is trembling; my hair stands on end.

 

 

गाण्डीवं स्रंसते हस्तात्त्वक्चैव परिदह्यते ।

न च शक्नोम्यवस्थातुं भ्रमतीव च मे मनः  ॥१-३०॥ 1.30

gāṇḍīvaṁ sraṁsate hastāt tvak cai 'va paridahyate
na ca śaknomy avasthātuṁ bhramatī 'va ca me manaḥ 1.30

gāṇḍīvam1 sraṁsate2 hastāt3 tvak4 ca5 eva6 paridahyate7
na8 ca9 śaknomi
10 avasthātum11 bhramati12 iva13 ca14 me15 manaḥ16  1.30

 

Arjuna spoke: gāṇḍīvam1 = [My] bow; sraṁsate2 = is slipping and sliding; hastāt3 = from my hands; ca5 = and; eva6 = certainly; tvak4 = [my] skin;  paridahyate7 = is burning; ca9 = and; [I] na8 = [am] not;  śaknomi10 = able to;  avasthātum11 = stand; ca14 = and;  iva13 = as if; me15 = my manaḥ16  = mind; [is] bhramati12 = roving, reeling. 1.30

1.30: My bow is slipping from my hand; my skin is burning; I am unable to stand; my mind is reeling. 

 

 

निमित्तानि च पश्यामि विपरीतानि केशव ।

न च श्रेयोऽनुपश्यामि हत्वा स्वजनमाहवे  ॥१-३१॥ 1.31

nimittāni ca paśyāmi viparītāni keśava
na ca śreyo 'nupaśyāmi hatvā svajanam āhave 1.31

nimittāni1 ca2 paśyāmi3 viparītāni4 keśava5
na6 ca7 śreya
8 anupaśyāmi9 hatvā10 svajanam11 āhave12   1.31

 

Arjuna said, keśava5 = O Kesava; [I] paśyāmi3 = see; viparītāni4 = adverse; nimittāni1 = omens;  ca2 = and; na6 & anupaśyāmi9 = I am not6 prescient9; ca7 = also; [I see nothing] śreya8 = good; hatvā10 = by killing; svajanam11 = my own people; āhave12 = in battle.  1.31

 

1.31: Arjuna said: O Kesava, I see adverse omens; I foresee no good by killing my own people in battle.                            

 

 

न काङ्क्षे विजयं कृष्ण न च राज्यं सुखानि च ।

किं नो राज्येन गोविन्द किं भोगैर्जीवितेन वा  ॥१-३२॥ 1.32

na kāṅkṣe vijayaṁ kṛṣṇa na ca rājyaṁ sukhāni ca
kiṃ no rājyena govinda kiṁ bhogair jīvitena vā 1.32

na1 kāṅkṣe2 vijayam3 kṛṣṇa4 na5 ca6 rājyam7 sukhāni8 ca9
kiṃ
10 na11 rājyena12 govinda13 kim14 bhogai15 jīvitena1617  1.32

 

kṛṣṇa4 = O Krishna; [I have] na1 = no; kāṅkṣe2 = desire; vijayam3 = [for] victory; ca6 = and; na5 = no [desire for];  rājyam7 = kingdom; ca9 = and; sukhāni8 = happiness. govinda13 = O Govinda; kiṃ10 = of what use; na11 = to us; rājyena12 = is the kingdom.  kim14 = What; bhogai15 = pleasure; [is there] jīvitena16 = by living; 17 = either.  1.32

1.32: O Krishna, I long neither for victory, nor for kingdom and nor for happiness. O Govinda, of what use is the kingdom, enjoyment, or living?    

 

 

येषामर्थे काङ्क्षितं नो राज्यं भोगाः सुखानि च ।

त इमेऽवस्थिता युद्धे प्राणांस्त्यक्त्वा धनानि च  ॥१-३३॥ 1.33

yeṣām arthe kāṅkṣitaṁ no rājyaṁ bhogāḥ sukhāni ca
ta ime 'vasthitā yuddhe prāṇāṁs tyaktvā dhanāni ca 1.33

yeṣām1 arthe2 kāṅkṣitam3 na4 rājyam5 bhogāḥ6 sukhāni7 ca8
te9 ime
10 avasthitā11 yuddhe12 prāṇān13 tyaktvā14 dhanāni15 ca16 1.33

 

yeṣām1 = For whose; arthe2 = cause; na4 = our; rājyam5 = kingdom; bhogāḥ6 = enjoyment; ca8 = and; sukhāni7 = all pleasures; kāṅkṣitam3 = [are] desired.  te9 & ime10 = These [people]; avasthitā11 = stand; yuddhe12 = in this battlefield; [ready to] tyaktvā14 = relinquish;  prāṇān13 = lives; ca16 = and; dhanāni15 = riches.  1.33

 

1.33: They, for whose sake kingdom, enjoyment, and happiness are desired, are standing here in the battlefield ready to give up their lives and riches.

 

 

आचार्याः पितरः पुत्रास्तथैव च पितामहाः ।

मातुलाः श्वशुराः पौत्राः श्यालाः संबन्धिनस्तथा  ॥१-३४॥ 1.34

ācāryāḥ pitaraḥ putrās tathai 'va ca pitāmahāḥ
mātulāḥ śvaśurāḥ pautrāḥ śyālāḥ sambandhinas tathā 1.34

ācāryāḥ1  pitaraḥ2  putrā3  tatha4  eva5  ca6  pitāmahāḥ7
 mātulāḥ8  śvaśurāḥ9  pautrāḥ10  śyālāḥ11  sambandhina12  tathā13  

 

ācāryāḥ1 = Gurus; pitaraḥ2 = fathers;  putrā3 = sons; tatha4 eva5  ca6 = in like manner;  pitāmahāḥ7 = grandfathers; mātulāḥ8 = maternal uncles; śvaśurāḥ9 = fathers-in-law; pautrāḥ10 = grandsons; śyālāḥ11 = brothers-in-law; tathā13 = so also so; sambandhina12 = relatives.  1.34

 

1.34: Teachers, fathers, sons, as well as grandfathers, maternal uncles, fathers-in-law, grandsons, brothers-in-law, and other relatives.  

 

 

एतान्न हन्तुमिच्छामि घ्नतोऽपि मधुसूदन ।

अपि त्रैलोक्यराज्यस्य हेतोः किं नु महीकृते  ॥१-३५॥ 1.35

etān na hantum icchhāmi ghnato 'pi madhusūdana
api trailokyarājyasya hetoḥ kiṁ nu mahīkṛte 1.35

etān1 na2 hantum3 icchhāmi4 ghnata5 api6 madhusūdana7
api8 trailokyarājyasya9 hetoḥ
10 kim11 nu12 mahī-kṛte13   1.35

 

madhusūdana7 = O Madhusudhana, ghnata5 & api6 = though there is a prospect of being killed; na2 & icchhāmi4 = I do not2 want; hantum3 = to kill; etān1 = all these [people]; api8 = even; hetoḥ10 = for the reason, for the sake of; [gaining] trailokyarājyasya9  = of the three worlds kingdom.  [Is there] kim11 & nu12 = any need to elaborate [that I do not wish to kill] mahī-kṛte13  = for the sake of earth.  1.35

 

1.35: I do not want to kill them, though they (want to) kill me, O Madhusudhana, even for the three worlds, not to speak of an earthly kingdom.    

 

 

निहत्य धार्तराष्ट्रान्नः का प्रीतिः स्याज्जनार्दन ।

पापमेवाश्रयेदस्मान्हत्वैतानाततायिनः  ॥१-३६॥

nihatya dhārtarāṣṭrān naḥ kā prītiḥ syāj janārdana
pāpam evā 'śrayed asmān hatvai 'tān ātatāyinaḥ 1.36

nihatya1 dhārtarāṣṭrān2 naḥ31 prītiḥ4 syāt5 janārdana6
pāpam evā7 aśrayet8 asmān9 hatva
10 etān11 ātatāyinaḥ12  1.36

 

 janārdana6 = O Janardhana; nihatya1 = by killing; dhārtarāṣṭrān2 = the sons of Dhristarastra; 1 = what;  naḥ3 = our; prītiḥ4 = happiness; syāt5 = can there be.  pāpam = Sin; evā7 = certainly; aśrayet8 = comes upon; asmān9 = us; hatva10 = by killing; etān11 = all these; ātatāyinaḥ12 = heinous sinners.  1.36

 

1.36: By killing the sons of Dhrtrastra, what pleasure can there be? O Janardhana, upon killing these heinous sinners, sin will descend on us.      

 

 

तस्मान्नार्हा वयं हन्तुं धार्तराष्ट्रान्स्वबान्धवान् ।

स्वजनं हि कथं हत्वा सुखिनः स्याम माधव  ॥१-३७॥ 1.37

tasmān nā 'rhā vayaṃ hantuṁ dhārtarāṣṭrān svabāndhavān
svajanaṁ hi kathaṁ hatvā sukhinaḥ syāma mādhava 1.37

tasmāt1 na1 arhā2 vayaṃ3 hantum4 dhārtarāṣṭrān5 svabāndhavān6
svajanam7 hi8 katham9 hatvā
10 sukhinaḥ11 syāma12 mādhava13 1.37

 

mādhava13 = O Mahdava, tasmāt1 = therefore; [it is];  na arhā2 = not deserving of; vayaṃ3 = us; hantum4 = to kill; dhārtarāṣṭrān5 = the sons of Dhrtarastra; svabāndhavān6 = our relatives; svajanam7 = our own people. hi8 = Certainly; katham9 = how; hatvā10 = by slaying; [can we] syāma12 = become; hsukhinaḥ11 = happy. 1.37

 

1.37: Therefore, it is not becoming of us that we kill the sons of Dhritrastra. How, by killing kinsmen, can we become happy O Madhava?    

 

 

यद्यप्येते न पश्यन्ति लोभोपहतचेतसः ।

कुलक्षयकृतं दोषं मित्रद्रोहे च पातकम्  ॥१-३८॥ 1.38

yady apy ete na paśyanti lobhopahatacetasaḥ
kulakṣayakṛtaṁ doṣaṁ mitradrohe ca pātakam 1.38

yadi1api2 ete3 na4 paśyanti5 lobha6 upahata7 cetasaḥ8
kula-kṣaya9 kṛtam
10 doṣam11 mitra-drohe12 ca13 pātakam14  1.38

 

adi1= If; api2 = certainly; ete3 = they [whose] cetasaḥ8 = minds; upahata7 = are afflicted by; lobha6 = greed; na4 = do not; paśyanti5 =see; pātakam14 = sins; [in the]; kula-kṣaya9 =  annihilation of the family; ca13 = and kṛtam10 = performance of; doṣam11 = vice; [and] mitra-drohe12 = treachery to friends.  1.38

 

1.38:  Even if they, whose minds are overwhelmed by greed, do not see sin in the ruin of the family, or crime in treachery to friends…  

 

 

कथं न ज्ञेयमस्माभिः पापादस्मान्निवर्तितुम् ।

कुलक्षयकृतं दोषं प्रपश्यद्भिर्जनार्दन  ॥१-३९॥ 1.39

kathaṁ na jñeyam asmābhiḥ pāpād asmān nivartitum
kulakṣayakṛtaṁ doṣaṁ prapaśyadbhir janārdana 1.39

katham1 na2 jñeyam3 asmābhiḥ4 pāpāt5 asmāt6 nivartitum7
kula-kṣaya8 kṛtam9 doṣam
10 prapaśyadbhi11 janārdana12  1.39

 

katham1 na2  jñeyam3 asmābhiḥ4 = Why is that we do not have the wisdom; nivartitum7 = to turn away; asmāt6  pāpāt5 = from these sins; janārdana12 = O Janardhana?  prapaśyadbhi11 = We see; doṣam10 = the vice; [of] kula-kṣaya8 = the ruin of family; kṛtam9 = happening.  1.39

 

1.39: Why should not we have the wisdom to see the crime in the ruin of the family O Janardhana, and turn away from the sins?

 

 

कुलक्षये प्रणश्यन्ति कुलधर्माः सनातनाः ।

धर्मे नष्टे कुलं कृत्स्नमधर्मोऽभिभवत्युत  ॥१-४०॥ 1.40

kulakṣaye praṇaśyanti kuladharmāḥ sanātanāḥ
dharme naṣṭe kulaṃ kṛtsnam adharmo 'bhibhavaty uta 1.40

kulak-ṣaye1 praṇaśyanti2 kula-dharmāḥ3 sanātanāḥ4
dharme5
naṣṭe6 kulaṃ7 kṛtsnam8 adharma9 abhibhavati10 uta11  1.40  

 

kula-kṣaye1 = With the ruin of the family; sanātanāḥ4 = the eternal; Kula-dharmāḥ3 = family values; praṇaśyanti2 = come to destruction. naṣṭe6 = After ruin; dharme5 = of righteousness; adharma9 = unrighteousness; abhibhavati10  uta11 = overtakes; kṛtsnam8 = the entire; kulaṃ7 = family.  1.40

 

1.40: With the ruin of the family, the eternal kula dharma is destroyed. When dharma is destroyed, the whole family turns to adharma.  

Kula-dharmāḥ3 : Established order of the family, family institution. dharma5 : Established order.

 

 

अधर्माभिभवात्कृष्ण प्रदुष्यन्ति कुलस्त्रियः ।

स्त्रीषु दुष्टासु वार्ष्णेय जायते वर्णसंकरः  ॥१-४१॥ 1.41

adharmābhibhavāt kṛṣṇa praduṣyanti kulastriyaḥ
strīṣu duṣṭāsu vārṣṇeya jāyate varṇasaṁkaraḥ 1.41

adharma1 abhibhavāt2 kṛṣṇa3 praduṣyant4 kula-striyaḥ5
strīṣu6 duṣṭāsu7 vārṣṇeya8 jāyate9 varṇa-saṁkaraḥ
10   1.41

 

Kṛṣṇa3 = O Krishna; [with the] abhibhavāt2 = ascendance of; adharma1 = Unrighteousness; kula-striyaḥ5 = family-women; praduṣyant4 = undergo corruption; vārṣṇeya8 = O scion of Vrsni. duṣṭāsu7 = Corruption of; strīṣu6 = women;  jāyate9 = results in; varṇa-saṁkaraḥ10 = intermingling of castes.  1.41

 

1.41: When Adharma prevails, O Krishna, the women of the family become morally corrupt, and when women are tainted, O Varsneya (Krishna), Varna Samkara comes into existence.

To this day in India, women bear the heavier burden than men in guarding  morality and any scrofulousness on their part brings disproportionably erosive shame to the family.  

 

 

सङ्करो नरकायैव कुलघ्नानां कुलस्य च ।

पतन्ति पितरो ह्येषां लुप्तपिण्डोदकक्रियाः  ॥१-४२॥ 1.42

sakaro narakāyai 'va kulaghnānāṃ kulasya ca
patanti pitaro hy eṣāṁ luptapiṇḍodakakriyāḥ 1.42

sakara1 narakāya2  kula-ghnānāṃ4 kulasya5 ca6
patanti7 pitaraḥ8 hi9 eṣām
10 lupta11 piṇḍa12 udaka13 kriyāḥ14  1.42

sakara1 = Commingling of castes; narakāya2 = drives to hell; kula-ghnānāṃ4 = the destroyers of the family; ca6 = and; kulasya5 = the family;  eva3 = for sure.  pitaraḥ8 = Forefathers; hi9 = surely; patanti7 = fall down; lupta11 = deprived of; kriyāḥ14 = performance of; eṣām10 = their;  piṇḍa12 = offering of rice; [and] udaka13 = water.  1.42

1.42:     Commingling (of castes) brings hell to the family and those who destroyed the race. The spirits of the ancestors fall, deprived of their offerings of food and water.

Purport:

Because of commingling of castes, the family and the destroyers of the race go to hell. The spirit of the ancestor falls, deprived of the offerings of food and water.

 

 

दोषैरेतैः कुलघ्नानां वर्णसरकारकैः ।

उत्साद्यन्ते जातिधर्माः कुलधर्माश्च शाश्वताः  ॥१-४३॥ 1.43

doṣair etaiḥ kulaghnānāṁ varṇasaṁkarakārakaiḥ
utsādyante jātidharmāḥ kuladharmāś ca śāśvatāḥ 1.43

doṣai1 etaiḥ2 kula-ghnānām3 varṇa-sakara4 kārakaiḥ5
utsādyante6 jāti-dharmāḥ7 kuladharmāḥ8 ca9 śāśvatāḥ
10  

 

doṣai1 = By such vices; etaiḥ2 = all these; varṇa-sakara4 = miscegenation of races; kula-ghnānām3 = by the perpetrators of destruction of family; [and] kārakaiḥ5 = by the causers; śāśvatāḥ10 = eternal and traditional; jāti-dharmāḥ7 = Jati Dharma or Caste duties; ca9 = and; kuladharmāḥ8 = Family duties; utsādyante6 = come to destruction.  1.43

1.43: By such evil deeds such as kula ghānām and Varna Sankara, eternal Jāti dharmā and kula dharmā are destroyed.

Ramanuja: By the sins of the clan-destroyers who bring about inter-mixture of classes, the ancient tradition of the clan and class are destroyed. --Translation from Sanskrit to English by Svami Adidevananda.

Sankara: Due to these misdeeds of the ruiners of the family, which cause intermingling of castes, the traditional rites and duties of the castes and families become destroyed. --Translation from Sanskrit to English by Swami Gambhirananda.

 

 

उत्सन्नकुलधर्माणां मनुष्याणां जनार्दन ।

नरकेऽनियतं वासो भवतीत्यनुशुश्रुम  ॥१-४४॥ 1.44

utsannakuladharmāṇāṁ manuṣyāṇāṁ janārdana
narake niyataṁ vāso bhavatī  'ty anuśuśruma 1.44

utsanna1 kula-dharmāṇām2 manuṣyāṇām3 janārdana4
narake5
niyatam6 vāsa7 bhavatī8  iti9 anuśuśruma10  1.44

 

anuśuśruma10 = we have heard it said; manuṣyāṇām3 = those men whose; kula-dharmāṇām2 = family duties; utsanna1 = having been abolished;  janārdana= O Janardana; iti9 = thus;  niyatam6 = eternally; bhavatī8 = happen; vāsa7 = to dwell; narake5 = in hell.  1.44

 

1.44: We have heard it said (by the learned) that those men, whose kula dharma is destroyed, O Janardana, would always dwell in hell.

 

 

अहो बत महत्पापं कर्तुं व्यवसिता वयम् ।

यद्राज्यसुखलोभेन हन्तुं स्वजनमुद्यताः  ॥१-४५॥ 1.45

aho bata mahat pāpaṁ kartuṁ vyavasitā vayam
yad rājyasukhalobhena hantuṁ svajanam udyatāḥ 1.45

aha1 bata2 mahat3 pāpam4 kartum5 vyavasitā6 vayam7
yat8 rājya9 sukha-lobhena
10 hantum11 svajanam12 udyatāḥ13   1.45

 

 aha1 = Alas; bata2 = oh; vayam7 = we; vyavasitā6 = resolved; kartum5 = to do; mahat3 = great; pāpam4 = sin; udyatāḥ13 = ready and eager; hantum11 = to kill; svajanam12 = our people; [for] yat8 = that;  rājya9 sukha-lobhena10 =  longing for kingdom and happiness [kingdom-happiness-longing for].  1.45

 

1.45: Alas! We have decided to commit great sins, by getting ready to kill our kinsmen because of greed for the pleasures of kingdom.  Rājya-sukha-lobha: kingdom-pleasure-greed: greed for the pleasures of kingdom.

 

 

यदि मामप्रतीकारमशस्त्रं शस्त्रपाणयः ।

धार्तराष्ट्रा रणे हन्युस्तन्मे क्षेमतरं भवेत्  ॥१-४६॥ 1.46

yadi mām apratīkāram aśastraṁ śastrapāṇayaḥ
dhārtarāṣṭrā raṇe hanyus tan me kṣemataraṁ bhavet 1.46

yadi1 mām2 apratīkāram3 aśastram4 śastrapāṇayaḥ5
dhārtarāṣṭrā6 raṇe7 hanyuḥ8 tat9 me
10 kṣemataram11 bhavet12  1.46

 

tat9  bhavet12 kṣemataram11 me10 = It9  would be12 better11 for me10; yadi1 dhārtarāṣṭrā6 śastrapāṇayaḥ5 hanyuḥ8 raṇe7  =  if1 the sons of Dhritrastra6 with weapons on hand5 were to kill me8 on the battlefield7; mām2 aśastramapratīkāram3 = while I remain2 without weapons4 and without retaliation31.46

 

1.46: Better would it be for me, if the sons of Dhritrastra with weapons on hand were to kill me on the battlefield, while I, unarmed, offer no resistance.

 

 

सञ्जय उवाच 

एवमुक्त्वार्जुनः सख्ये रथोपस्थ उपाविशत् ।

विसृज्य सशरं चापं शोकसंविग्नमानसः  ॥१-४७॥ 1.47

Saṅjaya uvāca

evam uktvā 'rjunaḥ sakhye rathopastha upāviśat
visṛjya saśaraṁ cāpaṁ śokasaṁvignamānasaḥ 1.47

Saṅjaya uvāca

evam1 uktvā2 arjunaḥ3 sakhye4 rathopastha5 upāviśat6
visṛjya7 sa-śaram8 cāpam9 śoka
10 saṁvigna11 mānasaḥ12

 

Saṅjaya uvāca: = Sanjaya said: evam1 = thus; uktvā2 = saying; arjunaḥ3 = Arjuna; sakhye4 = in the battlefield; upāviśat6  = sat down; rathopastha5 = on the seat of the chariot;  visṛjya7 = laying aside; cāpam9 = the bow; sa-śaram8 = alongside the arrows; [with] śoka10 = sorrow;  saṁvigna11 = agitating mānasaḥ12 = in his mind.  1.47

 

1.47: Sanjaya said:

Thus saying in the battlefield, Arjuna sat down on the seat of the chariot, laying aside his bow and arrow with his mind taken over by sorrow.

          

End Chapter 01 Arjuna's Distress

The Battlefield and Arjuna's depression

Kurukshetra War and Chennai connection

IT was a battle royal between Pandavas and Kauravas (Kurus). It was cousins against cousins. Pandu, the father of  five Pandavas died leaving the kingdom to his half-brother Dhrtarastra, who had one hundred sons. When Dhrtarastra decided to give the kingdom - what is rightfully theirs -to Pandavas,  Duryodhana, the eldest son of  Dhrtarastra took the throne for himself by enticing Yudhisthira, the eldest of Pandavas, to a game of dice and stacking all odds against him. The Pandavas lost  the kingdom in the game of dice, and were banished to the forest for twelve years. The last year - the thirteenth - was  spent incognito according to the agreement. Upon their return, Duryodhana wouldn't even give a land the size of a postage stamp - five villages.  Krishna tried to bring the cousins together in vain and offered the warring factions to choose either Him or his military machine  Krishna, the head of the Yadhava clan joined the Pandavas upon their choice and request, while the Kauravas opted for Krishna's army. Krishna refused to bear arms against the Kurus and made a promise to that effect. Bhishma the grandfather of the Kurus who wanted Krishna to break his vow and enter the war with weapons, sent rains of arrows on Krishna which drew blood and scarred his face for ever. Krishna stood there, took the assault and kept his promise. There is a temple in Chennai that celebrates Krishna in the form of Parthasarathy, meaning Partha's Charioteer. Partha =Arjuna.; Sārathy = charioteer. The Parthasarathy Temple (8th Century) in Chennai shows Krishna with scars on his face. The legend says that Krishna, after the Kurushetra war, came to a pond replete with Alli flowers. That site became the holy place and temple, Tiruvallikeni, which was corrupted to Triplicane by the British. The Parthasarathy  temple was built by a Pallava king.

Vishnu incarnates when Dharma is on descent. Vayu Purana Chapter 35 lists the Deva-Asura wars, Vishnu is involved in. The first war was Narasimha (caused by Man-Lion). The second war was Vamana as the Dwarf when He intervened in the war between Devas and Bali and restored the suzerainty of the gods. The 3rd, the 4th, the 5th were VArAha, the churning of the ocean, and the war of TArakAmaya on the abduction of TAtA by Candra. The 6th, 7th, the 8th and the 9th were Adhibaka, Traipura, AndhakAra and Dhvaja wars. The 10th, 11th, and the 12th were VArta, HalAhala and KolAhala. in all these wars Vishnu extracts victory over His opponents either alone by Himself, with others or through surrogate gods.

Krishna became the charioteer of Arjuna, one of the Pandavas. The war was fought in Kuruksetra.  In modern times the area would have been in the vicinity of Delhi. 

  Kurukṣetra Kurukṣetra is land of Kuru, the territory around Thanesar  between Sarasvatī and Dṛṣadvatī rivers. This is where King Kuru did the plowing, meaning it is a cultivated land.  The uncultivated land was called Kuru-Jāṇgla.  Prof. Shastri,  Śivapurāṇa  Motilal Banarsidass publishers.

AUM is portrayed well in Krishna-Arjuna chariot, which is of the form of Pranavam. A is Krishna, Ma is Arjuna, everything else is U. A is in front; M is behind A. Paramatma the 26th Tattva is in front of the 25th Tattva, Arjuna the Jivatma.

Krishna, upon request from Arjuna, drove the chariot and stationed it between the two armies.  Arjuna took one look at the armies and immediately became disheartened. He saw his friends, relatives, and  teachers on either side. He couldn't  get himself to kill his near and dear just for the sake of gaining a kingdom or a piece of land. He would rather die in the hands of Kurus ( Kauravas) than to kill any of them. His body, mind, and heart sank in deep depression. He lost his will to kill his enemies. 

Comments:

Throughout the battle between the Pandavas and Kauravas,  Sanjaya, a charioteer, a friend and secretary was acting as a reporter to the blind king Dhrtarastra, the father of Kauravas, on the battlefield happenings. Sanjaya had this  unique "Omnivision", by which he could see in his mind and narrate all  events  in real time on the battlefield, while staying close to the blind king in safety, away from the battlefield. He was in effect the seeing eyes of the blind king, with omnivision.  One compensated for the other more than one can imagine. The blind king Dhrtarastra didn't have the foresight to see the destruction of  his own sons, when he went along with his eldest son Duryodhana in the game of dice  and entrapment of Yudhisthira, the eldest of the Pandavas.

Krishna, related to both Pandavas and Kauravas, was neutral. Krishna tried his best to avert a war between Pandavas and Kauravas. When  imminence of war was in the horizon, He proposed that one party can get his military machine and the other can have Him. Duryodhana, in his egoistic ignorance, chose Krishna's military machine, while the Pandavas chose Krishna.  That clinched the outcome of the battle.

Gita talks about Dharmaksetra and Kuruksetra in one breath. The former is a field of Dharma - duty and righteousness and the latter is a battleground in the land of the Kurus / Kauravas. It was a battle between the good and the evil.    The battleground itself is representative of  life's struggle and the desire of atman (self)  to merge with Brahman or Atman (Self).  Dharma is the underlying framework for that struggle. Life and struggle without Dharma are futile and even worse, the breeder of karma. The  body is the chariot  and the atman is  riding the chariot. Buddhi - intuitive intelligence -is the chariot driver. The mind is the reins and the senses are the horses.  Buddhi controls the mind and the senses. And Krishna is the Self or Brahman. This analogy is mentioned in the Upanishads.  The senses are compared to vicious horses in Sv. Up 2.9

Arjuna's unwillingness to go to war  and cause the death of his near and dear, was one of compassion, but in his confusion, did not address the duty he was sworn to as a Ksatriya. Arjuna worried about the death of his kith and kin and leaving so many widows, who without their husbands, brothers and fathers, were susceptible to deprivation and degradation of their status and moral values.

BHAGAVADA GITA  CHAPTER 1

 

 

धृतराष्ट्र उवाच 

धर्मक्षेत्रे कुरुक्षेत्रे समवेता युयुत्सवः ।

मामकाः पाण्डवाश्चैव किमकुर्वत सञ्जय ॥१-१॥ 1.1

dhṛtarāṣṭra uvāca
dharmakṣetre kurukṣetre samavetā yuyutsavaḥ
māmakāḥ pāṇḍavāś cai 'va kim akurvata sañjaya 1.1

1.1: Dhritarāstra said:

Assembled in Dharmaksetra and Kuruksetra eager for battle, what did my people and the sons of Pandu do, O Sanjaya? 

Dharmaksetra: The field of righteousness. Kuruksetra: The field of Kurus. The implication is that a battle is about to happen between the forces of right and wrong in the land of the Kurus.   

सञ्जय

 

सञ्जय उवाच 

दृष्ट्वा तु पाण्डवानीकं व्यूढं दुर्योधनस्तदा ।

आचार्यमुपसंगम्य राजा वचनमब्रवीत्  ॥१-२॥ 1.2

sañjaya uvāca
dṛṣṭ
vā tu pāṇḍavānīkaṁ vyūḍhaṁ duryodhanas tadā
ācāryam upasa
gamya rājā vacanam abravīt 1.2

1.2: Sanjaya said:

Seeing the Pandava army in battle formation, Duryodhana approached his teacher and spoke these words.

Drona was his Guru. 

 

पश्यैतां पाण्डुपुत्राणामाचार्य महतीं चमूम् ।

व्यूढां द्रुपदपुत्रेण तव शिष्येण धीमता ॥१-३॥ 1.3

paśyaitāṁ pāṇḍuputrāṇām ācārya mahatīṁ camūm
vyūḍhāṁ drupadaputreṇa tava śiṣyeṇa dhīmatā 1.3

1.3: Behold this great army of the sons of Pandu deployed in battle formation by the son of Drupada, your intelligent disciple, O teacher. 

अत्र शूरा महेष्वासा भीमार्जुनसमा युधि ।

युयुधानो विराटश्च द्रुपदश्च महारथः ॥१-४॥ 1.4

atra śūrā maheṣvāsā bhīmārjunasamā yudhi
yuyudhāno virāṭaś ca drupadaś ca mahārathaḥ 1.4

1.4: Here are the heroes and the great archers equal to Bhima and Arjuna in battle: Yuyudhana, Virata, and Drupada, the great charioteer.   

धृष्टकेतुश्चेकितानः काशिराजश्च वीर्यवान् ।

पुरुजित्कुन्तिभोजश्च शैब्यश्च नरपुङ्गवः ॥१-५॥ 1.5

dhṛṣṭaketuś cekitānaḥ kāśirājaś ca vīryavān
purujit kuntibhojaś ca śaibyaś ca narapungavaḥ 1.5

1.5: Dhristaketu, Cekitana, valiant Kasiraja, Purujit, Kuntibhoja, and Saibya, the foremost among men.   

युधामन्युश्च विक्रान्त उत्तमौजाश्च वीर्यवान् ।

सौभद्रो द्रौपदेयाश्च सर्व एव महारथाः  ॥१-६॥ 1.6

yudhāmanyuś ca vikrānta uttamaujāś ca vīryavān
saubhadro draupadeyāś ca sarva eva mahārathāḥ 1.6

1.6: Yudhamanyu the valiant, Uttamauja the powerful, the son of Subhadra, and the sons of Draupadi are great chariot fighters.   

अस्माकं तु विशिष्टा ये तान्निबोध द्विजोत्तम ।

नायका मम सैन्यस्य संज्ञार्थं तान्ब्रवीमि ते  ॥१-७॥ 1.7

asmākaṁ tu viśiṣṭā ye tān nibodha dvijottama
nāyakā mama sainyasya saṁjñārthaṁ tān bravīmi te 1.7

1.7: Know also, O Dvija Uttama, the leaders of the army, who are distinguished. I will name them for your information.   

Dvija-Uttama: The “twice-born supreme,” the best of the Brahmanas.   

भवान्भीष्मश्च कर्णश्च कृपश्च समितिंजयः ।

अश्वत्थामा विकर्णश्च सौमदत्तिस्तथैव च  ॥१-८॥ 1.8

bhavān bhīṣmaś ca karṇaś ca kṛpaś ca samitiṁjayaḥ
aśvatthāmā vikarṇaś ca saumadattis tathai 'va ca 1.8

1.8: (Like) yourself, Bhishma, Karna, Kripa, Asvatthama. Vikarna, and the sons of Somadatta as well, ever victorious in battle.

अन्ये च बहवः शूरा मदर्थे त्यक्तजीविताः ।

नानाशस्त्रप्रहरणाः सर्वे युद्धविशारदाः  ॥१-९॥ 1.9

anye ca bahavaḥ śūrā madarthe tyaktajīvitāḥ
nānāśastrapraharaṇāḥ sarve yuddhaviśāradāḥ 1.9

1.9: Many other heroes have risked their lives for my sake. They are equipped with many  weapons, and all of them are skilled in war.   

अपर्याप्तं तदस्माकं बलं भीष्माभिरक्षितम् ।

पर्याप्तं त्विदमेतेषां बलं भीमाभिरक्षितम्  ॥१-१०॥ 1.10

aparyāptaṁ tad asmākaṁ balaṁ bhīṣmābhirakṣitam
paryāptaṃ tv idam eteṣāṁ balaṁ bhīmābhirakṣitam 1.10


1.10: Our strength is unlimited, protected by Bhisma. Protected by Bhima, the strength of Pandavas is limited.  

 

अयनेषु च सर्वेषु यथाभागमवस्थिताः ।

भीष्ममेवाभिरक्षन्तु भवन्तः सर्व एव हि  ॥१-११॥ 1.11

ayaneṣu ca sarveṣu yathābhāgam avasthitāḥ
bhīṣmam evā  'bhirakṣantu bhavantaḥ sarva eva hi 1.11

1.11: All of you, stationed everywhere on all fronts in your respective positions, protect Bhishma without remiss.

तस्य संजनयन्हर्षं कुरुवृद्धः पितामहः ।

सिंहनादं विनद्योच्चैः शङ्खं दध्मौ प्रतापवान्  ॥१-१२॥ 1.12

tasya sañjanayan harṣaṃ kuruvṛddhaḥ pitāmahaḥ
siṃhanādaṃ vinadyocchaiḥ śaṅkhaṃ dadhmau pratāpavān 1.12

1.12: The valiant Bhishma, the elder of the Kurus and the grandfather, roared like a lion and blew his conch loudly to cheer up Duryodhana.

 

ततः शङ्खाश्च भेर्यश्च पणवानकगोमुखाः ।

सहसैवाभ्यहन्यन्त स शब्दस्तुमुलोऽभवत्  ॥१-१३॥ 1.13

tataḥ śaṅkhāś ca bheryaś ca paṇavānakagomukhāḥ
sahasai  'vā  'bhyahanyanta sa śabdas tumulo 'bhavat 1.13

1.13: Thereafter, conches, kettledrums, trumpets, tabors, and horns were sounded all together. It was a tumultuous riot.

 

ततः श्वेतैर्हयैर्युक्ते महति स्यन्दने स्थितौ ।

माधवः पाण्डवश्चैव दिव्यौ शङ्खौ प्रदध्मतुः  ॥१-१४॥ 1.14

tataḥ śvetair hayair yukte mahati syandane sthitau
mādhavaḥ pāṇḍavaś cai 'va divyau śaṅkhau pradaghmatuḥ 1.14

1.14: Thereafter, Madhava and Pandava (Lord Krishna and Arjuna) sitting on the great chariot yoked with white horses sounded the divine conches.  

 

पाञ्चजन्यं हृषीकेशो देवदत्तं धनञ्जयः ।

पौण्ड्रं दध्मौ महाशङ्खं भीमकर्मा वृकोदरः  ॥१-१५॥ 1.15

pāñcajanyaṁ hṛṣīkeśo devadattaṁ dhanañjayaḥ
pauṇḍraṁ dadhmau mahāśaṅkhaṁ bhīmakarmā vṛkodaraḥ 1.15

1.15: Hrisikesa blew His conch, Pāchajanya; Dhanajaya blew his conch, Devadatta; and Bhima the big eater and formidable doer of deeds blew his big conch, Paundra.

  Hrisikesa is Lord Krishna, Dhananjaya is Arjuna and Virokdara [Bhima] is Arjuna's sibling. Panchajanya, Devadatta and Paundram are the names of conches of the respective personas.

Bhima means 'The Terrible', and thus are the epithet Bhima and eponymous acts, Bhima Karma (= terrible deeds).  

 

अनन्तविजयं राजा कुन्तीपुत्रो युधिष्ठिरः ।

नकुलः सहदेवश्च सुघोषमणिपुष्पकौ  ॥१-१६॥ 1.16

anantavijayaṁ rājā kuntīputro yudhiṣṭhiraḥ
nakulaḥ sahadevaś ca sughoṣamaṇipuṣpakau 1.16

काश्यश्च परमेष्वासः शिखण्डी च महारथः ।

धृष्टद्युम्नो विराटश्च सात्यकिश्चापराजितः  ॥१-१७॥ 1.17

kāśyaś ca parameṣvāsaḥ śikhaṇḍī ca mahārathaḥ
dhṛṣṭadyumno virāṭaś ca sātyakiś cā 'parājitaḥ 1.17

द्रुपदो द्रौपदेयाश्च सर्वशः पृथिवीपते ।

सौभद्रश्च महाबाहुः शङ्खान्दध्मुः पृथक्पृथक्  ॥१-१८॥ 1.18
drupado draupadeyāś ca sarvaśaḥ pṛthivīpate
saubhadraś ca mahābāhuḥ śaṅkhān dadhmuḥ pṛthak-pṛthak 1.18

1.16-18: Yuddhisthira, Nakula and Sahadeva, Sikhandin, Dhristadyumna, Virata, Satyaki, Drupada, the sons of Draupadi, and the son of Subhadra all blew their respective conches.  

The verses were condensed to convey the meaning only. Nakula and Sahadeva are twins.

 

स घोषो धार्तराष्ट्राणां हृदयानि व्यदारयत् ।

नभश्च पृथिवीं चैव तुमुलो व्यनुनादयन्  ॥१-१९॥ 1.19

sa ghoṣo dhārtarāṣṭrāṇāṁ hṛdayāni vyadārayat
nabhaś ca pṛthivīṁ cai 'va tumulo vyanunādayan 1.19

1.19: The tumultuous roar (of the conches), reverberating through the sky and the earth, tore the hearts of the sons of Dhritarastra (the Kauravas).

 

अथ व्यवस्थितान्दृष्ट्वा धार्तराष्ट्रान्कपिध्वजः ।

प्रवृत्ते शस्त्रसंपाते धनुरुद्यम्य पाण्डवः  ॥१-२०॥ 1.20

atha vyavasthitān dṛṣṭvā dhārtarāṣṭrān  kapidhvajaḥ
pravṛtte śastrasaṁpāte dhanur udyamya pāṇḍavaḥ 1.20

1.20: O King, thereupon Arjuna, whose flag bore the crest of Hanuman, seeing the sons of Dhritarastra ready for battle, took up his bow, and spoke these words to Lord Krishna.

 

The insignias (limbs) of a king are the following: NAdu = Country, Mala = mountain, Nadi = River, Ijru = Village, Kottara = Palace, Kutira = Horse, Ana = Elephant, Murasu = War Drum, Koji = Flag, CenkOl (Scepter).  The only thing Arjuna was left with was his chariot, his horses, his bow and arrows, and his flag. More importantly, Arjuna had Krishna on his side and front as his Charioteer. His final victory was made possible by Krishna, his friend, relative (brother-in-law) and Bhagavan. Arjuna married Krishna's sister and his cousin Subhadra.

 

Hanuman means that he is heavy-jawed; he is the chief of Vānarās, ape-like beings, which helped Rama fight Ravana, the demon-king of Sri Lanka. The latter abducted the wife, Sita, of Lord Rama; when Rama sent Lord Hanuman to look for Sita, he reached Lanka in one long jump. Ravana ordered his servants (Raksasas/devils or demons) to set Lord Hanuman’s tail on fire, and paraded Hanuman on the streets of Lanka with his tail in blaze; abducted Sita, knowing this, invoked Agni, the Lord of Fire, who let the end of the tail glow in the flame, but not burn and stay fire-resistant.

Hanuman, in the spirit of teaching a lesson to Ravana and Indrajit, set the city on fire. Lord Hanuman's services are recognized and celebrated by man and God and He is always imaged along with Rama, Sita, and Lakshmana, Rama's brother. Hanuman claims His lineage from Vayu (Enlil of Summeria), the wind God and Añjanā, an apsarasa. An apsarasa is a celestial nymph and dancer and is usually a mistress of Gandharva living in Svarga, Indira's paradise. Lord Hanuman's image adorns Arjuna’s flag.  

 

Author's note: Smokes, flags, and drums have been in use for a long time. It is claimed that Egyptians used the flags as early as 4000 B.C., on their ships identifying its registry. Vexillum is the Latin word for flag. A flag historian is called Vexillologist. Sanskrit word for flag is Dhvaga. Flags were used in ancient India in front of liquor stores, announcing they were open for business.

In Summerian mythology, the god of wind (Air, Airspace) is Enlil, the second most powerful god of Sumerians. Enlil was born of ANU (heaven) and KI (earth) and became the chief of gods (the Indra of Hindu mythology). He also put together the Laws of the Universe, ME known in Hindu mythology as RTA. Sanskrit Rta, English Right, Persian arta, and Latin ritus are cognate.

हृषीकेशं तदा वाक्यमिदमाह महीपते । 

अर्जुन उवाच सेनयोरुभयोर्मध्ये रथं स्थापय मेऽच्युत  ॥१-२१॥ 1.21

hṛṣīkeśaṁ tadā vākyam idam āha mahīpate
senayor ubhayor madhye rathaṁ sthāpaya me 'cyuta 1.21

यावदेतान्निरिक्षेऽहं योद्‌धुकामानवस्थितान् ।

कैर्मया सह योद्धव्यमस्मिन् रणसमुद्यमे  ॥१-२२॥ 1.22

yāvad etān nirikṣehaṁ yoddhukāmān avasthitān
kair mayā saha yoddhavyam asmin raṇasamudyame 1.22

1.21- 22: O Acyuta (Krishna), stand my chariot between the two armies in order for me to look upon those who are eager for a battle and with whom I have to fight.   

The meaning of the verses are condensed to convey the meaning only.

 

योत्स्यमानानवेक्षेऽहं य एतेऽत्र समागताः ।

धार्तराष्ट्रस्य दुर्बुद्धेर्युद्धे प्रियचिकीर्षवः  ॥१-२३॥ 1.23

yotsyamānān avekṣe 'haṁ ya ete 'tra samāgatāḥ
dhārtarāṣṭrasya durbuddher yuddhe priyacikīrṣavaḥ 1.23

1.23: I wish to see those assembled here willing to fight and serve the evil-minded son of Dhrtarāstra.

 

सञ्जय उवाच 

एवमुक्तो हृषीकेशो गुडाकेशेन भारत ।

सेनयोरुभयोर्मध्ये स्थापयित्वा रथोत्तमम्  ॥१-२४॥ 1.24

Sañjaya Uvāca:

evam ukto hṛṣīkeśo guḍākeśena bhārata
senayor ubhayor madhye sthāpayitvā rathottamam 1.24

1.24: Sanjaya said:

O Bharata (Dhrtarāstra), having been addressed by Gudakesana (Arjuna), Hrsikesa (Lord Krishna) placed the best of chariots in the midst of both armies. 

 

भीष्मद्रोणप्रमुखतः सर्वेषां च महीक्षिताम् ।

उवाच पार्थ पश्यैतान्समवेतान्कुरूनिति  ॥१-२५॥ 1.25

bhīṣmadroṇapramukhataḥ sarveṣāṁ ca mahīkṣitām
uvāca pārtha paśyai 'tān samavetān kurūn iti 1.25

1.25: Facing Bhisma, Drona, and all great chiefs (the Lord) said to Partha: Behold (all of) the Kurus gathered thus.

 

तत्रापश्यत्स्थितान्पार्थः पितॄनथ पितामहान् ।

आचार्यान्मातुलान्भ्रातॄन्पुत्रान्पौत्रान्सखींस्तथा  ॥१-२६॥ 1.26

tatrā  'paśyat sthitān pārthaḥ pitṛn atha pitāmahān
ācāryān mātulān bhrātṛn putrān pautrān sakhīṁs tathā 1.26

श्वशुरान्सुहृदश्चैव सेनयोरुभयोरपि ।

तान्समीक्ष्य स कौन्तेयः सर्वान्बन्धूनवस्थितान्  ॥१-२७॥ 1.27

śvaśurān suhṛdaś cai 'va senayor ubhayor api
tān samīkṣya sa kaunteyaḥ sarvān bandhūn avasthitān 1.27

कृपया परयाविष्टो विषीदन्निदमब्रवीत् । 

अर्जुन उवाच दृष्ट्वेमं स्वजनं कृष्ण युयुत्सुं समुपस्थितम्  ॥१-२८॥ 1.28

kṛpayā parayā 'viṣṭo viṣīdann idamabravīt
dṛṣṭve 'maṁ svajanaṁ kṛṣṇa yuyutsuṁ samupasthitam 1.28

सीदन्ति मम गात्राणि मुखं च परिशुष्यति ।

वेपथुश्च शरीरे मे रोमहर्षश्च जायते  ॥१-२९॥ 1.29

sīdanti mama gātrāṇi mukhaṁ ca pariśuṣyati
vepathuś ca śarīre me romaharṣaś ca jāyate 1.29

 

Beholding these my relatives arrayed

Before my eyes in serried line of battle,

Preparing for the deadly fray, my limbs

Are all relaxed, my blood dries up, a tremor

Palsies my frame, the hairs upon my skin

Bristle with horror, all my body burns

As if with fever, and my mind whirls round,

So that I cannot stand upright, nor hold

The bow Gāṇḍīva slipping from my hand.

I cannot — will not fight — mighty Krishna.

I seek not victory, I seek no kingdom.

"What shall we do with regal pomp and power,

What with enjoyments or with life itself,

When we have slaughtered all our kindred here?

Indian Wisdom by Monier Monier-Williams Verse 1.28-33

page 139. Note dated July 8, 2015

 

 

1.26-29: Partha could see standing there (on the battlefield) fathers, also grandfathers, teachers, maternal uncles, brothers, sons, grandsons, friends too, fathers-in-law, well-wishers and the armies of both sides. Kaunteya, after seeing all of them, and all kinds of relatives, overwhelmed by compassion and lamentation spoke. Arjuna said: O Krishna, after seeing all the relatives present before me all ready and eager to fight, I feel the limbs of (my) body shake, (my) mouth dry, my body quiver, and my hair stand on end.

 

गाण्डीवं स्रंसते हस्तात्त्वक्चैव परिदह्यते ।

न च शक्नोम्यवस्थातुं भ्रमतीव च मे मनः  ॥१-३०॥ 1.30

gāṇḍīvaṁ sraṁsate hastāt tvak cai 'va paridahyate
na ca śaknomy avasthātuṁ bhramatī 'va ca me manaḥ 1.30

निमित्तानि च पश्यामि विपरीतानि केशव ।

न च श्रेयोऽनुपश्यामि हत्वा स्वजनमाहवे  ॥१-३१॥ 1.31

nimittāni ca paśyāmi viparītāni keśava
na ca śreyo 'nupaśyāmi hatvā svajanam āhave 1.31

1.30-31: My bow, Gandiva, is slipping from my hand. My skin is burning. I am not able to stand steadily. I am forgetting myself. My mind is reeling. O Kesava, I see adverse omens; I foresee no good by killing my own people in battle.

 

न काङ्क्षे विजयं कृष्ण न च राज्यं सुखानि च ।

किं नो राज्येन गोविन्द किं भोगैर्जीवितेन वा  ॥१-३२॥ 1.32

na kāṅkṣe vijayaṁ kṛṣṇa na ca rājyaṁ sukhāni ca
kiṃ no rājyena govinda kiṁ bhogair jīvitena vā 1.32

1.32: O Krishna, I long neither for victory, nor for kingdom and nor for happiness. O Govinda, of what use is the kingdom, enjoyment, or living?

 

येषामर्थे काङ्क्षितं नो राज्यं भोगाः सुखानि च ।

त इमेऽवस्थिता युद्धे प्राणांस्त्यक्त्वा धनानि च  ॥१-३३॥ 1.33

yeṣām arthe kāṅkṣitaṁ no rājyaṁ bhogāḥ sukhāni ca
ta ime 'vasthitā yuddhe prāṇāṁs tyaktvā dhanāni ca 1.33

1.33: They, for whose sake kingdom, enjoyment, and happiness are desired, are standing here in the battlefield ready to give up their lives and riches.

 

आचार्याः पितरः पुत्रास्तथैव च पितामहाः ।

मातुलाः श्वशुराः पौत्राः श्यालाः संबन्धिनस्तथा  ॥१-३४॥ 1.34

ācāryāḥ pitaraḥ putrās tathai 'va ca pitāmahāḥ
mātulāḥ śvaśurāḥ pautrāḥ śyālāḥ sambandhinas tathā 1.34

1.34: Teachers, fathers, sons, as well as grandfathers, maternal uncles, fathers-in-law, grandsons, brothers-in-law, and other relatives.

 

एतान्न हन्तुमिच्छामि घ्नतोऽपि मधुसूदन ।

अपि त्रैलोक्यराज्यस्य हेतोः किं नु महीकृते  ॥१-३५॥ 1.35

etān na hantum icchhāmi ghnato 'pi madhusūdana
api trailokyarājyasya hetoḥ kiṁ nu mahīkṛte 1.35

1.35: I do not want to kill them, though they (want to) kill me, O Madhusudhana, even for the three worlds, not to speak of an earthly kingdom.  

 

निहत्य धार्तराष्ट्रान्नः का प्रीतिः स्याज्जनार्दन ।

पापमेवाश्रयेदस्मान्हत्वैतानाततायिनः  ॥१-३६॥

nihatya dhārtarāṣṭrān naḥ kā prītiḥ syāj janārdana
pāpam evā 'śrayed asmān hatvai 'tān ātatāyinaḥ 1.36

1.36: By killing the sons of Dhrtrastra, what pleasure can there be? O Janardhana, upon killing these heinous sinners, sin will descend on us. 

 

तस्मान्नार्हा वयं हन्तुं धार्तराष्ट्रान्स्वबान्धवान् ।

स्वजनं हि कथं हत्वा सुखिनः स्याम माधव  ॥१-३७॥ 1.37

tasmān nā 'rhā vayaṃ hantuṁ dhārtarāṣṭrān svabāndhavān
svajanaṁ hi kathaṁ hatvā sukhinaḥ syāma mādhava 1.37

1.37: Therefore, it is not becoming of us that we kill the sons of Dhritrastra. How, by killing kinsmen, can we become happy O Madhava?

 

यद्यप्येते न पश्यन्ति लोभोपहतचेतसः ।

कुलक्षयकृतं दोषं मित्रद्रोहे च पातकम्  ॥१-३८॥ 1.38

yady apy ete na paśyanti lobhopahatacetasaḥ
kulakṣayakṛtaṁ doṣaṁ mitradrohe ca pātakam 1.38

1.38:  Even if they, whose minds are overwhelmed by greed, do not see sin in the ruin of the family, or crime in treachery to friends…  

Even if they, whose greed overwhelms their mind, do not see sin in the ruin of the family, or crime in treachery to friends…

 

कथं न ज्ञेयमस्माभिः पापादस्मान्निवर्तितुम् ।

कुलक्षयकृतं दोषं प्रपश्यद्भिर्जनार्दन  ॥१-३९॥ 1.39

kathaṁ na jñeyam asmābhiḥ pāpād asmān nivartitum
kulakṣayakṛtaṁ doṣaṁ prapaśyadbhir janārdana 1.39

1.39: Why should not we have the wisdom to see the crime in the ruin of the family O Janardhana, and turn away from the sins?

 

कुलक्षये प्रणश्यन्ति कुलधर्माः सनातनाः ।

धर्मे नष्टे कुलं कृत्स्नमधर्मोऽभिभवत्युत  ॥१-४०॥ 1.40

kulakṣaye praṇaśyanti kuladharmāḥ sanātanāḥ
dharme naṣṭe kulaṃ kṛtsnam adharmo 'bhibhavaty uta 1.40

1.40: With the ruin of the family, the eternal kula dharma is destroyed. When dharma is destroyed, the whole family turns to adharma.  

Kula dharma: Established order of the family, family institution. Dharma: Established order. Adharma: Unrighteousness.

 

अधर्माभिभवात्कृष्ण प्रदुष्यन्ति कुलस्त्रियः ।

स्त्रीषु दुष्टासु वार्ष्णेय जायते वर्णसंकरः  ॥१-४१॥ 1.41

adharmābhibhavāt kṛṣṇa praduṣyanti kulastriyaḥ
strīṣu duṣṭāsu vārṣṇeya jāyate varṇasaṁkaraḥ 1.41

1.41: When Adharma prevails, O Krishna, the women of the family become morally corrupt, and when women are tainted, O Varsneya (Krishna), Varna Samkara comes into existence.

 

To this day in India, women bear the heavier burden than men in guarding  morality and any scrofulousness on their part brings disproportionably erosive shame to the family.  

 

Adharma: Unrighteousness. Varna Samkara: mixture of castes by intermarriage.

 

ससरो नरकायैव कुलघ्नानां कुलस्य च ।

पतन्ति पितरो ह्येषां लुप्तपिण्डोदकक्रियाः  ॥१-४२॥ 1.42

sakaro narakāyai 'va kulaghnānāṃ kulasya ca
patanti pitaro hy eṣāṁ luptapiṇḍodakakriyāḥ 1.42

1.42:     Commingling (of castes) brings hell to the family and those who destroyed the race. The spirits of the ancestors fall, deprived of their offerings of food and water.

Purport:

Because of commingling of castes, the family and the destroyers of the race go to hell. The spirit of the ancestor falls, deprived of the offerings of food and water.

 

Question ID: 522 - NAMASKARA! According to shastras, is a Brahmin male allowed to marry a Kshatriya female as a primary and only wife ? If so (or if not so), are the resultant progeny considered Brahmins ?

Sri U. Ve Velukkudi Krishnan Swamy  answers:

 

Varna sankaram is a papa as per first chapter of Gita.

Meaning: Marriage between castes (Intermarriage) is sin according to Bhagavadgita, chapter 1, Verse 42.

 

 

Sankara: Commingling of castes looked down upon at that time as miscegenation was looked down upon in the west in the past. Kula-ghnānām: destruction of race.

Many of the commentators have deliberately altered the meaning of the Sanskrit word, Sankara. In keeping with the modern view of equality of races, many of the commentators on this verse conveniently do not address this issue of commingling of races out of embarrassment, common courtesy and decency. Commingling of races is deliberately altered to such word as confusion. If one wants to get a correct translation of this verse, one has to read Sankara and Ramanuja.

Sankara's commentary in Sanskrit as translated by Swami Ghambirananda:

And the intermingling in the family leads the ruiners of the family verily into hell. The forefathers of these fall down (into hell) because of being deprived of the offering of rice-balls and water.

Ramanuja's commentary in Sanskrit as translated by Svami Adidevananda:

This mixing of classes (castes) leads to hell the clan itself and its destroyers; for the spirits of their ancestors fall degraded, deprived of the ritual offering of food and water.

 

The confusion verily drags the family-slayer, as well as the family, to hell, and for want of obsequial offerings and rites their departed sires fall from blessedness.

Gandhi's comment:  Hindu Dharma by M.K.Gandhi page 56-65.

Gandhi is a firm believer in Varnasrma Dharma. Gandhi admits he was born of Vaishya (Traders) parents, 3rd down the line. Gandhi says, "I as a Vaisya would be earning my bread by selling drugs (pharmacist) or groceries. Vaisya Varna includes all professions.  A tailor may not become a blacksmith although both may be and should be called as Vaisyas. No one is superior to any other (among the four varnas). A scavenger has the same status as a Brahmin. He endorses the view of Max Muller by quoting him: In Hinduism more than any other religion that life was no more and no less than DUTY. Varna does not make life dull and rob it of all ambition. Under the cover of Varna, hideous inequalities and tyrannies are practiced at the present day in Hinduism. Varna is not a mere institution made by man but it is a law discovered by him. The evil lies in the doctrine of superiority and inferiority superadded to it. I do regard Varnashrma as a healthy division of work based on birth. The present idea of caste is a perversion of the original. He (a non-Brahmin) who performs the duty of a Brahmin will easily  become one in the next incarnation.

It appears that according to Gandhi, any Varna can do any work suited to his temperament, training, intellect, aptitude, and education, as long as he or she does not call himself or herself  by other than his Birth-Varna.

 

Apart from four main castes, Brahmin, Ksatriya, Vaisya and Sudra, there is the fifth class, Antyaja. Antya (last in order) + Ja (caste) = the lowest caste. The Antyajas are the washer men, tanners, mimics (actor), Varudas (cane-weavers), Kaivartas (fishermen), Bhedas*, and Bhillas (hill tribes).

Bhedas*: name of certain tribe.

Below these people, there are the Mlecchas and Dumbas. Mlecchas generally are the foreigners, barbarians, non-Aryans and those who do not speak Sanskrit. Dumbas are basket and rope makers, cremation workers,     street musicians and dancers.  

The view from the west.

A note on cremation: Cremation of the dead as a Hindu custom came down from the Indo-Aryan Agni (Fire-god) worshippers in the Vedic age. Modes of disposal of the dead have been passed from antiquity: Agni Dagdhah (burning by fire), An-Agni Dagdhah (not burnt but buried), Paroptah (casting off), Uddhitah (Exposure of the dead).  The Persian fire-worshippers exposed the dead to the vultures in the tower of silence,  the custom practiced by Zoroastrians (Parsees).  The cremation custom spread to Europe later.  In olden days in Europe, the wealthy dead were reduced to ashes; the poor were buried. The Aryans invading into Europe introduced this custom. Since the Aryans were nomads, they cremated the dead.  Burial place and the relatives, according to belief, were haunted and threatened by spirits of Pitris or ancestors; therefore, the nomads cremated their near and dear to avoid haunting by the ghosts, which ran away because the fire took the souls to Hades, a welcome house for the departed souls of the earth.  The Indo-Aryans were of the belief that the dead take the path of Agni to the world of forefathers and Yama (god of death), live in splendor like the gods, leave behind all the miseries and evils of the earth-life, live a better and more perfect life, receive solace and recognition from Yama, enjoy fulfillment of all desires, and move among gods. Sanskrit Yama, Tamil Yaman, Persian Yima, Nordic Ymir, and Canaanite god Yam are one and the same god.

Agni, glorified by gods and men, is invoked by them to make the path of the departed fathers straight and trouble-free, show kindness and carry the oblations. The Dead make their journey to Yama on foot. Yama and His sister Yami are no different from the twins, Persian Yima and Yimeh, whose parents are Vivahvant as the Indian counterparts had Vivasvat as their parent. Yami woos Yama (!), who rejects her proposal outright. Yama wears blood-red garments and sports a glittering sable hue and appearance. He rides a buffalo and holds a club and noose. Yami is identified with post-Vedic River Goddess, Yamuna. Yama has two grey dogs, each with four eyes ( four eyes = two physical eyes and a yellow pigmented fur by each eye), and two messengers, owl and pigeon. The Dead, who faithfully fulfilled all religious observances, are welcomed and assured of their original shining form without the sin, shame and taint of the earth.  Yama is Dharma Raja, King Righteousness, and Pitrapathi, Lord of the fathers, Samavurti, the Impartial Judge, Kritana, the Finisher, Antaka, He who Ends Life, and Samana, the Leveler. (Death is a Leveler.) His Minister and chronicler keeps a record of the deeds of men in a book called Agra SamAdhanA (a Register of Human Actions) from which he reads out a litany of bad (and also good) acts, which demand suitable rewards or punishments. Post-Vedic Yama is the Chief Executive of a complicated system of Hells and goes also by the name of Dandadhara, the Wielder of the rod or mace.  He binds the souls with the noose and carries out the decrees of gods (an exclusive franchise) and takes charge of the soul of the size of a thumb at the appointed time. (Vaishnavas are of the belief that Yama and his minions show deference to Vishnu's devotees, irrespective of their caste or any other terrestrial differences.)

Commentary section following chapter and verse 5.18, describes mixed castes according to Garuda Purana 1.96-1-73, as narrated by Yajnavalkya.

 

The spirits of the ancestors fall, deprived of their offerings of food and water. (Read the Verse 1.42)

There is a beautiful description about CirArtham (Sraddha), offering of food to the ancestors (manes) in Book 6 KuraiOnrumIllai -குறையொன்றுமில்லை- by Mukkur Lakshmi Narasimhachariar.  Achariar quotes Pitru-Gitam in Vishnupuranam. Cirartham (சிரார்த்தம்) is a two-way fare. The manes are pleased with the offering from their descendants, who offer blessings to their progeny who perform the ceremony. The ceremony is presided by a deity, Harshana. The offered food is called Pinda and the act is Sraddha.  The following is an extract from Vishnu Puranam, translated from Sanskrit to English by H.H.Wilson. They who are desirous of worshipping their Pitrs or the gods can do Sraddha on a day of new moon when the stars Dhanishtha, PurvaBhadraPada or Sata-Bhisha. Another class of Sraddha is done on the third lunar day of the month of VaisAkha (April, May) and the ninth of Kartika (October-November) in Sukhla Paksha (Bright Fortnight). Other dates are 13th of  Nabha (July-August) and the 15th of Magha (Jan-February) in Krishna Paksha (Dark Fortnight). They are the first days of a Yuga (age) and most sacred.  On these above days; solar and lunar eclipses; and 8th lunations of the Dark Fortnight of Agrahanya, Magha, and Phalguna (Dec-Feb); the days commencing  the solstices, when the nights and the days alternately begin to diminish; the anniversaries of manvantaras; the day, the sun is in the path of the goat; days of meteoric occurrences;  Sesamum seeds and water are offered to the progenitors of the mankind. A Sraddha on these days and seasons gives happiness to the Manes for a thousand years. The songs of the forefathers give the descendants purity of heart, integrity of wealth, prosperous seasons, perfect rites,  devout faith, and all that men desire. That blessed descendant will be born in a distinguished family. If the descendant cannot afford elaborate food items and gifts of wealth, jewels, clothes, land, conveyances, and any valuable gifts to the officiating Brahmana priest, there are alternatives in the descending order: 1) unboiled grain, affordable gifts, plantain, dal; 2) a fistful of sesame seeds; 3) about ten to fifteen sesame seeds stuck on a wet thumb; 4) one day's worth of  grass for the cow; 5) going to the forest, throwing the hands up in the air to the sun and other celestials and declaring that he cannot afford anything to the forefathers and the officiating Brahmana. Actually these are the words and recommendations of the manes themselves to their descendants.

Narasimhachariar adds no one should think of Sraddha as wasteful. We have seen how Sastras made Sraddha simple.

Pitru Devatas are RudrAs, Vasus, and Adityas. Sraddha offers contentment to the Devatas and not to the departed parents. Their blessing and grace give prosperity to the progeny. Some of the Devatas are wandering without receiving the Sraddha. They desire that one of their progeny would perform Sraddha and make them happy and contented and thus facilitate liberation.  That is why one should do Sraddha on a the day Bhishma attained liberation. The Devatas will be supremely happy upon receiving Pitru Karyam (Sraddha= பித்ரு காரியம்) and send their Anugraha. The descendants will also attain liberation just like Bhishma.

 

 

Swami Sivananda says the following on offering of food to manes (Sraddha).

The Pitrus are forefathers who dwell in Pitru-loka. They possess clairvoyance and clairaudience. Recitation of Mantras exercises tremendous influence through their vibration. The Pitrus hear the sounds through the power of clairaudience and they are pleased. They bless those who offer the oblation. In Sraddha, the essence of food offerings is taken up by sun’s rays to Suryaloka and the departed souls are pleased with the offerings. Even in the West many persons perform Tarpana and Sraddha. They have scientifically investigated into the beneficial effects of such oblations. It is the imperative duty of all householders to perform Sraddha and Tarpana to please the Rishis and the Pitrus. It is only the deluded souls with perverted intellects who misconstrue things and neglect to perform the sacred ceremonies and consequently suffer. 

दोषैरेतैः कुलघ्नानां वर्णसरकारकैः ।

उत्साद्यन्ते जातिधर्माः कुलधर्माश्च शाश्वताः  ॥१-४३॥ 1.43

doṣair etaiḥ kulaghnānāṁ varṇasaṁkarakārakaiḥ
utsādyante jātidharmāḥ kuladharmāś ca śāśvatāḥ 1.43

1.43: By such evil deeds such as kula ghānām and Varna Sankara, eternal Jāti dharmā and kula dharmā are destroyed.

 

Kula ghānām: destruction of race. Varna Sankara: mixture of castes by intermarriage. Jāti dharmā: established order of caste or institution of caste.     Kula dharmā: established order of the family, family institution, practice or observance peculiar to a tribe or family, peculiar duty of a caste or race.  Sivapurana (Rudrasamhita Section II,Chapter 13, V35) mentions the three debts that Brahmanas, Ksatriyas and Vaisyas owe, to which two more are added later. The first debt is Brahmacharya or study of Vedas owed to the Rsis; second, sacrifice and worship owed to the gods; third, begetting a son owed to the manes; fourth, benevolence owed to humanity; fifth, hospitality owed to guests.

 

उत्सन्नकुलधर्माणां मनुष्याणां जनार्दन ।

नरकेऽनियतं वासो भवतीत्यनुशुश्रुम  ॥१-४४॥ 1.44

utsannakuladharmāṇāṁ manuṣyāṇāṁ janārdana
narake niyataṁ vāso bhavatī  'ty anuśuśruma 1.44

1.44: We have heard it said (by the learned) that those men, whose kula dharma is destroyed, O Janardana, would always dwell in hell.

  Purport: O Janardana, we heard it said (by the learned): once kula dharma is annihilated, hell is the habitation for these men.

 

अहो बत महत्पापं कर्तुं व्यवसिता वयम् ।

यद्राज्यसुखलोभेन हन्तुं स्वजनमुद्यताः  ॥१-४५॥ 1.45

aho bata mahat pāpaṁ kartuṁ vyavasitā vayam
yad rājyasukhalobhena hantuṁ svajanam udyatāḥ 1.45

1.45: Alas! We have decided to commit great sins, by getting ready to kill our kinsmen because of greed for the pleasures of kingdom.

 

Rājya-sukha-lobha: kingdom-pleasure-greed: greed for the pleasures of kingdom.

 

यदि मामप्रतीकारमशस्त्रं शस्त्रपाणयः ।

धार्तराष्ट्रा रणे हन्युस्तन्मे क्षेमतरं भवेत्  ॥१-४६॥ 1.46

yadi mām apratīkāram aśastraṁ śastrapāṇayaḥ
dhārtarāṣṭrā raṇe hanyus tan me kṣemataraṁ bhavet 1.46

1.46: Better would it be for me, if the sons of Dhritrastra with weapons on hand were to kill me on the battlefield, while I, unarmed, offer no resistance.

 

Purport: It is better for me that the sons of Dhritrastra kill me on the battlefield with weapons on hand, while I am unarmed and offer no resistance.

 

सञ्जय उवाच 

एवमुक्त्वार्जुनः सख्ये रथोपस्थ उपाविशत् ।

विसृज्य सशरं चापं शोकसंविग्नमानसः  ॥१-४७॥ 1.47

Saṅjaya uvāca

evam uktvā 'rjunaḥ sakhye rathopastha upāviśat
visṛjya saśaraṁ cāpaṁ śokasaṁvignamānasaḥ 1.47

1.47: Sanjaya said:

Thus saying in the battlefield, Arjuna sat down on the seat of the chariot, laying aside his bow and arrow with his mind taken over by sorrow.

End BG Chapter 1 

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