bhagawat geeta 6

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bhagawat geeta 6

References:

S = Sankara; R = Ramanuja; RK = Radhakrishnan.

Monier-Williams, 'Sanskrit-English Dictionary'

 

Chapter 06: The Yoga of Self Control

 

श्रीभगवानुवाच 

अनाश्रितः कर्मफलं कार्यं कर्म करोति यः ।

स संन्यासी च योगी च न निरग्निर्न चाक्रियः ॥६- १॥

śrībhagavān uvāca
anāśritaḥ karmaphalaṁ kāryaṁ karma karoti yaḥ
sa saṁnyāsī ca yogī ca na niragnir na cākriyaḥ 6.1

śrībhagavān uvāca
anāśritaḥ1 karma-phalam2 kāryam3 karma4 karoti5 yaḥ6
saḥ7 sannyāsī8 ca9 yogī10 ca11 na12 niḥ13 agniḥ14 na15 ca16 akriyaḥ17  6.1

 

śrībhagavān uvāca = Sri Bhagavan said; anāśritaḥ1 karma-phalam2  = without dependence1 on fruits of actions2; yaḥ6 karoti5 karma4 kāryam3 = he who performs his action as his duty [he who6 performs5 action4 as duty3] ;  saḥ7 sannyāsī8 ca9 yogī10 ca11=  he is a Sannyasi also, [and] Yogi also [he is7 a Sannyasi8 also9, [and] Yogi10 also11];  na12 niḥ13 agniḥ14  = neither12 without13 fire14; na15 ca16 akriyaḥ17 = nor15 also16  without action176.1

 

6.1:  The Lord said: He, who does his obligatory work without claiming the fruit of action, is a sannyāsi and a yogi. He does not become a yogin simply because he renounces the sacred fire and performs no action.

 

 

यं संन्यासमिति प्राहुर्योगं तं विद्धि पाण्डव ।

न ह्यसंन्यस्तसंकल्पो योगी भवति कश्चन ॥६- २॥

yam sannyāsam iti prāhuḥ  yogam tam viddhi pāṇḍava
na hi asannyasta saṁkalpaḥ yogī bhavati kaścana 6.2

yam1 sannyāsam2 iti3 prāhuḥ4 yogam5 tam6 viddhi7 pāṇḍava8
na9 hi10 asannyasta11 saṁkalpaḥ12 yogī13 bhavati14 kaścana15   6.2

 

yam1 sannyāsam2 iti3 prāhuḥ4 yogam5 tam6 viddhi7 pāṇḍava8  = What they call as Monasticism you know as Yoga [what1 monasticism2 thus3 call4 Yoga5 that6 you know7], pāṇḍava8= , O Pandava; kaścana15 bhavati14 yogī13 na9 hi10 asannyasta11 saṁkalpaḥ12 = No one becomes a Yogi without renouncing desire [no one15 becomes14  Yogi13 never9 certainly10 without renouncing11 expectation12] . 6.2

 

6.2:  What they call as sannyāsa, you know that as yoga, O Pandava. No one becomes a yogin without renouncing (selfish) desire.

 

 

आरुरुक्षोर्मुनेर्योगं कर्म कारणमुच्यते ।

योगारूढस्य तस्यैव शमः कारणमुच्यते ॥६- ३॥

ārurukṣor muner yogaṁ karma kāraṇam ucyate
yogārūḍhasya tasyaiva śamaḥ kāraṇam ucyate 6.3

ārurukṣoḥ1 muneḥ2 yogam3 karma4 kāraṇam5 ucyate6
yoga
7  ārūḍhasya8 tasya9 eva10 śamaḥ11 kāraṇam12 ucyate13  6.3  

 

ārurukṣoḥ1 yogam3 karma4 ucyate6 kāraṇam5 muneḥ2 = Desirous of advancing in karma yoga, action is the means for a sage. [; eva10 tasya9 śamaḥ11 ucyate13 kāraṇam12 ārūḍhasya8 yoga7 = Indeed tranquility is the means, when he attains to such yoga.

[for one desirous of ascending1 Yoga3 action4  is said to be6 the means5 for the Muni2 (sage)] [indeed10  for him9  tranquility, [serenity, inaction]11 is said to be13 the means12  when he has ascended to8 Yoga7] 6.3

 

6.3:  Desirous of advancing in karma yoga, action is the means for a sage. When he attains to such yoga, tranquility is the means.  

 

 

यदा हि नेन्द्रियार्थेषु न कर्मस्वनुषज्जते ।

सर्वसंकल्पसंन्यासी योगारूढस्तदोच्यते ॥६- ४॥

yadā hi nendriyārtheṣu na karmasv anuṣajjate
sarvasaṁkalpasaṁnyāsī yogārūḍhas tadocyate 6.4

yadā1 hi2 na3 indriya-artheṣu4 na5 karmasu6 anuṣajjate7
sarva8 saṅkalpa9 sannyāsī10 yoga11 ārūḍhaḥ12 tadā13 ucyate14  6.4 

 

yadā1 hi2 na3 indriya-artheṣu4 na5 anuṣajjate7 karmasu6 = When one does not have any attachment to sense objects and actions [When1 surely2 [he] has neither3 attachments to sense objects4 nor5 attachment7 to actions6]; sarva8 saṅkalpa9 sannyāsī10  = he is the relinquisher of desires. [ all8-desires9 relinquisher10]; ucyate14 yoga11ārūḍhaḥ12 tadā13 = He is said to be at that time the ascender in Yoga [he is said to be3 ascender in12 Yoga11 at that time13] . 6.4

 

6.4: When one does not have any attachment to sense objects and actions and has renounced all purposes and desires (sarva sankalpa sannyasi), he is called Yogarudha (யோகரூடன்)   

 

 

उद्धरेदात्मनात्मानं नात्मानमवसादयेत् ।

आत्मैव ह्यात्मनो बन्धुरात्मैव रिपुरात्मनः ॥६- ५॥

uddhared ātmanātmānaṁ nātmānam avasādayet
ātmaiva hy ātmano bandhur ātmaiva ripur ātmanaḥ 6.5

uddharet1 ātmanā2 ātmānam3 na4 ātmānam5 avasādayet6
ātma7 eva hi8 ātmanaḥ9 bandhuḥ10 ātma11 eva12 ripuḥ13 ātmanaḥ14 6.5

 

[One should] uddharet1 = raise;  ātmānam3 = his soul; [from the ocean of Samsara]  ātmanā2 = by his self; [and] na4 = never; [let] ātmānam5 = the embodied soul; avasādayet6 = sink. ātma7 = One's own self;  [is] eva hi8 = verily indeed;  ātmanaḥ9 = ones own; bandhuḥ10 = friend. ātma11 = One's own self;  [is] eva12 = indeed; ātmanaḥ14 = one's own; ripuḥ13 = enemy.  6.5


6.5: He should pull (lift) himself up by his own self and not let himself sink, for the Self is the friend of the self and the Self can be the enemy of the self.

 

 

बन्धुरात्मात्मनस्तस्य येनात्मैवात्मना जितः ।

अनात्मनस्तु शत्रुत्वे वर्तेतात्मैव शत्रुवत् ॥६- ६॥

bandhur ātmātmanas tasya yenātmaivātmanā jitaḥ
anātmanas tu śatrutve vartetātmaiva śatruvat 6.6

bandhuḥ1 ātmā2 ātmanaḥ3 tasya4 yena5 ātmā6  eva7 ātmanā8 jitaḥ9

anātmanaḥ10 tu11 śatrutve12 varteta13  ātma14 eva15 śatruvat16    6.6

 

ātmā2 = Self; [is] bandhuḥ1 = the friend; ātmanaḥ3 = of self;  tasya4 = of him;  yena5 = by whom;  ātmā6 = the self; jitaḥ= has been subdued; eva7 = verily; ātmanā8 = by the self;  tu11 = but; anātmanaḥ10 = for one who has not conquered his self; ātma14 = his self; eva15 = itself; varteta13 = acts; śatrutve12 = in a hostile manner; śatruvat16 = like an enemy.  6.6

 

6.6 For one who has conquered his very self by the self, his self is the friend of the self. For one who has not conquered his self, his very self exhibits hostility like an enemy.

 

 

जितात्मनः प्रशान्तस्य परमात्मा समाहितः ।

शीतोष्णसुखदुःखेषु तथा मानापमानयोः ॥६- ७॥

jitātmanaḥ praśāntasya paramātmā samāhitaḥ
śītoṣṇasukhaduḥkheṣu tathā mānāpamānayoḥ 6.7

jita-ātmanaḥ1 praśāntasya2 parama-ātmā3 samāhitaḥ4
śīta5 uṣṇa6 sukha7 duḥkheṣu8 tathā9 māna10 apamānayoḥ11  6.7 

 

[For] jita-ātmanaḥ1 = one who has conquered his body, mind and senses; praśāntasya2 = one who maintains tranquility; parama-ātmā3 = [in him] the Supreme Soul; samāhitaḥ4 = becomes manifest. śīta5 uṣṇa6 sukha7 duḥkheṣu8  = [He should remain balanced in] cold, heat, happiness and sorrow; tathā9 = also; māna10 apamānayoḥ11 = in honor and dishonor.  6.7


6.7: He, who maintains tranquillity, who conquered his lower self, and who is serene in heat and cold, pleasure and pain, honor and dishonor, unites with (communes) the Supreme Atman.

 

 

ज्ञानविज्ञानतृप्तात्मा कूटस्थो विजितेन्द्रियः ।

युक्त इत्युच्यते योगी समलोष्टाश्मकाञ्चनः ॥६- ८॥

jñānavijñānatṛptātmā kūṭastho vijitendriyaḥ
yukta ity ucyate yogī sama loṣṭrāśmakāñcanaḥ 6.8

jñāna1 vijñāna2 tṛptā3 ātmā4 kūṭastha5 vijita6 indriyaḥ7
yukta8 iti9 ucyate10 yogī11 sama12 loṣṭra13 āśma14 kāñcanaḥ15  6.8

 

jñāna1 = [With] knowledge; vijñāna2 = [and] Realized Experiential Knowledge; tṛptā3 = [he remains] a satisfied; ātmā4 = self, soul. kūṭasthaḥ5 = He who is unmoved [like an anvil];  vijita6 indriyaḥ7 = whose sense organs7 are under control6; yuktaḥ8 = who is absorbed in the Self;  iti9 = thus; ucyate10 = is called;  yogī11 = Yogi; [to whom] loṣṭra13 = clod; āśma14 = stone; [and]  kāñcanaḥ = gold  sama12 = are the same [equal].  6.8


6.8:  The yogi, whose soul is changeless and satisfied with knowledge and wisdom (Jnāna and Vijnāna), who has controlled his sense organs, and to whom lump of earth, stone and gold are the same, is well integrated.

 

 

सुहृन्मित्रार्युदासीनमध्यस्थद्वेष्यबन्धुषु ।

साधुष्वपि च पापेषु समबुद्धिर्विशिष्यते ॥६- ९॥

suhṛnmitrāryudāsīnamadhyasthadveṣyabandhuṣu
sādhuṣv api ca pāpeṣu samabuddhir viśiṣyate 6.9

suhṛt1 mitra2 ari3 udāsīna4 madhyastha5 dveṣya6 bandhuṣu7
sādhuṣu8 api9 ca10 pāpeṣu11 sama-buddhiḥ12 viśiṣyate13  6.9

 

suhṛt1 = [He who regards] a selfless friend; mitra2  = a cognate a friend; ari3 = an enemy;  udāsīna4 = a neutral person;  madhyastha5  = an arbiter; dveṣya6  = the detested; bandhuṣu7 = the relatives; sādhuṣu= the saints; api9  = even;  ca10 = and; pāpeṣu11 = the sinners;  sama-buddhiḥ12  = with equal mind; viśiṣyate13 = excels.  6.9

 

6.9:  He, who regards the well-wishers, the friends, the enemies, the indifferent, the neutral and the impartial, the envious and the detestable, the relatives, the saints (pious), as well as the sinners, with equal mind (terms), excels.

 

 

योगी युञ्जीत सततमात्मानं रहसि स्थितः ।

एकाकी यतचित्तात्मा निराशीरपरिग्रहः ॥६- १०॥

yogī yuñjīta satatam ātmānaṁ rahasi sthitaḥ
ekākī yatacittātmā nirāśīr aparigrahaḥ 6.10

yogī1 yuñjīta2 satatam3 ātmānam4 rahasi5 sthitaḥ6
ekākī7 yata-citta-ātmā8 nirāśīḥ9 aparigrahaḥ10   6.10

yogī1 = Yogi, [a connected and centered person]; yuñjīta2 = concentrates; satatam3 = constantly, uninterruptedly; ātmānam4 = by the mind; rahasi5 = in a secluded or solitary place; sthitaḥ6 = by staying; ekākī7 = alone by himself; yata-citta-ātmā8 = restraining mind and body;  nirāśīḥ9 = without desire; [and] aparigrahaḥ10 = not accumulating possessions.  6.10

 

6.10: A yogi, by controlling his mind, senses and desires; by desisting from accumulating earthly possessions; and by remaining alone by himself, should constantly concentrate his mind [on Atman = Supreme Self].

 

 

शुचौ देशे प्रतिष्ठाप्य स्थिरमासनमात्मनः ।

नात्युच्छ्रितं नातिनीचं चैलाजिनकुशोत्तरम् ॥६- ११॥

śucau deśe pratiṣṭhāpya sthiram āsanam ātmanaḥ
nātyucchritaṁ nātinīcaṁ cailājinakuśottaram 6.11

śucau1 deśe2 pratiṣṭhāpya3 sthiram4 āsanam5 ātmanaḥ6
na7 ati8 ucchritam9 na10 ati11 nīcam12 caila13 ajina14 kuśa15 uttaram16  6.11 

 

śucau1 = In a clean deśe2 = place; pratiṣṭhāpya3 = having abided, having established, having seated; sthiram4 = firmly; ātmanaḥ6 = on his own; āsanam5 = seat;  na7 ati8 ucchritam9 = neither too elevated; na10 ati11 nīcam12 = nor too low; caila13 ajina14 kuśa15 uttaram16  = [made of] cloth13, animal skin14, Kusa grass15 successively higher [= one on top of another from grass bottom to cloth]166.11

 

6.11:  In a clean place, with a firm seat neither too high nor too low covered with Kusa grass, deerskin and a soft cloth layer upon layer (one on top of another in that order, cloth on the top, deerskin in the middle, Kusa grass in the bottom) (continued)

 

 

तत्रैकाग्रं मनः कृत्वा यतचित्तेन्द्रियक्रियः ।

उपविश्यासने युञ्ज्याद्योगमात्मविशुद्धये ॥६- १२॥

tatraikāgraṁ manaḥ kṛtvā yatacittendriyakriyaḥ
upaviśyāsane yuñjyād yogam ātmaviśuddhaye 6.12

tatra1 ekāgram2 manaḥ3 kṛtvā4 yata5 citta6 indriya7 kriyaḥ8

upaviśya9 āsane10 yuñjyāt11 yogam12 ātma13-viśuddhaye14  6.12

 

[By] kṛtvā4  = making; manaḥ3 = the mind; ekāgram2  = one-pointed; [and by] kriyaḥ8 =keeping; citta6-indriya7 = the mind and the sense organs; yata5 = under control; upaviśya9 = sitting; tatra1 āsane10 = on that1 seat10yuñjyāt11 Yogam12   = practices11 Yoga12; ātma13  viśuddhaye14  = for the purification14 of the inner organs13.   6.12

 

6.12:  with the mind one-pointed, controlling the mind, the senses, and the activities, sitting on the seat, he should practice yoga for self-purification. 

 

 

समं कायशिरोग्रीवं धारयन्नचलं स्थिरः ।

सम्प्रेक्ष्य नासिकाग्रं स्वं दिशश्चानवलोकयन् ॥६- १३॥

samaṁ kāyaśirogrīvaṁ dhārayann acalaṁ sthiraḥ
saṁprekṣya nāsikāgraṁ svaṁ diśaś cānavalokayan 6.13

samam1 kāya2 śiraḥ3 grīvam4 dhārayan5 acalam6 sthiraḥ7

saṁprekṣya8  nāsikā9 agram10  svam11 diśaḥ12 ca13 anavalokayan14  6.13

 

dhārayan5 = Holding; kāya2 = body; śiraḥ3 = head; [and]  grīvam4 = neck; samam1 = straight; acalam6 = still; (and) sthiraḥ7 = steady; anavalokayan14 = not looking; diśaḥ12 = in all directions; ca13 =  and saṁprekṣya8 = looking at;  agram10 = the tip ; svam11= of his own; nāsikā9 = nose.  6.13

 

6.13:  Holding the body, the neck and the head straight, still, and steady and not looking in all directions and looking at the tip of his own nose (continued)

 

 

प्रशान्तात्मा विगतभीर्ब्रह्मचारिव्रते स्थितः ।

मनः संयम्य मच्चित्तो युक्त आसीत मत्परः ॥६- १४॥

praśāntātmā vigatabhīr brahmacārivrate sthitaḥ
manaḥ saṁyamya maccitto yukta āsīta matparaḥ 6.14

praśānta ātmā1 vigata-bhīḥ2 brahmacāri3a-vrate3b sthitaḥ4

manaḥ5 saṁyamya6 mat-cittaḥ7 yuktaḥ8 āsīta9 mat-paraḥ10    6.14

 

   vigata-bhīḥ2 = devoid of fear; sthitaḥ4 = remaining firm; brahmacāri3avrate3b  = in the vow3b of a celibate3a; praśānta ātmā1 = with the tranquil mind; saṁyamya6 = subduing; manaḥ5 = his mind; mat7a-cittaḥ7b = abiding Me7a in his mind7b ; mat10a-paraḥ10b = holding Me10a as the Supreme Goal10b. yuktaḥ8 = the Yogi; āsīta9 = should remain seated.   6.14

 

6.14:  With serene mind, fearless, firmly resolved in vow of celibacy, and with subdued mind, the yogi should sit concentrating his mind upon Me and holding only Me as the Supreme goal.

 

 

युञ्जन्नेवं सदात्मानं योगी नियतमानसः ।

शान्तिं निर्वाणपरमां मत्संस्थामधिगच्छति ॥६- १५॥

yuñjann evaṁ sadātmānaṁ yogī niyatamānasaḥ
śāntiṁ nirvāṇaparamāṁ matsaṁsthām adhigacchati 6.15

yuñjan1 sadā3 ātmānam4 yogī5 niyata-mānasaḥ6

śāntim7 nirvāṇa-paramām8  mat-saṁsthām9 adhigacchati10  6.15

 

niyata-mānasaḥ6 = having controlled his mind; yogī5  = the Yogi; evam2 = thus [as said above]; yuñjan1 = concentrating; ātmānam4 = the mind; sadā3 = uninterruptedly, constantly; adhigacchati10  = attains; śāntim7  = peace; mat-saṁsthām9 = which abides  in Me; nirvāṇa-paramām8 = which ends in Nirvana,  Liberation or Supreme Bliss.   6.15

6.15:  Having controlled his mind, and concentrating his mind constantly, the Yogi attains peace, which abides in Me and which ends in Supreme Bliss.

 

 

नात्यश्नतस्तु योगोऽस्ति न चैकान्तमनश्नतः ।

न चाति स्वप्नशीलस्य जाग्रतो नैव चार्जुन ॥६- १६॥

nātyaśnatas tu yogosti na caikāntam anaśnataḥ
na cātisvapnaśīlasya jāgrato naiva cārjuna 6.16

na1 ati2 aśnataḥ3 tu4 yogaḥ5 asti6 na7 ca8 ekāntam9 anaśnataḥ10

na11 ca12 ati13 svapna-śīlasya14 jāgrataḥ15 na16 eva17 ca18 arjuna19   6.16

 

tu4 = but; arjuna19 = O Arjuna; yogaḥ5 = Yoga; na1 asti6 = is not for; ati2 aśnataḥ3 = one who eats in excess; na7 ca8 = nor is [Yoga];  anaśnataḥ10 ca12 = for him who does not eat;  ekāntam9 = at all; na11 = not (attainable); ati13 svapna-śīlasya14 ca18 = for the one who sleeps too long;  jāgrataḥ15 eva17  na16 = not ever attainable for the one [who] stays awake too long.   6.16

 

6.16:   Yoga is not for him, who either eats too much, or eats too little. It is not for him, who either sleeps too much or stays awake too long, O Arjuna. 

 

 

युक्ताहारविहारस्य  युक्तचेष्टस्य कर्मसु ।

युक्तस्वप्नावबोधस्य योगो भवति दुःखहा ॥६- १७॥

yuktāhāravihārasya yuktaceṣṭasya karmasu
yuktasvapnāvabodhasya yogo bhavati duḥkhahā 6.17

yukta1 āhāra2 vihārasya3 yukta4 ceṣṭasya5 karmasu6

yukta7 svapna8 avabodhasya9 yogaḥ10 bhavati11 duḥkha-hā12  6.17

 

yogaḥ10 = Yoga; duḥkha-hā12 = the remover of sorrow; bhavati11 = is attainable; yukta1 āhāra2 vihārasya3 = for the one who has regulated1 food intake2 and recreation3; yukta4 ceṣṭasya5 = one whose efforts5 are moderate4karmasu6 = in works; yukta7 svapna8 avabodhasya9 = for one who is moderate7 in sleep8 and wakefulness96.17

vihārasya3  = walking for pleasure or amusement , wandering , roaming ; sport , play , pastime , diversion , enjoyment , pleasure, recreation, place of recreation.

 

6.17: Yoga the destroyer of sorrows is attainable to a man who is moderate in eating, recreation, sleep, and wakefulness, and restrained in action.

 

 

यदा विनियतं चित्तमात्मन्येवावतिष्ठते ।

निःस्पृहः सर्वकामेभ्यो युक्त इत्युच्यते तदा ॥६- १८॥

yadā viniyataṁ cittam ātmany evāvatiṣṭhate
niḥspṛhaḥ sarvakāmebhyo yukta ity ucyate tadā 6.18

yadā1 viniyatam2 cittam3 ātmani4 eva5 avatiṣṭhate6

niḥspṛhaḥ7 sarva8 kāmebhyaḥ9 yuktaḥ10 iti11 ucyate12 tadā13   6.18

 

yadā1 = When; viniyatam2 cittam3 = controlled mind; avatiṣṭhate6 = abides; ātmani4 eva5 = in the Self indeed;  tadā13 = at that time; niḥspṛhaḥ7  = the Yogi who is free from all desires, [the abstainer];sarva8 kāmebhyaḥ9 = [and] all8 desirable objects9;  iti11 = thus; ucyate12  = is said to be; yuktaḥ10 = perfect in yoga.  6.18

 

6.18: When the controlled mind abides in the Self alone, the Yogi free from desires and all objects is called perfect in Yoga at that time. 

 

 

यथा दीपो निवातस्थो नेङ्गते सोपमा स्मृता ।

योगिनो यतचित्तस्य युञ्जतो योगमात्मनः ॥६- १९॥

yathā dīpo nivātastho neṅgate sopamā sm
yogino yatacittasya yuñjato yogam ātmana
ḥ 6.19

yathā1 dīpa2 nivāta-stha3 na iṅgate4 sa upamā5 sm6

yoginaḥ7 yata-cittasya8 yuñjataḥ9 yogam10 ātmana11  6.19

 

yathā1 = As; dīpa2 = lamp; nivāta-stha3 = remaining in a windless place; na iṅgate4 = does not shimmer; sa upamā5  = (so goes) that simile; sm6 = so it is said ; yoginaḥ7 = of the Yogi; yogam10 = [in] meditation;  yata-cittasya8  = whose mind is restrained; yuñjataḥ9 = who is immersed; ātmana11 = on the Self.  6.19

 

6.19:  As a lamp’s flame does not flicker in a windless place, so goes the simile that a yogi of subdued mind practices steadfast yogam (meditation) on the Self. 

 

 

यत्रोपरमते चित्तं निरुद्धं योगसेवया ।

यत्र चैवात्मनात्मानं पश्यन्नात्मनि तुष्यति ॥६- २०॥

yatroparamate cittaṁ niruddhaṁ yogasevayā
yatra caivātmanātmānaṁ paśyann ātmani tuṣyati 6.20

yatra1 uparamate2 cittam3 niruddham4 yoga-sevayā5

yatra6 ca7 eva8 ātmanā9  ātmānam10 paśyan11 ātmani12  tuṣyati13  

 

yatra1 = When; cittam5 =  the mind; niruddham4 = is restrained, suppressed; [and] uparamate2 = ceases [desists from desires and actions],  yoga-sevayā5 = because of the practice of Yoga;  ; ca7 = and; yatra6 eva8 = at the time when; paśyan11  = seeing; ātmānam10 = the Self; tuṣyati13 = [one] is delighted; ātmanā9  = by the self; ātmani12  = in one's own Self.   6.20


6.20:   When the mind is at rest and under restraint from the practice of yoga, he enjoys the Self by seeing the Self through the self. 

 

 

सुखमात्यन्तिकं यत्तद् बुद्धिग्राह्यमतीन्द्रियम् ।

वेत्ति यत्र न चैवायं स्थितश्चलति तत्त्वतः ॥६- २१॥

sukham ātyantikaṁ yat tad buddhi grāhyam atīndriyam
vetti yatra na caivāyaṁ sthitaś calati tattvataḥ 6.21

sukham1 ātyantikam2 yat3 tat4 buddhi-grāhyam5 atīndriyam6
vetti7 yatra8 na9 ca10 eva11 ayam12 sthitaḥ13 calati14 tattvataḥ15  6.21

 

yatra8  = When; [the Yogi] vetti7 = knows; tat4 = that; ātyantikam2 = uninterrupted or infinite; sukham1 = Supreme Happiness or Bliss; yat3 = which;  buddhi-grāhyam5 = is experienced by the intelligence; [and which is] atīndriyam6 = beyond the grasp of the senses; ca10 = and; sthitaḥ13 = standing firm; ayam12 = this one [Yogi]; eva11 = certainly; na9 calati14 = never swerves; tattvataḥ15 = from the Truth.   6.21

 

6.21: When he knows that the Supreme happiness, experienced by the intelligence, is beyond the grasp of the senses, the yogi, standing firm, never swerves from the Truth.

 

 

यं लब्ध्वा चापरं लाभं मन्यते नाधिकं ततः ।

यस्मिन्स्थितो न दुःखेन गुरुणापि विचाल्यते ॥६- २२॥

yaṁ labdhvā cāparaṁ lābhaṁ manyate nādhikaṁ tataḥ
yasmin sthito na duḥkhena guruṇāpi vicālyate 6.22

yam1 labdhvā2 ca3 aparam4 lābham5 manyate6 na7 adhikam8 tataḥ9

yasmin10 sthitaḥ11 na12 duḥkhena13 guruṇāpi14 vicālyate15  6.22

 

yam1 labdhvā2 = By gaining which [that Truth];  na7 manyate6 = [one] does not think; aparam4 = any other; lābham5  = gain. adhikam8 tataḥ9 = Surpassing that; ca3  = and; sthitaḥ11 = standing firm; yasmin10 = in which [that Truth]; [one is] na12 vicālyate15  = not moved [afflicted]; guruṇāpi14 = by very great; duḥkhena13 = sorrow.  6.22

 

6.22:  By gaining that [ truth], he considers there is no more to gain; thus standing firm, even a great sorrow does not move him (he is never moved by any great sorrow). 

 

 

तं विद्याद्‌दुःखसंयोगवियोगं योगसंज्ञितम् ।

स निश्चयेन योक्तव्यो योगोऽनिर्विण्णचेतसा ॥६- २३॥

taṁ vidyād.h duḥkhasaṁyogaviyogaṁ yogasaṁjñitam
sa niścayena yoktavyo yogonirviṇṇacetasā 6.23

tam1 vidyāt2 duḥkha3 saṁyoga4 viyogam5 yogasanjñitam6
sa7 niścayena8 yoktavyaḥ9 yogaḥ10 anirviṇṇa11 cetasā12  6.23

 

vidyāt2 = You must know; tam1 = that; duḥkha3 saṁyoga4 viyogam5 = disjunction from union with sorrow [sorrow-union-disjunction]; [goes] yogasanjñitam6 = by the name of Yoga; sah7 = that; yogaḥ10 = Yoga; yoktavyaḥ9 = should be practiced; niścayena8 = with determination; [and] anirviṇṇa11 = unwearied;  cetasā12  = mind. 6.23

 

6.23:  You must know, in perspective of yoga, this disjunction (viyoga) of union with pain. This yoga should be practiced with determination and unwearied mind. (Determination and unwearied mind must underlie practice of this yoga.)

 

 

संकल्पप्रभवान्कामांस्त्यक्त्वा सर्वानशेषतः ।

मनसैवेन्द्रियग्रामं विनियम्य समन्ततः ॥६- २४॥

saṅkalpaprabhavān kāmāṁs tyaktvā sarvān aśeṣataḥ
manasaivendriyagrāmaṁ viniyamya samantataḥ 6.24

saṅkalpa1 prabhavān2 kāmān3 tyaktvā4 sarvān5 aśeṣataḥ6

manasa7 eva8 indriya-grāmam9 viniyamya10 samantataḥ11 6.24 

 

tyaktvā4 = Abandoning; aśeṣataḥ6 = wholeheartedly; sarvān5 = all; kāmān3 = desires; saṅkalpa1prabhavān2prabhavān2 = born of; saṅkalpa1= mental will; viniyamya10 = limiting; samantataḥ11 = from all sides; indriya-grāmam9 = all sense organs; manasa7 eva= by the mind.. .   6.24 continued

 

6.24 - 25:  Giving up all desires born of mental will and limiting by the mind all senses from all sides, [6.25] one should withdraw slowly (little by little) by intelligence and firm conviction (from objects). With his mind steady on atman, one should not think of anything else.

 

 

शनैः शनैरुपरमेद्‌बुद्ध्या धृतिगृहीतया ।

आत्मसंस्थं मनः कृत्वा न किंचिदपि चिन्तयेत् ॥६- २५॥

śanaiḥ śanair uparamed buddhyā dhṛtigṛhītayā
ātmasaṁsthaṁ manaḥ kṛtvā na kiṁcid api cintayet 6.25

śanaiḥ1 śanaiḥ2 uparamet3 buddhyā4 dhṛtigṛhītayā5
ātma-saṁstham6 manaḥ7 kṛtvā8 na9 kiñcit10 api11 cintayet12  6.25  

 

uparamet3 = One should withdraw [from the world of happenings; śanaiḥ1 & śanaiḥ2 = step by step, gradually;  buddhyā4 = by intelligence; [and] dhṛtigṛhītayā5 = firm conviction;  kṛtvā8 = making; manaḥ7 = the mind; ātma-saṁstham6 = steady in the Self. na9 & cintayet12 = He should not think of;  kiñcit10 & api11 = anything else [except Paramatman or Self]. 6.25

 

6.24 - 25:  Giving up all desires born of mental will and limiting by the mind all senses from all sides,[6.25] one should withdraw slowly (little by little) by intelligence and firm conviction (from objects). With his mind steady on atman, one should not think of anything else.

 

 

यतो यतो निश्चरति मनश्चञ्चलमस्थिरम् ।

ततस्ततो नियम्यैतदात्मन्येव वशं नयेत् ॥६- २६॥

yato yato niścarati manaś cañcalam asthiram
tatas tato niyamyaitad ātmany eva vaśaṁ nayet 6.26
yataḥ yataḥ niścarati manaḥ cañcalam asthiram
tataḥ tataḥ niyamya etat ātmani eva vaśam nayet  6.26 

 

 cañcalam5 = Agitated;  asthiram6 = unsteady; manaḥ4 = mind; niścarati3 = wanders away; yataḥ1 yataḥ2 = due to causes [like sound in the world] : [whatever & whichever stimuli]. etat10 vaśam13 nayet14 =  Bring this [mind] under control [this10-contro13-bring14]; ātmani11 eva12 = of the Self alone; tataḥ7 tataḥ8 = from all above causes; niyamya9 = imposing restrictions.  6.26

 

6.26:  In whatever direction the unsteady fickle mind goes, one should hold this mind back and bring it under the control of the Self (Atman).

 

 

प्रशान्तमनसं ह्येनं योगिनं सुखमुत्तमम् ।

उपैति शान्तरजसं ब्रह्मभूतमकल्मषम् ॥६- २७॥

praśāntamanasaṁ hy enaṁ yoginaṁ sukham uttamam
upaiti śāntarajasaṁ brahmabhūtam akalmaṣam 6.27

praśānta1 manasam2 hi3 enam4 yoginam5 sukham6 uttamam7

upaiti8 śānta-rajasam9 brahma-bhūtam10 akalmaṣam11 6.27  

 

uttamam7= The Highest or Supreme; sukham6 = happiness (Bliss); upaiti8 = comes to; hi3 enam4 yoginam5 = to this Yogi only;  [who is of] praśānta1 = tranquil; manasam2 = mind; śānta-rajasam9 = [who is of] pacific Rajas;  brahma-bhūtam10 = [who is] one with Brahman; [and] akalmaṣam11 = [who is] free from sin. 6.27

 

6.27:   Supreme happiness comes to yogi, whose mind is tranquil, who is free from sin or stain, whose passions (Rajas) are pacific, and who is one with Brahman.

 

 

युञ्जन्नेवं सदात्मानं योगी विगतकल्मषः ।

सुखेन ब्रह्मसंस्पर्शमत्यन्तं सुखमश्नुते ॥६- २८॥

yuñjann evaṁ sadātmānaṁ yogī vigatakalmaṣaḥ
sukhena brahmasaṁsparśam atyantaṁ sukham aśnute 6.28

yuñjan1 evam2 sadā3 ātmānam4 yogī5 vigata6 kalmaṣaḥ7
sukhena8 brahma-saṁsparśam9 atyantam10 sukham11 aśnute12 6.28 

 

vigata6 kalmaṣaḥ7  = [The] stainless [devoid6 of Stain7]; yogī5 = Yogi;  evam2 = in such manner, verily; sadā3 = by constantly; yuñjan1= engaging or concentrating; ātmānam4 = his mind; sukhena8 = easily; aśnute12 = experiences; atyantam10 =  infinite;  sukham11 =  bliss, happiness; brahma-saṁsparśam9 = of contact with Brahman.  6.28

 

6.28: The stainless Yogi by constantly concentrating his mind easily experiences infinite bliss of contact with Brahman.

 

 

सर्वभूतस्थमात्मानं सर्वभूतानि चात्मनि ।

ईक्षते योगयुक्तात्मा सर्वत्र समदर्शनः ॥६- २९॥

sarvabhūtastham ātmānaṁ sarvabhūtāni cātmani
īkṣate yogayuktātmā sarvatra samadarśanaḥ 6.29

sarva-bhūta-stham1  ātmānam2  sarva-bhūtāni3  ca4  ātmani5
īkṣate6  yoga-yukta-ātmā7  sarvatra8  sama-darśanaḥ9  6.29

 

yoga-yukta-ātmā7 = Yoga-yoked-Self = One whose self is in union with yoga;  sarvatra8  sama-darśanaḥ9 = who has visions of the same divinity, Brahman everywhere  [everywhere8 (who) has visions of the same divinity (Brahman9)]; īkṣate6 = sees; ātmānam2 = his own Self; sarva-bhūta-stham1 = exist in all beings [all-beings-exist].  ca4 =  Moreover; sarva-bhūtāni3 = all beings [from Brahma to a blade of grass]; [exist] ātmani5 = in his Self.  6.29

 

 6.29: One whose self is in union with yoga  and who has visions of the same divinity everywhere sees his own Self exist in all beings and all beings [from Brahma to a blade of grass] exist in his Self.

 

 

यो मां पश्यति सर्वत्र सर्वं च मयि पश्यति ।

तस्याहं न प्रणश्यामि स च मे न प्रणश्यति ॥६- ३०॥

yo mā paśyati sarvatra sarvaṁ ca mayi paśyati
tasyāhaṁ na praṇaśyāmi sa ca me na praṇaśyati 6.30

yaḥ1  mām2  paśyati3  sarvatra4  sarvam5 ca6  mayi7  paśyati8
tasya9  aham10  na11  praṇaśyāmi12  saḥ13  ca14  me15  na16  praṇaśyati17  6.30

 

yaḥ1 = He who; paśyati3 = sees; mām2 = Me [the Self of all beings];  sarvatra4 = in all things ;  ca6  = and [who] paśyati8 = sees;  sarvam5  = all things [sara-asaram = mobiles and immobiles]; mayi7 = in Me; aham10 = I; na11 & praṇaśyāmi12 = am not lost; tasya9 = from his [vision]. ca14 saḥ13 = And he; na16 praṇaśyati17 = is not lost; me15  =  to Me.  6.30

 

6.30: He who sees Me in all things and who sees all things in Me, I am not lost  from his [vision] and he is not lost to Me.

 

 

सर्वभूतस्थितं यो मां भजत्येकत्वमास्थितः ।

सर्वथा वर्तमानोऽपि स योगी मयि वर्तते ॥६- ३१॥

sarvabhūtasthitaṁ yo māṁ bhajaty ekatvam āsthitaḥ
sarvathā vartamānopi sa yogī mayi vartate 6.31

sarva-bhūta-sthitam1 yaḥ2 mām3 bhajati4 ekatvam5 āsthitaḥ6
sarvathā7 vartamānaḥ8 api9 saḥ10 yogī11 mayi12 vartate13 6.31 

 

yaḥ2 = He who; āsthitaḥ6 = is established; ekatvam5 = in oneness [unity]; bhajati4 =  worships, mām3 = Me; sarva-bhūta-sthitam1 = abiding in all beings [all-beings-abiding].  saḥ10 & yogī11 = That Yogi; sarvathā7 = in whatever condition [he is]; vartamānaḥ8  & api9 = however much he is active; vartate13 = exists;  mayi12 = in Me.  6.31

 

6.31: The Yogin, established in unity, worships Me abiding in all beings; that yogi, whatever his condition may be and however much he is active, exists in Me.

 

 

आत्मौपम्येन सर्वत्र समं पश्यति योऽर्जुन ।

सुखं वा यदि वा दुःखं स योगी परमो मतः ॥६- ३२॥

ātmaupamyena sarvatra samaṁ paśyati yorjuna
sukhaṁ vā yadi vā duḥkhaṁ sa yogī paramo mataḥ 6.32

ātma1 aupamyena2 sarvatra3 samam4 paśyati5 yaḥ6 Arjuna7
sukham89 yadi1011 duḥkham12 saḥ13 yogī14 paramaḥ15 mataḥ16  6.32

 

arjuna7 = O Arjuna; yaḥ6 =Yogi who; paśyati5 = sees; samam4 = with equality; sarvatra3 = all beings;

ātma1 &  aupamyena2 = in the likeness of himself; 9 = and; sukham8 = happiness;  11& yadi10 = and whatever; duḥkham12 = sorrow [as his own]; saḥ13yogī14 = that Yogi; mataḥ16paramaḥ15  =  is considered supreme.  6.32

 

6.32: O Arjuna; the Yogi who  sees  with equality all beings in the likeness of himself  and regards happiness and sorrow as his own [that Yogi] is considered supreme.

 

 

अर्जुन उवाच 

योऽयं योगस्त्वया प्रोक्तः साम्येन मधुसूदन ।

एतस्याहं न पश्यामि चञ्चलत्वात्स्थितिं स्थिराम् ॥६- ३३॥

arjuna uvāca
yaḥ ayam yogaḥ tvayā proktaḥ sāmyena madhusūdana
etasya aham na paśyāmi cañcalatvāt sthitim sthirām 6.33

arjuna  uvāca
yaḥ1 ayam2 yogaḥ3 tvayā4 proktaḥ5 sāmyena6 madhusūdana7
etasya8 aham9 na10 paśyāmi11 cañcalatvāt12 sthitim13 sthirām14  6.33

 

arjuna = Arjuna uvāca = said: madhusūdana7 = O Madhusudana (Killer of demon Madhu, Krishna): ayam2 = this; yogaḥ3 = Yoga;  yaḥ1 & proktaḥ5 = that was declared; tvaya4 = by You; sāmyena6 = as same [as the doctrine of empathy];  aham9 = I; na10 & paśyāmi11 = do not see; etasya8 = its [Yoga's]; sthirām14 =  stable; sthitim13 = condition; cañcalatvāt12 = because of agitation of [my mind].  6.33

 

6.33: O Madhusudana (Killer of demon Madhu, Krishna), In this Yoga that was declared by You  as same [as the Doctrine of equality and empathy or Yoga of Evenness], I do not see its stability because of agitation of my mind.

 

 

चञ्चलं हि मनः कृष्ण प्रमाथि बलवद्‌दृढम् ।

तस्याहं निग्रहं मन्ये वायोरिव सुदुष्करम् ॥६- ३४॥

cañcalaṁ hi manaḥ kṛṣṇa pramāthi balavad dṛḍham
tasyāhaṁ nigrahaṁ manye vāyor iva suduṣkaram 6.34

cañcalam1 hi2 manaḥ3 kṛṣṇa4 pramāthi5 balavat6 dṛḍham7
tasya8 aham9 nigraham10 manye11 vāyoḥ12 iva13 suduṣkaram14  6.34

 

 kṛṣṇa4 = O Krishna; hi2 = for; manaḥ3 = the mind; cañcalam1 = is wavering;  pramāthi5 = agitating [to the sense organs]; balavat6 = strong-willed; [and] dṛḍham7 = obstinate; aham9 = I; manye11 = think; tasya8 =  its [mind's]; nigraham10 = control, subjugation; suduṣkaram14 =  is as difficult as; vāyoḥ12 & iva13 = [controlling] of the wind.  6.34

 

6.34:  Because the mind is fickle, agitated, strong, and obstinate, O Krishna, I think restraint of the mind is as difficult as controlling the wind. 

 

 

श्रीभगवानुवाच 

असंशयं महाबाहो मनो दुर्निग्रहं चलम् ।

अभ्यासेन तु कौन्तेय वैराग्येण च गृह्यते ॥६- ३५॥

śrībhagavān uvāca
asañśayaṁ mahābāho mano durnigrahaṁ calam
abhyāsena tu kaunteya vairāgyeṇa ca gṛhyate 6.35

śrībhagavān uvāca
asañśayam1 mahābāho2 manaḥ3 durnigraham4 calam5
abhyāsena6 tu7 kaunteya8 vairāgyeṇa9 ca10 gṛhyate11  6.35

 

śrībhagavān uvāca = Bhagavan said: mahābāho2 = O Mighty-armed one; asañśayam1 = without doubt; manaḥ3 = mind; durnigraham4 = [is] difficult to restrain; [and] calam5 = prone to agitation; tu7 = but; [it] gṛhyate11 = can be controlled; abhyāsena6 = by repetitive practice; ca10 =  and; vairāgyeṇa9 = by detachment. kaunteya8 =  O son of Kunti.  6.35

 

6.35:  Sri Bhagavan said:

Without doubt mind is difficult to restrain, prone to agitation; but it can be controlled by repetitive practice and by detachment, O son of Kunti.

 

 

असंयतात्मना योगो दुष्प्राप इति मे मतिः ।

वश्यात्मना तु यतता शक्योऽवाप्तुमुपायतः ॥६- ३६॥

asaṁyatātmanā yogo duṣprāpa iti me matiḥ
vaśyātmanā tu yatatā śakyovāptum upāyataḥ 6.36

asaṁyata-ātmanā1 yogaḥ2 duṣprāpaḥ3 iti4 me5 matiḥ6
vaśya7 ātmanā8 tu9 yatatā10 śakyaḥ11 avāptum12 upāyataḥ13 6.36 

 

iti4 =  thus; me5 = My; matiḥ6 = determination, opinion; [is] yogaḥ2 = Yoga; [is] duṣprāpaḥ3 = hard to attain; asaṁyata-ātmanā1 = by one with unbridled mind; tu9 = but;  śakyaḥ11 = attainable;  [by] avāptum12 = one who has attained; vaśya7 = controlled; ātmanā8 = mind;  [and by] yatatā10 = the man of endeavor; upāyataḥ13 = through the means [as mentioned above].  6.36

 

6.36: Thus my opinion is that Yoga is hard to attain by one with unbridled mind but is attainable by one with controlled mind and by the man of endeavor through the means [mentioned above].

 

 

अर्जुन उवाच 

अयतिः श्रद्धयोपेतो योगाच्चलितमानसः ।

अप्राप्य योगसंसिद्धिं कां गतिं कृष्ण गच्छति ॥६- ३७॥

arjuna uvāca
ayatiḥ śraddhayopeto yogāc calitamānasaḥ
aprāpya yogasaṁsiddhiṁ kāṁ gatiṁ kṛṣṇa gacchati 6.37

arjuna uvāca
ayatiḥ1 śraddhayaḥ2 upetaḥ3 yogāt4 calita5 mānasaḥ6
aprāpya7 yogasaṁsiddhim8 kām9 gatim10 kṛṣṇa11 gacchati12 6.37 

 

arjunaḥ uvāca = Arjuna said: kṛṣṇa11 = O Krishna; [though] upetaḥ3 = endowed with; śraddhaya2 = faith; ayatiḥ1 = putting no effort [in Yoga]; calita5  mānasaḥ6 = one whose mind is divergent; yogāt4 = from Yoga; aprāpya7 = having not obtained; yoga-saṁsiddhim8 = perfection in Yoga; kām9 = what; gatim10 = progress; gacchati12 = does he make?  6.37   [calita5  = divergent]

 

6.37: Arjuna said: 

The failed ascetic who had faith but was of such mind to deviate from (the path of) yoga, failing to attain yogic perfection, which way does he go, O Krishna?

 

 

कच्चिन्नोभयविभ्रष्टश्छिन्नाभ्रमिव नश्यति ।

अप्रतिष्ठो महाबाहो विमूढो ब्रह्मणः पथि ॥६- ३८॥

kacchin nobhayavibhraṣṭaś chinnābhram iva naśyati
apratiṣṭho mahābāho vimūḍho brahmaṇaḥ pathi 6.38
kacchit
1 na2 ubhaya3 vibhraṣṭaḥ4 chinna5 abhram6 iva7 naśyati8
apratiṣṭhaḥ9 mahābāho10 vimūḍhaḥ11 brahmaṇaḥ12 pathi13  6.38

 

mahābāho10 = O Mighty-armed One; ubhaya3 vibhraṣṭaḥ4 = having fallen4 from both3; apratiṣṭhaḥ9 = having lost hold on the ground; vimūḍhaḥ11 = the perplexed; brahmaṇaḥ12 pathi13 = on the path of Brahman: kacchit1 na2 naśyati8 = does he not perish;  iva7= like;  chinna5 abhram6 = a riven cloud. 6.38

 

6.38:  Having lost both (paths of Karma and Yoga), does he not perish like a riven cloud O Krishna, without support, and bewildered on the path to Brahman?

 

 

एतन्मे संशयं कृष्ण छेत्तुमर्हस्यशेषतः ।

त्वदन्यः संशयस्यास्य छेत्ता न ह्युपपद्यते ॥६- ३९॥

etan me saṁśayaṁ kṛṣṇa chettum arhasy aśeṣataḥ
tvadanyaḥ saṁśayasyāsya chettā na hy upapadyate 6.39

etat1 me2 saṁśayam3  kṛṣṇa4  chettum5  arhasi6  aśeṣataḥ7 
tvat8   anyaḥ9   saṁśayasya10   asya11  chettā12  na13  hi14  upapadyate15 6.39 

 

kṛṣṇa4 = O Krishna; [You are] arhasi6 = worthy and obligated; chettum5 = to remove; etat1 = this; saṁśayam3 =  doubt; me2 = of mine; aśeṣataḥ7 = completely;  hi14 = because; na13 - tvat8 - anyaḥ9 = no-one other than You; upapadyate15 = is proven; chettā12 = remover or destroyer; asya11 = of this; saṁśayasya10 = doubt.   6.39

 

6.39: O Krishna, You are worthy of and obligated to remove this doubt of mine completely because no one other than You is proven remover of this doubt.

 

 

श्रीभगवानुवाच 

पार्थ नैवेह नामुत्र विनाशस्तस्य विद्यते ।

न हि कल्याणकृत्कश्चिद्‌दुर्गतिं तात गच्छति ॥६- ४०॥

śrībhagavān uvāca
pārtha naiveha nāmutra vināśas tasya vidyate
na hi kalyāṇakṛt kaścid durgatiṁ tāta gacchati 6.40

śrī bhagavān uvāca
pārtha1  na2  eva3  iha4  na5  amutra vināśaḥ7  tasya8  vidyate9
na10 hi11  kalyāṇa-kṛt12  kaścit13  durgatim14  tāta15  gacchati16   6.40

 

śrī bhagavān uvāca = Sri Bhagavan said: pārtha1 = O Partha; [neither] iha4 = in this world; na2  = nor;  amutra6 =  in the other world; eva3 vidyate9 = there is assuredly; na5 vināśaḥ7 = no destruction; tasya8 = for that man; hi11 na10 kaścit13 = for no one; kalyāṇa-kṛt12 = performing auspicious deeds; tāta15 = O dear Son (endearing address to Arjuna); gacchati16 = comes to; durgatim14 = misfortune.  6.40

 

6.40:  Sri Bhagavan said:

O Son of Partha, neither here, nor hereafter (the other world), destruction exists for him. Never misfortune comes to the one who does good works (kalyānakrt, auspicious activities).

 

 

प्राप्य पुण्यकृतां लोकानुषित्वा शाश्वतीः समाः ।

शुचीनां श्रीमतां गेहे योगभ्रष्टोऽभिजायते ॥६- ४१॥

prāpya puṇyakṛtāṁ lokān uṣitvā śāśvatīḥ samāḥ
śucīnāṁ śrīmatāṁ gehe yogabhraṣṭobhijāyate 6.41

prāpya1 puṇya-kṛtām2 lokān3 uṣitvā4 śāśvatīḥ5 samāḥ6
śucīnām7 śrīmatām8 gehe9 yoga-bhraṣṭaḥ10 abhijāyate11 6.41

 

prāpya1 = Having attained;  lokān3 = to the world; puṇya-kṛtām2 = of merit-doers; [and] uṣitvā4 = living there;  śāśvatīḥ5 = for many;  samāḥ6 = years; yoga-bhraṣṭaḥ10 = the fallen yogi; abhijāyate11 = takes birth; gehe9 =  in the house; śucīnām7 = of the pious; [and] śrīmatām8 = the prosperous.  6.41

 

6.41:   Having attained to the world of those who performed pious activities and living there for many years, the unrealized or fallen yogi takes birth in the house of the ritually pure, the pious, and the prosperous.  

 

 

अथवा योगिनामेव कुले भवति धीमताम् ।

एतद्धि दुर्लभतरं लोके जन्म यदीदृशम् ॥६- ४२॥

athavā yoginām eva kule bhavati dhīmatām
etad dhi durlabhataraṁ loke janma yad īdṛśam 6.42

athavā1 yoginām2 eva3 kule4 bhavati5 dhīmatām6
etat7 hi8 durlabhataram9 loke10 janma11 yat12 īdṛśam13  6.42

 

athavā1 = Or; [such fallen Yogi] bhavati5 = takes birth; kule4 = in the family; dhīmatām6 = of the wise; yoginām2 = Yogis. eva3 = Only; etat7  janma11 = such birth; yat12  īdṛśam13 = like this; [is]  durlabhataram9 = very rare; hi8 = indeed; loke10 = in this world.  6.42

 

6.42:  Or such a yogi takes his birth in the family of yogins endowed with great wisdom; a birth like this is very rare indeed in this world.

 

 

तत्र तं बुद्धिसंयोगं लभते पौर्वदेहिकम् ।

यतते च ततो भूयः संसिद्धौ कुरुनन्दन ॥६- ४३॥

tatra taṁ buddhisaṁyogaṁ labhate paurvadehikam
yatate ca tato bhūyaḥ saṁsiddhau kurunandana 6.43

tatra1 tam2 buddhi-saṁyogam3 labhate4 paurva-dehikam5
yatate6 ca7 tataḥ8 bhūyaḥ9 saṁsiddhau10 kuru-nandana11  6.43

 

tatra1 = Thereupon; [he] labhate4 = gains;  tam2 = that; buddhi-saṁyogam3 = union with Yogic Knowledge; paurva-dehikam5 = accumulated in the former body. yatate6 = He strives; bhūyaḥ9 = again;  ca7 = and;   tataḥ8 =  more than in the previous birth;  saṁsiddhau10 = for perfection; kuru-nandana11  = O the Scion of Kuru Dynasty.  6.43

 

6.43:  Thereupon, he regains the mental, intellectual, and yogic disposition from his previous birth (body), and strives again to gain for perfection, O son of Kuru.

 

 

पूर्वाभ्यासेन तेनैव ह्रियते ह्यवशोऽपि सः ।

जिज्ञासुरपि योगस्य शब्दब्रह्मातिवर्तते ॥६- ४४॥

pūrvābhyāsena tenaiva hriyate hy avaśopi saḥ
jijñāsur api yogasya śabdabrahmātivartate 6.44

pūrvā1 abhyāsena2 tena3 eva4 hriyate5 hi6 avaśaḥ7 api8 saḥ9
jijñāsuḥ10 api11 yogasya12 śabdabrahma13 ativartate14  6.44

 

hi6 = Surely; tena3 & eva4 = by virtue of; pūrvā1  abhyāsena2 = previous1 practice2 [in former life]; [he] hriyate5 = is taken forward; avaśaḥ7  api8 = though loosing control [of himself] against his will.  jijñāsuḥ10  api11 = Being the seeker of knowledge; yogasya12 = of Yoga; saḥ9 = he; ativartate14 = transcends; śabdabrahma13 =  Sound Brahman [Vedic rituals].  6.44

 

6.44:  By virtue of previous (yogic) practice (in former life), he is carried forward even against his will. Even though he is only an inquisitive seeker of yoga, he transcends Sabda-Brahman or Vedic rituals.

 

 

प्रयत्नाद्यतमानस्तु योगी संशुद्धकिल्बिषः ।

अनेकजन्मसंसिद्धस्ततो याति परां गतिम् ॥६- ४५॥

prayatnād yatamānas tu yogī saṁśuddhakilbiṣaḥ
anekajanmasaṁsiddhas tato yāti parāṁ gatim 6.45
prayatnāt
1 yatamānaḥ2 tu3 yogī4 saṁśuddha5 kilbiṣaḥ6
aneka7  janma8 saṁsiddhaḥ9 tataḥ10 yāti1 parām11 gatim12 6.45


tu3 =  But; yogī4 yatamānaḥ2 = Yogi  who puts in; prayatnāt1 = persevering effort; saṁśuddha5 = purifying;  kilbiṣaḥ= all sins; aneka7  janma8 saṁsiddhaḥ9 = attaining perfection or realization after many births [many-births-perfection];  tataḥ10 = soon thereafter; yāti1 = attains; parām11 = supreme, highest; gatim12 =  goal.  6.45

 

6.45:   The yogi, striving earnestly, free from all sins, and perfecting himself through many births, attains to the Supreme (Supreme Goal).

 

 

तपस्विभ्योऽधिको योगी ज्ञानिभ्योऽपि मतोऽधिकः ।

कर्मिभ्यश्चाधिको योगी तस्माद्योगी भवार्जुन ॥६- ४६॥

tapasvibhyodhiko yogī jñānibhyopi matodhikaḥ
karmibhyaś cādhiko yogī tasmād yogī bhavārjuna 6.46
tapasvibhyaḥ
1 adhika2 yogī3 jñānibhyaḥ4 api5 mataḥ6 adhikaḥ7
karmibhyaḥ8 ca9 adhikaḥ10 yogī11 tasmāt12 yogī13 bhava14 arjuna15  6.46   

 

yogī3 = Yogi; mataḥ6 = is thought of; adhikaḥ2 = higher; tapasvibhyaḥ1 = than tapasvins [men of austerity];

adhikaḥ7 = higher than; api5 = even;  jñānibhyaḥ4 = Jnanis [men of Knowledge, Vedic scholars]. yogī11 = Yogi; [is] adhikaḥ10 = higher than;  karmibhyaḥ8 = men of action [ritualists]; ca9 = and; tasmāt12 = therefore; arjuna15 =  O Arjuna; bhava14 = become; yogī13 = a Yogi.    6.46

 

6.46:    The yogi is superior to the ascetic, greater than the Jnāni, and more sublime than the ritualists. Therefore, O Arjuna, thou become a yogi.

 

 

योगिनामपि सर्वेषां मद्गतेनान्तरात्मना ।

श्रद्धावान् भजते यो मां स मे युक्ततमो मतः ॥६- ४७॥

yoginām api sarveṣāṁ madgatenāntarātmanā
śraddhāvān bhajate yo māṁ sa me yuktatamo mataḥ 6.47

yoginām1 api2 sarveṣām3 madgatena4 antarātmanā5
śraddhāvān6 bhajate7 yaḥ8 mām9 saḥ10 me11 yuktatamaḥ12 mataḥ13  6.47

 

api2 = Even; sarveṣām3 = among all; yoginām1 = Yogis; yaḥ8 = he who; bhajate7 = worships; mām9 = Me; antarātmanā5 = within his mind; madgatena4 = abiding in Me;  śraddhāvān6 = with faith;  saḥ10 = he; mataḥ13 = is considered; me11 = by Me; yuktatamaḥ12 =  the most accomplished of all yogis. 6.47

 

6.47:  Of all yogis, he, who worships Me within his mind, abiding in me with full faith, is considered by me the most accomplished of all yogis.

 

End of Chapter 06: The Yoga of Self Control

Chapter Six: The Yoga of Self Control

6.1: The Lord said:

He, who does his obligatory work without claiming the fruit of action, is a sannyāsi and a yogi. He does not become a yogin simply because he renounces the sacred fire and performs no action.

(Simply because he renounces the sacred fire, he does not become a yogin. In the same vein, he is not a yogin, for giving up his activity).

Matted hair, deerskin, and pious pretension do not make an ascetic. An ascetic in name and epicure in practice, though he professes to know Brahman, is far away from Brahman. Appearance does not make an ascetic, though he wanders naked and shameless; a donkey does the same. Jackals, rodents and deer live in the forest, eat grass, and drink water: are they ascetics? The frogs and fish take birth, eat and die in Ganga. Are they ascetics? –Garuda Purana, II.49.64-67-68.

A yogin, in a spirit of renunciation, gives up all activities including the performance of sacrificial rites. It is not the external act of renunciation but the internal change that makes a yogin.

6.2: What they call as sannyāsa, you know that as yoga, O Pandava. No one can become a yogin without renouncing (selfish) desire.

Samkalpa: purpose, notion, desire, definite intention

Sannyāsa and yoga: The former is renunciation and the latter is mental discipline. Jnāna yoga is to realize the Brahman is supreme and the body can never become identical with the pristine individual soul.

6.3: Desirous of advancing in karma yoga, action is the means for a sage. When he attains to such yoga, tranquillity is the means.

According to Ramanuja, when a karma yogi has attained to the pinnacle of karma yoga, he has obtained the vision of self, tranquillity and a virtual moksa during his life on this earth. This tranquillity will help him achieve real moksa upon release of his soul from the body. Ramanuja believes that “virtual” is not real and Jivanmukti (virtual moksa) is only a qualifier or a certificate of supreme satisfaction for Videha mukti ( Videha = bodiless, an ultimate real moksa after death). The idea is that a soul does not enjoy the privileges of moksa or liberation until death comes and the soul goes home. Some other sects believe that a yogi can enjoy the real moksa while living. Caveat: Jivanmukta is not exempt from the miseries of the phenomenal world until he dies, though he attained jivanmukti. The soul is released, but the body is not.

6.4: When one does not have any attachment to sense objects and actions and has renounced all purposes and desires (sarva sankalpa sannyasi), he is called Yogarudha.

Yogarudha: he who ascended to yoga (accomplished yogi)

As mentioned below, a yogin has to climb eight arduous steps in full faith and accomplishment to reach the top. A true renunciate, Sanyāsin, is the one who relinquishes action without expectation of fruits of such an action; desirelessness (vairāgya) is one of the cardinal signs of a yogi. There are eight angas or qualities:

  1. Yama = suppression, restraint, self-control, Don’ts. There are five restraints according to Patanjali. Practice (1) nonviolence (ahimsa), (2) not lying: truth (satya), (3) nonstealing (asteya), (4) sexual abstinence (brahmacharya), and (5) absence of acquisition (aparigraha). The following ones are found in Linga purana, (6) indifference to wants (aniiha), (7) purity (sauca), (8) satisfaction (Tushti), (9) penance (tapas), (10) saying prayers in a whisper (japa). Some of these entities come under Dos.
  2. Niyama = checking, controlling, Dos. Patanjali lists the following observances. Sauca, Santosha (contentment), tapas, svaadyaaya, isvarapranidhana (surrender to God).

The observances are ten in all according to Linga Purana. (1) Purity (sauca), (2) sacrifice (ijyaa), (3) penance (tapas), (4) giving (daana), (5) recitation of Vedas (svaadyaaya), (6) restraint of sexual desires (upasthanigraha), (7) pious observance (vrata), (8) fasting (upavas), (9) silence (mauna), and (10) snaana (bathing [in sacred waters]). – (Linga Purana, 7.29-31)

A+steya = absence of theft. Staayu = a thief.

A+parigraha = absence of acquisition.

Svaadyaaya = (Sva+adhyaya) = self + inquiry = reading sacred books.

isvara-pranidhana = Isvara+Pranidhaana = God + seeking access = surrender to God.

  1. Āsana: body positions and postures
  2. Prānayama: breath Control
  3. Pratyahara: no contact between senses and objects of senses. This should come natural to him
  4. Dharana: concentration and focus of mind on an object or idea
  5. Dyana: meditation
  6. Samādhi: convergence, one-pointedness, Subject and object (Yogi) unity

Before a yogi can attain samādhi, he should meet the above requirements: As you see, this is demanding. Once somebody has gone through the angas, and jnāna yoga, he is already a renouncer. In another commentary, read how the Alvars developed their system of bhakti yoga, Saranāgati and Prapatti (self-surrender to God, resignation to God).

 Guru Nanak of Sikhism was distressed by the Hindu caste hierarchy and ivory tower aloofness and isolation, celibacy, renunciation of the family and the world and retirement to the forest and other practices of Sannyasins and Yogis for Moksa or spiritual liberation. He was not too thrilled with Hindu rituals and superstitious practices. He was married with two sons. He believed in people and uplifting them both spiritually and materially. As a sign of his universality, he chose a Muslim minstrel to render his poetry into song and music. He took what he thought was the best in Hinduism (he was born a Hindu), Islam, and Buddhism and this was further enhanced by divine revelation on the banks of a river. Against the background of consuming fire of Hindu polytheism, witnessing excesses of Mughal kings, ritual practices of Brahmanas, and forced conversion of Hindus to Islam, Guru Nanak received a divine call and declared, "There is no Hindu, there is no Muslim, there is one God and one people."

 Please read commentary on Verse 6.1 about Hindu view of false ascetics, whom Guru Nanak condemned with justification.

6.5: He should pull (lift) himself up by his own self and not let himself sink, for the Self is the friend of the self and the Self can be the enemy of the self.

Avasad: to sink (as into water), faint

Paramatman or Atman is all-pervading and is separate from the jivātman, which is the individual self or atman. Atman (Soul) is Brahman and therefore is not subject to degradation. Prakriti can never stain Atman, but on the other hand, prakriti, desire, attachment, and karma can burden the individual self. In the ocean of samsāra, that burden on the self will drown the self; the Higher Self can be a friend to the individual lower self at this moment, by detaching the lower self from the burdens. If man drowns the individual self in desires, and does not seek the help of the Higher Self and allow the rescue to take place, the lower self drowns in the ocean of Samsāra.

6.6 For one who has conquered his very self by the self, his self is the friend of the self. For one who has not conquered his self, his very self exhibits hostility like an enemy.

If one conquers the lower mind, the Higher Self is realizable.

There are three selfhoods: Primary, secondary, and illusory. Primary Self (Principal Self) is the unconditioned non-dual Entity, the principal source of Bliss; the secondary self is the individual self; illusory self is identification of the self with the body. The allegory used to define (the relationship between) the Principal or Primary Self and the secondary self is the relationship between father and son.

6.7: He, who maintains tranquillity, who conquered his lower self, and who is serene in heat and cold, pleasure and pain, honor and dishonor, unites with (communes) the Supreme Atman.

  जितात्मनः प्रशान्तस्य परमात्मा समाहितः । शीतोष्णसुखदुःखेषु तथा मानापमानयोः ॥६- ७॥ jitātmanaḥ praśāntasya paramātmā samāhitaḥ
śītoṣṇasukhaduḥkheṣu tathā mānāpamānayoḥ 6.7
jita-ātmanaḥ1 praśāntasya2 parama-ātmā3 samāhitaḥ4
śīta5 uṣṇa6 sukha7 duḥkheṣu8 tathā9 māna10 apamānayoḥ11 6.7   [For] jita-ātmanaḥ1 = one who has conquered his body, mind and senses; praśāntasya2 = one who maintains tranquility; parama-ātmā3 = [in him] the Supreme Soul; samāhitaḥ4 = becomes manifest. śīta5 uṣṇa6 sukha7 duḥkheṣu8 = [He should remain balanced in] cold, heat, happiness and sorrow; tathā9 = also; māna10 apamānayoḥ11 = in honor and dishonor. 6.7
6.7: He, who maintains tranquility, who conquered his lower self, and who is serene in heat and cold, pleasure and pain, honor and dishonor, unites with (communes) the Supreme Atman.

Tranquility is absence of desire, longing, hatred, anxiety, and grief, and presence of happiness; thus, it is the translucent and placid waters of consciousness. Once a sannyāsin conquers his mind and stands steady in tranquility, the dualities have no effect.

According to Ramanuja, the accomplished individual soul is comparable to Paramatma (the Great Self or Supreme Soul). R argues in this manner: That the jivātman has improved its spiritual stature in comparison to its earlier stage of attainment is only an earthly accomplishment, which never confers equal status to jiva with the exalted Real Parmatman that is Brahman. Sankara’s views are different: An accomplished individual soul divested of all its impurities is no different from Brahman. It eventually becomes one with One (Paramatman). Here we get a good dose of both Advaita and Visistadvaita, two different interpretations of the same verse: The interpretation is in the mind of the reader. If you take it as you read it, it appears on the surface that the portrayal runs more natural in the flow of words to support the advaita or monistic philosophy. But it could be deceptive. I am sure that this verse has undergone text torturing in many minds. R is of the firm view there is only One Supreme Soul or Being and that an accomplished yogi can only be a shadow.

Advaitam (non-duality), Dvaidam, Vishistadvaidam (qualified non-dualism). Advaitam of Sankara is Oneness of God, man (beings) and matter. Dvaidam is duality. God is the First Principle; man (beings, matter) is the second principle; there is distinction between two beings of the same species. Vishistadvaitam, the Vedantic doctrine, states that man (Chit) is separate and different from the Supreme Controller (Isvara) and yet ultimately unites with the Supreme Principle upon attaining Moksa. This union is nearness of pure soul to Narayana; in marital union, there are still two people; a labor union still has individual members. Man is the chip off the Old Block. The chip splinters off just like the spark comes off the crackling fire. The Old Block (Isvara) is a Living Entity and the chip cannot fit in upon its return; it remains separate. The spark cannot rejoin the fire in its original form. Acit is the world of matter and the insentient. The chief elements in Vishistadvaidam are Isvara, Chit and Achit. When the souls (Chit, the sentient souls) rejoin Isvara, they do not fuse with Isvara (as water merges with water); they remain close to Isvara enjoying his company. The difference between Isvara and the Chit elements are that Isvara can create, maintain, and destroy, while the chit elements close to Isvara do not possess those exclusive qualities. Isvara is a mass of Bliss and always a Donor of Bliss; the recipient is always the individual soul or Chit. The mother nurses the baby and the baby can never nurse the mother.

Some quote the milk and butter analogy from the scriptures. Milk is Advaitam; milk and butter are Dvaidam. Butter came from milk; re-suspension of ball of butter in milk does not result in merger; the butter floats: that is Vishistadvaidam.

6.8: The yogi, whose soul is changeless and satisfied with knowledge and wisdom (Jnāna and Vijnāna), who has controlled his sense organs, and to whom lump of earth, stone and gold are the same, is well integrated.

Jnāna and Vijnāna: (See Supplement for details.) Jnāna is scriptural knowledge, while Vijnāna is realized knowledge. This realized knowledge is in the realm beyond reason and is the world of yogi. It is a systemic and personal spiritual experience of the presence of God, as in kaivalya and samādhi. To such yogi, clod, stone, and gold are the same. He is not in the least perturbed by worldly activities, has seen, and experienced the light of wisdom emanating from Brahman. To paraphrase Ramakrishna Paramahamsa, Jnāna is knowing that God exists and Vijnāna is playing, talking with, and experiencing God in person.

 Ramakrishnana Paramahamsa, Feb/18/1836 to Aug/16/1886, says the following about gold and woman, Quote 188, Sayings of Sri Ramakrishna. Men are of two classes--men in name only (Manush) and the awakened men (Man-hush). Those who thirst after God alone belong to the latter class.; those who are mad after 'woman and gold' are all ordinary men-- men in name only.

6.9: He, who regards the well-wishers, the friends, the enemies, the indifferent, the neutral and the impartial, the envious and the detestable, the relatives, the saints (pious), as well as the sinners, with equal mind (terms), excels.

The Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda Volume 6 [ Page : 115 ] NOTES TAKEN DOWN IN MADRAS, 1892-93. Nowhere is it said in the Vedas that man is born a sinner. To say so is a great libel on human nature.

सुहृन्मित्रार्युदासीनमध्यस्थद्वेष्यबन्धुषु ।

साधुष्वपि च पापेषु समबुद्धिर्विशिष्यते ॥६- ९॥

suhṛnmitrāryudāsīnamadhyasthadveṣyabandhuṣu
sādhuṣv api ca pāpeṣu samabuddhir viśiṣyate 6.9

suhṛt1 mitra2 ari3 udāsīna4 madhyastha5 dveṣya6 bandhuṣu7 = selfless friend1, cognate friend2, enemy3, a neutral person4, an arbiter5, the detested6, the relatives7; sādhuṣu1 api2 ca3 pāpeṣu4 sama-buddhiḥ5 viśiṣyate6 = to the saints1, even2 and3, the sinners4, with equal mind5, excels6.

suhṛt1 = a friend whose help is devoid of ulterior motive. example: a mother.

mitra2 = A cognate friend with affection. Example: your favorite cousin.

ari3 = enemy or foe is a person who does egregious causeless harm or evil

udāsīna4 = a neutral indifferent person between two antagonists, more of a spectator than a participant.

madhyastha5 = an arbiter or mediator between two opponents bringing amicability to both.

dveṣya6 = the detested, the hated by the people: the punk, the misfit, the antisocial elements, the sociopath.

bandhu = the relatives.

sādhu = a gentle harmless, virtuous person.

The realized yogi is impervious to the turbulence in this world. The list in Verse 9 covers all human beings without any exception. Yogi gives equal weight, respect and treatment to all human beings, including other living entities. The white light emerges from fusing of spectral colors and no distinction is made between the highborn and the lowborn; among the white, the black, and the brown; or between man and animals. Chapter Five, Verse 18: A learned humble Brahmin, a cow, an elephant, a dog, and even a dog-eater are seen with an equal eye by a punditah (sage). Here the understanding is that a dog-eater is below the Varna system and as instances bear out, a dog-eater may be a chandala. a person born of a Brahmin mother and a Sudra father. To go further, Lord Krishna completely repudiates the narrow meaning of four castes by stating in Gita Chapter 18, Verse 41 that qualities make a man: The brahmins, Ksatriyas, Vaisyas and Sudras, O Parantapa, are separated by the gunas (Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas) born of their own nature. As the saying goes, “one person, one vote,” the same is true in, “one person, one soul.” We can extend this concept to all living beings by saying, “one being, one soul.” Here we see the genius and the generosity of Lord Krishna. He tells that all living beings are equal in His eyes, because a fragment of His Atman or Soul resides in each, person or animal. If man and animal share the same Soul, what right do we have to injure another soul?

6.10: A yogi, by controlling his mind, senses and desires; by desisting from accumulating earthly possessions; and by remaining alone by himself, should constantly concentrate his mind [on Atman = Supreme Self].

Man is what he thinks. There are two kinds of minds: pure and impure. Desire makes the difference between the pure and the impure mind. When there is no fuel, the fire dies. When desire vanishes, mind becomes pure. When desire leaves, thought ceases. The lower self and the mind become placid like the placid waters of a lake. Once the lower self is placid, one abides in the higher Self; once the mind stands steady in Brahman, no longer the yogi is under the sway of the sense objects. He is released and free; the mind is absorbed, and “annihilated,” when it comes to rest in the Self. No words can express this fusion. One has to be in it to know it. Silence is answer, and silence is bliss. When the “self” merges with the Self, it is like water mixing with water, butter with butter, fire with fire, and air with air. It is Oneness; it is stillness. Mind here is a friend indeed; mind with attachment to sense objects, is foe indeed.

No one concentrates on Atman. Garuda Purana (11.12.19) says no one is obsessed with Atman, the inner controller in the spiritual heart; while in (dawn of) infancy he clings to his mother; in (noon of) adulthood he dotes on his wife; in dusk of life, he is obsessed with his sons and grandsons.

Jesus Christ says about earthly possessions (of Yogi in Indian context): Bible NIV Luke 12:33Sell your possessions and give to the poor. Provide purses for yourselves that will not wear out, a treasure in heaven that will not be exhausted, where no thief comes near and no moth destroys. Luke 12:33 Sell that ye have, and give alms; provide yourselves bags which wax not old, a treasure in the heavens that faileth not, where no thief approacheth, neither moth corrupteth.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Paul Brunton in his book 'A Search in Secret India' Skeptics galore from the West, opposing JC's Values In this secluded cave, in this unending heat, surrounded by absorbent minds, it is easy to weave grandiose schemes of world reformation, to possess oneself of extravagant religious ideas. But out in the world of reality, amid the hard life of materialistic cities, these things would soon dissipate like mists before the dawning sun.

6.11: In a clean place, with a firm seat neither too high nor too low covered with Kusa grass, deerskin and a soft cloth layer upon layer (one on top of another in that order, cloth on the top, deerskin in the middle, Kusa grass in the bottom) (continued)

Kusa grass: Desmostachya bipinnata. Also known as Darba. It is the most sacred of all grasses, regarded as god-born and the FIRST PLANT created. It is used on the altar without the roots, spread in the sacrificial site and applied on the seat of the gods. Three goddesses, Sarasvati, Ila, and Bharati are invoked and implored to protect the grass, the sacred, pure and flawless refuge of the gods. Because of its supernatural qualities, it is incinerated at the conclusion of ceremonies; otherwise misfortune and harm will fall on those coming into contact with the ritually used grass. Woman is considered impure below the navel and can purify herself ritually by having Kusa grass on her clothes. It extirpates anger in the wearer and the hatred in the heart of the hater; it explodes the heads of the enemies. When Garuda spilt some Amrta (Ambrosia) on a patch of Kusa grass, snakes licked on it; the grass being sharp as a razor, split the tongue causing them to have forked tongue. In Vishnu Purana, King of Nisada Vena claimed that he being the (self-appointed) Lord of the Sacrifice had an exclusive right to the oblations. (Vishnu is the Lord of Sacrifice.) For this asinine claim, the Vaishnava Munis whipped and beat him to death with razor-sharp consecrated Kusa grass. Knotted and tied sheaths of Kusa grass represent deities and manes. The terminal ends of grass are sacred to the gods. Apart from being a weapon against Vena, the grass upon being stroked against the side of the body prevents evil influences. Lord Rama's twin sons are named Kusa and Lava.

6.12: with the mind one-pointed, controlling the mind, the senses, and the activities, sitting on the seat, he should practice yoga for self-purification.

6.13: Holding the body, the neck and the head straight and still, looking at the tip of his nose, but not looking all around, (continued)

6.14: With serene mind, fearless, firmly resolved in vow of celibacy, and with subdued mind, the yogi should sit concentrating his mind upon Me and holding only Me as the Supreme goal.

One of the angas (steps or limbs) is Yama meaning abstinence or restraint This is a preparatory practice before initiation into Sannyāsa. See Chapter six Verse four commentaries for details on Anga. Coming to Bramacharya, Swami Vivekananda observes that sex leads to waste of seeds, weakness of the body, and excessive worry lines on the face, loss of glint in the eyes, deafness, and dull brain. But a celibate has a good body, alert keen brain, divine looks, and disposition. A Sannyāsi's life is a reversal to his pristine childhood, when everything was simple, celibate, and godlike. From that childlike state, let him go to realize Brahman. Continence is energy conserved is energy saved. Perfect sexual abstinence means purity and chastity in thought, word, and deed. True love is one-pointed and goes to the Lord. In a sannyāsi, it goes to Brahman. If one can control this basic human emotion and urge, one can become a sannyāsi. Vivekananda says that twelve years of practice of celibacy has sharpened his intellect, improved his memory, and thought flow at lectures. It can happen to anybody. Total abstinence and control of sex life are two different practices: a householder who controls or limits his sex life is a bramacharin; but an ascetic should be a bramacharin in thought, word, and deed; higher standards apply to the ascetic. Sex is distracting and so some ascetics and bramacharins go to the extent of avoiding even a visual contact with the opposite sex. To them, visual contact is thought-provoking and that is bad for a sannyāsi. Many of Ramanuja's disciples were married men, who most likely practiced sexual control or moderation and not celibacy while engaged in bhakti yoga. Then again, bhakti to God is so overwhelming that any remnants of sexual urge and practice come to naught, though they stay married as it was the case with Gandhi. When it comes to True Love, only God qualifies to receive it. .

            Prasna Upanisad (question 1.13) says that chastity in brahmacharya is continence and not abstinence.

6.15: Having controlled his mind, and concentrating his mind constantly, the Yogi attains peace, which abides in Me and which ends in Supreme Bliss.

As everybody knows, the word “nirvana” is common to both Hinduism and Buddhism. Buddhist literature contains more reference to it than Hindu does. It means the flames of desire have died down; this extinguishment with attainment of knowledge, removal of māyā and ignorance, and frying the karmic seeds lead to Nirvana in Buddhism and to moksa in Hinduism. There is a difference: Liberation in Hinduism connotes attainment of Brahman, but in Buddhism, it means attainment of knowledge. Tantra texts mention that the act of assuming a Lotus posture and looking at the tip of the nose is not Yoga; identification of jivatma with Paramatma is Yoga.

6.16: Yoga is not for him, who either eats too much, or eats too little. It is not for him, who either sleeps too much or stays awake too long, O Arjuna.

Moderation in everything is the cornerstone of not only physical, but also of mental and spiritual health.

There is a story about Buddha. When he ventured out of his palace, he saw the ravages of old age and sickness, the inevitability of death, and the beauty, tranqility, and peace in the face of an ascetic. He decided that he wanted to be an ascetic and left his adorable wife Yosodhara and son Rahula. He retired to the forest, practiced austerities, learned abstruse doctrines, and starved himself to skin and bones. Mortification of the flesh and abstruse doctrines did not help him attain to knowledge; he went out of the woods, and slowly recovered his health, meditated under the Bodhi tree; and at crack of dawn out of the blue, the knowledge and realization dawned on him. Remember that revelation of spiritual and intuitive knowledge comes in sudden paroxysmal fashion, a sense of immediacy. In Christianity also, the sense of immediacy in the descent of illumination and arrival of Jesus Christ is mentioned: Christ comes when you are not looking for him. Brhad-aranyaka Upanisad 2.3.6: Enlightenment or Truth comes like a sudden flash of lightning, flame of fire, or a white lotus. In sculptures, The Buddha, attaining enlightenment, appears seated under the fig tree in Gaya in Yogic position with his left hand palm facing up in the midline and the pronated right hand pointing to the earth (not in the picture) as the witness of The Buddha gaining victory over Mara, the god of desire.

Wood carvings credit: Exoticindia.com. From left to right: 1. Child Buddha. 2. Emaciated Buddha. 3. Buddha. 4. His First five disciples.

Note: Buddha stands on double lotus, one upright and the other inverted.

The painting: Lord Buddha from a Sarnath temple painting. Painting shows Buddha undisturbed by the evils and pleasures of life. Credit: www.Kamat.com

Man and animal are the same when it comes to sleep, fear, sex, and food. What makes man better than an animal? Man with spiritual knowledge is man; others are animals (Garuda Purana, II.49.53).

6.17: Yoga, the destroyer of sorrows, is attainable to a man who is moderate in eating, recreation, sleep, and wakefulness, and restrained in action.

 Moderation in eating has been quantified according to Yajnavalkya in a 24-hour period: 32 mouthfuls for a householder, 16 for a forest recluse (Vanaprasthya), and 8 for a muni/sage. Muni = he who observes silence or mauna. Please go to comment on BG 2.54

This is what Vasistha says about food consumption. Verse 6.20: A sage's meal is 8 mouthfuls, a forest hermit's 16, a householder's 22, and a student's an unlimited quantity. Translation from Sanskrit by Patrick Olivelle, Dharmasutras, page 267.

6.18: When the controlled mind abides in the Self alone, the Yogi free from desires and all objects is called perfected in Yoga at that time.

When the Self is the center of the mind and all the desires die down, there is stillness of the mind. The surface is calm and reflective of the light emanating from the Self.

6.19: As a lamp’s flame does not flicker in a windless place, so goes the simile that a yogi of subdued mind practices steadfast yogam (meditation) on the Self.

There are no thoughts wafting in and out; the wind has died down; the thoughts have died down; there is that little steady flame of the self; and there is oneness, stillness, absolute freedom, and splendid isolation. (Here isolation means the self is free [isolated] from all the impurities of the material world.) Purusa breaks away from the vanishing Prakriti. As the flickerless flame of the “self” approaches the effulgence of the Self, the latter consumes and annihilates the former. That is Being, Consciousness and Bliss (SatChitAnanda). (Purusa: Spirit; Prakriti: matter.)

6.20: When the mind is at rest and under restraint from the practice of yoga, he enjoys the Self by seeing the Self through the self.

6.21: When he knows that the Supreme happiness, experienced by the intelligence, is beyond the grasp of the senses, the yogi, standing firm, never swerves from the Truth.

6.22: By gaining that, he considers there is no more to gain; thus standing firm, even a great sorrow does not move him. [he is never moved by any great sorrow].

6.23: You must know, in perspective of yoga, this disjunction (viyoga) of union with pain. This yoga should be practiced with determination and unwearied mind. (Determination and unwearied mind must underlie practice of this yoga.)

 (Vi+yoga: dis+junction, dis+union, and dis+connection)

In this phenomenal word, this union with pain and pleasure is the stuff of samsāra and jivātma’s lot. Disunion from all union with pain and the dualities of this phenomenal world is yoga, which is union with the Brahman, pure Bliss. Apart from this disunion, yoga needs a good dose of determination and a steady mind (a flickerless flame). Death (death is a prelude to rebirth) does not haunt the soul’s body anymore; darkness dissipates; light comes in; and immortality of soul is a reality now. Unreality peels off from Reality; the veil falls; and the Truth shines. The untruth totters out and the Truth prevails; the veiling glitter (or gold), which is mind stuff, melts revealing the Truth.

The union with Brahman needs dedication, determination, strength, and focus; it is comparable to the arduous effort of a mountain climber on the sides of the steep canyon. Every step ascended, every grip held firm, every drop of sweat shed, every heartbeat missed, every ounce of courage mustered, every glance cast upwards, forgetting every pain suffered, every breath taken, every peril avoided dexterously, every thought focused on the goal, every faith held firm and every move made deliberately help the climber see the sun, when he peeks over the edge of the mountaintop. That is Bliss. That is Sat-chit-ananda or Being, awareness and bliss.

6.24 - 25: Giving up all desires born of mental will and limiting by the mind all senses from all sides, one should withdraw slowly (little by little) by intelligence and firm conviction (from objects). With his mind steady on atman, one should not think of anything else

Viniyamya: to be limited

6.25: One should withdraw slowly (little by little) by intelligence and firm conviction (from objects). With his mind steady on atman, one should not think of anything else

Sanaih, sanaih: slowly, slowly

6.26: In whatever direction the unsteady fickle mind goes, one should hold this mind back and bring it under the control of the Self (Atman).

Niyam: hold back. Vasam: authority, control, dominion

The mind is fuzzy and woozy, wild and woolly, agitated and avaricious, and narrow and shallow. Mundane thoughts come easy. Pleasure is its anchor. The mind knows not what it thinks it knows. It blinks and flickers. Thoughts rush in and thoughts rush out; they are erotic and erratic. The thoughts are light and fluffy one time, and at another slap like waves. There is no end to this onslaught. The mind wanders near and far like the wings on the wind. Mind jumps between unrelated thoughts. What a mind, what a bind!

Lord Krishna says that one should bring the mind under the control of the Self or Atman. It is worthwhile to consider this phrase: Life, Liberty, and Pursuit of Happiness. Upanisads advance a sentiment more ancient, more original, more comprehensive, and more fundamental in its meaning and import. Their phrase is Atman, Moksa, and Bliss. Soul-life is Atman; Liberty is moksa; and Pursuit of happiness is Satchitananda or simply Bliss. Atman has to be in the driver's seat to reach moksa and bliss. Hindus consider this earthly life as passage of the soul through many bodies (plant, animal, and man) before liberation or moksa becomes a reality. How it is that Jefferson used a similar and dilute and yet powerful variant of the phrase in the Upanisads, which have been promoting them for millenniums? I doubt that he read Upanisads. What was he thinking when he wrote that phrase? Bliss is an advanced form of happiness saturated with spirit. Is it a life of health, wealth, and spirit? Is that liberty physical, spiritual, or both? Does that pursuit of happiness lead to true Bliss (Sat, Chit and Ananda or Being, Consciousness and Bliss)? Are they mere words? Are they mere thoughts? It could not have been mere words; it appears that Jefferson and the signers of The Declaration of Independence had an idea about Atman, Moksa, and Bliss, not exactly the way Upanishads mention. In the context of belief in rebirth, could it be possible that Jefferson was a Rishi in his past life and a sage in later life?

The lower thoughts rest on animal needs and come easy; higher thoughts are hard to come by. Mundane thoughts come easy on good days; only on bad days and during hard times, spiritual thoughts come fleetingly. Why is that so? Are hard times a reminder that we think of God and the Self? Is it confused and confounded? Has it lost its anchor in the self? Can you tie it down? Can you curb it? Can you train it? Can you corral this wandering mind? Practice until you get it right (under the control of the Self). Self is light, Self is luminous, Self is Bliss, and Self is Reality. Everything else is mere māyā (illusion).

6.27: Supreme happiness comes to yogi, whose mind is tranquil, who is free from sin or stain, whose passions (Rajas) are pacific, and who is one with Brahman.

Peace be upon the Yogin, who in purity knows that karma without fruits is salvation. Peace be upon the Yogin, who works for the sake of Brahman. Peace be upon the Yogin, who sees Brahman in all living beings. Peace be upon the Yogin, who knows that all actions done as sacrifice are devoid of gunas (transcend Sattva, Rajas, Tamas) and therefore are free from sin, stain and karma. Peace be upon the Yogin, who knows karma is bondage. Peace be upon the Yogin, who knows that Prakriti blocks his vision of the Self. Peace be upon the Yogin, who knows that ignorance and māyā are an obstacle in attaining Brahman. Peace be upon the Yogin who knows that all senses subside when ego (the progenitor of senses) dies. Peace be upon the Yogin who knows that karma and māyā die when ego dies. Peace be upon the Yogin who knows, not to tread on the triple fire of lust, greed, and desire. Peace be upon the Yogin, who knows that the two broken oars are greed and envy on a boat in the ocean of Samsāra. Peace be upon Yogin, who considers that all souls are equal. Peace be upon the Yogin, who sacrifices his work for animals, man, and God. Peace be upon the Yogin, who knows that the souls and the material world belong to Him. Peace be upon the Yogin, whose mind is on moksa and Brahman. Peace be upon the Yogin, who knows that attaining Brahman or merging with Brahman is the ultimate Bliss. Peace be upon the Yogin, who ascended all the eight steps of angas. Peace be upon the Yogin, who overcame his ahankāra. Peace be upon the Yogin, who overcame the manas and the indriyas. Peace be upon the Yogin, whose buddhi is intuitive intelligence. Peace be upon the Yogin, who is in peace with his self, abides in Brahman, and sees Brahman in all. Peace be upon Yogin, whose light in the heart no eye can see. Peace be upon the Yogin whose music no ear can hear. Peace be upon the Yogin who is carried like a kitten by Grace Divine. Peace be upon the Yogin who clings like a monkey to the Grace Divine. Peace be upon the Yogin who knows not the difference between the subject (Brahman) and the object (Yogi). Peace be upon the Yogin, who attains to kaivalya, samādhi, and Bliss.

6.28: The stainless Yogi by constantly concentrating his mind easily experiences infinite bliss of contact with Brahman.

Contact with Brahman by yoga brings peace, tranquillity, bliss, stillness, and oneness with Brahman. A true yogi endowed with pratibhā, gets flashes of intuitional and translucent thoughts, which are rare in ordinary men. That yogic wisdom is ārsa-jnāna (the wisdom of Rishis). It is not analytical logic. It is beyond discourse. The divine wisdom, into which the seers get to peak and obtain nuggets of wisdom, is eternal and inexhaustible and not apprehended by the ordinary human mind; it is intuitional and beyond reason and logic. We are familiar with words like “Pro-gnosis and Dia-gnosis.” The gnosis of the yogi is wisdom that does not flow in a linear logical sequential fashion over a long period of analysis. It is intuitive, paroxysmal and of sudden onset in its presentation and revelation. It comes unannounced to the yogi. After all, the mind and buddhi are products of prakriti and therefore by themselves are insentient and are not capable of reaching realms beyond reason unless they get to place themselves in proximity to the self-effulgent Self. With that proximity to the Self, the human mind and buddhi come to acquire the light of wisdom from the Self. Remember the tale of two birds. The lower bird on the tree branch nudges close to the Higher bird and merges with it in the high noon of realization. Until its merger, the lower bird, the jivātman, was a mere shadow, and at the high noon of realization, the shadow has gone forever. The shadow of the soul (or the faint light of the soul) disappears in the effulgence of the Greater Soul.

The Greater or the Higher Self is always a subject and never an object; the individual self, the atman or the yogi is the object. This is the instance where an object has to get close to the subject to get a glimpse of the subject. The subject is like a book of knowledge with a zillion pages. To copy one page from the book of knowledge, the yogi needs the intermediation of a copying machine, a paper, and a flash of light. The accomplished yogi's mind is that paper capturing the image from the book of eternal knowledge with the “Self” providing that flash of light. And the result is Ārsa-jnāna– the wisdom of Rishi. Elsewhere, read on kaivalya, and samādhi

6.29: One whose self is in union with yoga and who has visions of the same divinity everywhere sees his own Self exist in all beings and all beings [from Brahma to a blade of grass] exist in his Self.

Then, he (Yājñavalkya) said- 'Verily, not for the sake of the husband is the husband dear but for the sake of the Self is the husband dear.
IV. 5 .7 Bṛhad-āraṇyaka Upaniṣad page 283. October 15, 2013
Verily, not for the sake of the wife is the wife dear but for the sake of the Self is the wife dear. Verily, not for the sake of the sons are the sons dear but for the sake of the Self are the sons dear Verily, not for the sake of wealth is wealth dear but for the sake of the Self is wealth dear. Verily, not for the sake of the cattle are the cattle dear but for the sake of the Self are the cattle dear. Verily, not for the sake of the Brāhmaṇa is the Brāhmaṇa dear but for the sake of the Self is the Brāhmaṇa dear. Verily, not for the sake of the Kṣatriya is the Kṣatriya dear but for the sake of the Self is the Kṣatriya dear. Verily, not for the sake of the worlds are the worlds dear but for the sake of the Self are the worlds dear. Verily, not for the sake of the gods are the gods dear but for the sake of the Self are the gods dear. Verily, not for the sake of the Vedas are the Vedas dear but for the sake of the Self are the Vedas dear. Verily not for the sake of the beings are the beings dear but for the sake of the Self are the beings dear. Verily, not for the sake of all is all dear but for the sake of the Self is all dear. Verily, the Self, Maitreyī, is to be seen, to be heard, to be reflected on, to be meditated upon; when, verily, the Self is seen, heard, reflected on and known, then all this is known. 7. Brāhmaṇahood deserts him who knows Brāhmaṇahood in anything else than the Self. Kṣatriyahood deserts him who knows Kṣatriyahood in anything else than the Self. The worlds desert him who knows the worlds in anything else than the Self. The gods desert him who knows the gods in anything else than the Self. The Vedas desert him who knows the Vedas in anything else than the Self. The beings desert him who knows the beings in anything else than the Self. All deserts him who knows all in anything else than the Self. This Brahmanahood, 284 The Principal Upaniṣads IV. 5 12. this Kṣatriyahood, and these worlds, these gods, these Vedas, all these beings, this all are the Self.  Self = Brahman, Bhagavan, Universal Consciousness, the Inner Abiding God.

The Yogi sees the Lord in all beings, all beings in the Lord and therefore regards all beings equally. This is the precept behind ahimsa or nonviolence.

6.30: He who sees Me in all things and who sees all things in Me,Iam not lost from his [vision]and he is not lost to Me.

The realized yogi sees the Lord in all beings and in all things (Cit and Acit, sentient and insentient). The individual souls are the sparks from the fire. Ramanuja's Brahman is comparable to pomegranate fruit with seeds as the individual souls; Paramatma envelops and controls all, since He is all-pervasive. The Supreme Soul is Atman and the whole universe of individual souls and matter are Atman's body; in the same sense, the individual body is the body of the individual soul. Atman is the controller and owner of all individual souls and the material world. The Supreme Soul (Atman) and the individual souls are identical in substance, but not in their qualities: Supreme soul is the Supreme controller, all-pervasive and blissful; the individual soul is only a spark, an anu, or a monad. The Supreme soul and the individual soul are magnetic to each other, but ignorance and karma are impediments for their closeness. Saranāgati (self-surrender), Prapatti (resignation), and Bhakti (devotion) by the individual, and God's compassion, love and grace for the devotee get the individual soul in closeness to God. This magnetic resonance between God and men, in which the individual souls do the dance of symmetry around God, is the goal and Bliss. The individual souls found their fountainhead.

Brahman is compared to Pomegranate fruit. The seeds contained in the red, fleshy and juicy arils are the individual souls. Brahman and the entire fruit is Samasthi or the Undivided Whole. The seeded aril is Vyasthi or the manifest individual (soul).

6.31: The Yogin, established in unity, worships Me abiding in all beings; that yogi, whatever his condition may be and however much he is active, exists in Me.

 I exist in all beings: He is Antaryamin, the Inner Guide. He resides in animate and inanimate objects. Vaishnavites love to tell the story of Man-Lion Narasimha emerging from a pillar substantiating the fact that Bhagavan is AntaryaAmin, Antarvarti, AntarAtman and Paramatman (Inner Guide, Inner Dweller, Inner Self, and Supreme Atman). One classical example of his residence in objects is that he appeared from out of a pillar to support and save his devotee Prahalada and destroy his cruel father. He is the Dweller in an object and also in a being. He is neither an animal, nor a human; He is THAT or IT. He is half animal and half human; therefore He is Narasimha (Man-Lion-Divine Chimera) that emerged from a pillar. This illustrates He is all-pervasive.

 You don't have to believe the story. Let me bring to your attention many instances of miraculous survival of victims of earthquake in air pockets created by falling debris and subsequent rescue. Was that divine intervention or pure luck? Ask the victim and find the answer.

 Let me give you an example to illustrate Antaryamin. When you go to a Hall of Frames, you see just the frames from afar and not the portraits. When you go close to a frame, you don't see the frame but the portrait that comes alive before your eyes. In like manner, when you see matter, you don't see Him; when you see Him, you do not see matter.

 Since He exists (Antaryamin) in all beings and matter (Cit and Acit), he is addressed as IT, THAT. It is not in any way derogatory to address Him such.

 Yogis have no problem worshipping Paramatman in His Nirguna Brahman state. Others need an object, idol or symbol for worship. Many hurricanes hit our coastal states, too many to remember or recall. So what do we do? We anthropomorphize the hurricanes, given them names (Hurricane Katrina) and recall their wayward propensities. Yes, they have eyes, long limbs, and destructive swirl.

God appears in four ways: Daivam, Mānusham, Ārsham, Svayam Viyaktam.

 Daivam: This is the place where Devas worshipped Paramatman and therefore it became a place of worship.

 Mānusham: People establish and consecrate images in a new temple.

 Ārsham: This is where Paramatman appeared before Rishis and thereby they became places of worship.

 Svayam Viyaktam: = Self manifestation: Paramatman appeared in certain places on His own will and therefore they became places of worship.

6.32: O Arjuna; the Yogi who sees with equality all beings in the likeness of self (himself) and regards happiness and sorrow as his own [that Yogi] is considered supreme.

Ātma-aupamayena: in the likeness of self

All souls are similar, but not the same, because of the vitiating influence of Prakriti. All individual selves are of the same expansive knowledge in their intrinsic pristine nature. Because of overlay of prakriti (matter, gunas, indriyas and kosas), they experience the dualities of happiness and sorrow, which are no different from those of a yogi. The yogi’s self resonates with all other selves but it does not mean the yogi experiences other people's pleasure and pain. It means that he considers that his self and selves of others are equal in that they work in the same milieu of prakriti and duality and that the self of each one is immune from the pleasure and pain of this material body. The body is susceptible to pleasure and pain but the self is immune to such dualities of experience. It is an oxymoron to brand a soul as aching soul, though the term is in common usage. The yogi does not identify with the body of the other person but the self of that person in question. The pain and pleasure come from matter and not from the self.

6.33: O Madhusudana (Killer of demon Madhu, Krishna), In this Yoga that was declared by You as same [as the Doctrine of Equality and Empathy], I do not see its stability because of agitation of (my) mind.

Yogi: Steadfastness in yoga is a prerequisite for moksa; any slippage or agitation of mind postpones or bars the attainment of the goal. Lord Krishna says that yogis must have unifocal vision, which is absorption into Brahman; once the vision becomes a reality, the yogis go to live among gods close to Lord Krishna, the God of gods. Agitation of mind is an impediment in yogi’s progress. Once moksa is a reality, freedom is established. Read below more about the free and bound souls.

There are three kinds of souls: eternal souls, freed souls, and bound souls. Let me tell you right off the reel that we are all bound souls with a BIG B. The eternal souls are the ones who have never known life in this universe and live their lives in Vaikuntha (Narāyana's Heavenly Abode); the freed souls are the ones who attained to salvation and now live with God after an arduous journey in the ocean of samsāra during many transmigratory lives. Jivan mukti (liberation while living) is not attainable according to Ramanuja. The freed soul lives in the company of Bhagavan, but never becomes merged with God; the liberated soul enjoys a status equal to that of Brahman Himself, performs nitya-kainkarya meaning eternal divine service, enjoys Bliss, but does not have the absolute and exclusive powers of Isvara that go with creation, sustenance and sublation. The bound souls are of two kinds: spiritually conscious (Udita Viveka) and (Anudita Viveka) spiritually unconscious. Udita = proclaimed; Viveka = true knowledge, discretion. True Vaishnavites who follow the precepts of Suddha Vaishnava Dharma are the spiritually conscious (BG 02); others are not, according to Vaishnavas.

Lack of stability because of agitation is a big impediment for Yoga.

According to Yoga Sutras, there are personality types, fit for yoga. You heard about personality types like type A and type B. Yogis studied the minds of people and divided them into five kinds:

Kshipta Chitta: This mind is subject to distraction or absent. Rajasic personality is the underlying characteristic meaning there is motion and passion. If you know what a motor-mouth is, this qualifies as a motor-mind: There is no focus; it is not an ideal mind for yoga. Kshipta = scattered, distracted. Kshipta Chitta = Addlehead, Scatterbrain

Mudha Chitta: This is a dull and forgetful mind dominated by Tamasic personality, meaning darkness, sluggishness, and general malaise. Mûdha = stupid, dull. Mudha chitta = muddlehead.

Vikshipta Chitta: This is a distraught and agitated mind with periods of calmness and Sattva. Vikshipta = bewildered, agitated. Vikshipta Chitta = Rattlehead.

Ekagra Chitta: This is a one-pointed and trainable mind, which can practice yoga. EkAgra = one-pointed, having one point. Ekagra Chitta = laser head.

Niruddha Chitta: This is a restrained mind, most suitable for yoga practice. Niruddha = restrained. Niruddha Chitta = good head.

(Epithets are for entertainment only and no insult is intended.)

Sayings of Sri Ramakrishna 34. Though all souls are one and the same in their ultimate nature, they are of four classes according to their respective conditions. They are Baddha or bound, Mumukshu or struggling for liberation, Mukta or emancipated, and Nityamukta or ever-free. 35. A fisherman cast his net into the river and had a large haul. Some fish lay in the net calm and motionless, not exerting in the least to go out of it. Others struggled and jumped but could not extricate themselves, while a third class of fish somehow managed to force their way out of the net. In the world, men too are thus of three kinds---those who are bound and never strive to be free, those who are bound but struggle for freedom, and those who have already attained freedom. 36. There are three dolls--the first made of salt, the second made of cloth, and the third of stone. If these dolls are immersed in water, the first will become dissolved and lose its form, the second will absorb a large quantity of water but retain its form, and the third will remain impervious to water. The first doll represents the man who merges his self in the universal and all-pervading Self and becomes one with It; he is the liberated man. The second represents the Bhakta or the true lover of God, who is full of Divine bliss and knowledge. And the third represents the worldly man who will not admit even a particle of true knowledge into his heart. 37. Men are like pillow-cases. The color of one may be red, that of another blue, and that of a third black; but all contain the same cotton within. So it is with man; one is beautiful, another is black, a third holy, and a fourth wicked; but the Divine Being dwells in them all. 38. The outer layers of cakes are made of rice flour, but inside they are stuffed with different ingredients. The cake is good or bad according to the quality of its stuffing. So all human bodies are made of one and the same material, yet men are different in quality according to the purity of their hearts. 39. A Brahmana's son is no doubt a Brahmana by birth; but some of these born Brahmanas grow up into great scholars, some become priests, others turn out cooks, and still others roll themselves in the dust before courtesans' doors. 43. Even at the time of death the 'bound souls' speak of worldly matters only. There is no use in visiting places of pilgrimage, or bathing in the holy Ganges, or counting beads; if there are worldly attachments in the heart, they are sure to manifest themselves at the dying moment. Hence 'bound souls' indulge in random talks even at that time. A parrot may ordinarily sing the holy name of Radha-Krishna, but when it is attacked by a cat, it cries out 'Kang', 'Kang'.--its natural cry.

6.34: Because the mind is fickle, agitated, strong, and obstinate, O Krishna, I think restraint of the mind is as difficult as controlling the wind.

6.35: Sri Bhagavan said:

O son of Kunti, without doubt mind is difficult to restrain, prone to agitation; but it can be controlled by repetitive practice and by detachment.

6.36: Thus my opinion is that Yoga is hard to attain by one with unbridled mind but is attainable by one with controlled mind and by the man of endeavor through the means [mentioned above].

 Joseph Campbell in his book "Oriental Mythology" describes Yoga as follows. (page 27-28.)

 "Furthermore, the mind is in a continuous ripple of transformation and with such force that if one should try without yogic training to hold it to a single image or idea for as long, say, as a minute, almost immediately it would be seen to have already broken from the point and run off into associated, even remote, streams of thought and feeling. The first aim of yoga, therefore, is to gain control of this spontaneous flow, slow it down, and bring it to a stop.

Comment by Joseph Campbell

The analogy is given of the surface of a pond blown by a wind. The images reflected on such a surface are broken, fragmentary, and continually flickering. But if the wind should cease and the surface become still--nirvana: "beyond or without (nir-) the wind Vāna)" we should behold, not broken images, but the perfectly formed reflection of the whole sky, the trees along the shore, the quiet depths of the pond itself, its lovely sandy bottom, and the fish. We should then see that all the broken images, formerly only fleetingly perceived, were actually but fragments of these true and steady forms, now clearly and steadily seen. And we should have at our command thereafter both the possibility of stilling the pond, to enjoy the fundamental form, and that of letting the winds blow and waters ripple, for the enjoyment of the play (lila) of the transformations. (We should be able to enjoy both the undulating and still images-- my interpolation.) One is no longer afraid when this comes and that goes; not even when the form that seems to be oneself disappears. For the One that is all, forever remains: transcendent beyond all; yet also immanent within all."

Joseph Campbell explains what transcendence is. In Occidental theology, the word transcendent is used to mean outside of the world. In the East, it means outside of thought.

 Author's interpretation: Astronauts transcend the physical barriers and go to the moon; that is physical transcendence, which is not as common as going to the grocery store or liquor store. In like manner, thought transcendence takes the Yogi beyond the thought barriers into the supraliminal realm of the Spirit with which he becomes one for the duration of the Yogic state. To go to that realm needs special mental equipment and training.

6.37: Arjuna said:

The failed ascetic who had faith but was of such mind to deviate from (the path of) yoga, failing to attain yogic perfection, which way does he go, O Krishna?

Ramakrishna Paramahamsa says the following about a pseudo-ascetic. Saying 304, page 95, Sayings of Sri Ramakrishna: The man who becomes an ascetic owing to some misunderstanding with his father, or mother or wife may be called an 'ascetic-by-disgust.' His asceticism is momentary; he gives up the ascetic way of life as soon as he gets a lucrative job in a wealthy family.

Saying 305 & 07: Piety, true dedication of heart and soul to God, renunciation of woman and gold , regarding and respecting all women as his mother, constant meditation on God, service to all creatures, knowing that God resides in all and forgiveness: these are the qualities of an ascetic or pious man.

6.38: Having lost both (paths of Karma and Yoga), does he not perish like a riven cloud O Krishna, without support, and bewildered on the path to Brahman?

6.39: O Krishna, You are worthy of and obligated to remove this doubt of mine completely because no one other than You is proven remover of this doubt.

6.40: Sri Bhagavan said:

O Son of Partha, neither here, nor hereafter (the other world), destruction exists for him. Never misfortune comes to the one who does good works (kalyānakrt, auspicious activities).

6.41: Having attained to the world of those who performed pious activities and living there for many years, the unrealized or fallen yogi takes birth in the house of the ritually pure, the pious, and the prosperous.

6.42: Or such a yogi takes his birth in the family of yogins endowed with great wisdom; a birth like this is very rare indeed in this world.

 Kularnava Tantra states that (Yogis or) Gurus, who are learned in Brahmavidya or Brahma Yoga, are born in a Guru family. Such family has a long line of Gurus, who are competent to initiate Sisyas (pupils) into Pasvacara, Viracara, Mahavidya or Brahma Yoga and reveal appropriate Mantra. Such long line of Yogis is a rare phenomenon now.

6.43: Thereupon, he regains the mental, intellectual, and yogic disposition from his previous birth (body), and strives again to gain for perfection, O son of Kuru.

disposition: Samskaras = tendencies, impressions.

6.44: By virtue of previous (yogic) practice (in former life), he is carried forward even against his will. Even though he is only an inquisitive seeker of yoga, he transcends Sabda-Brahman or Vedic rituals. .

Any attempt and any progress made in yoga practice never go to waste. God creates circumstances in such ways that the incomplete yogi (a dropout) picks up where he left in the previous life by his birth in the right family. There are two kinds of spiritual knowledge: Sabda-Brahman and Param-Brahman. Param-Brahman is superior and Sabda-Brahman is only a means to Param-Brahman; Sabda-Brahman encompasses knowledge of Upanisads and Vedas, sacrifices and rituals, which are essential for the growth and development of the soul or atman to a finite stage. Reciting Vedas without knowing the meaning is standing like the pillars holding the roof. It is like the donkey or a draft animal carrying a load of sandalwood and not knowing its exquisite fragrance. It is like the hand that carries food to the tongue, not knowing its taste. After that stage, they drop off in the same spirit of detachment from desires at early stages of development. Here the self stands by itself with no props or support to the self. The yogi is dead to the world, figuratively; he gives up everything that he owns, be it material or knowledge; names and forms do not matter anymore. He rides the OM sound waves of Sabda-Brahman until he reaches the Param-Brahman, when the sound-syllable OM falls into silence (Turiya or fourth state). The Sound Brahman is the preliminary step before attainment of Soundless Brahman, upon attainment of which names, forms, books, rituals, sacrifices, prayers and hymns fall or should be abandoned. It is like saying that you abandon the raft, once you reach the shore; it is like saying that you throw away the chaff in favor of rice. This illustrates the journey, man makes from ignorance to Jnāna to Vijnāna. Ramana Maharishi gives an analogy: "You remove the thorn from the sole of the foot by another thorn and when done, throw away both thorns.” At this stage of development, rituals, Vedas, sacrifices fall by the wayside at the dawn of higher realization of Param-Brahman or Soundless Brahman. There is stillness and silence. The goal is absorption and bliss. It is like the spider climbing on its own thread to reach the higher space; so also the yogi goes up on the sound thread of OM and reaches his destination, silence (Param Brahman).

He rides on the sound waves of OM and his goal is silence: He goes from sound to silence, thus attaining Vijnāna, experiential realization of God. He sheds names and forms; speech and books are nothing for him; there are no hymns and no prayers. Where he is, there is no fear; there is no sorrow; there is tranquillity; there is silence; and there is bliss.

6.45: The yogi, striving earnestly, free from all sins, and perfecting himself through many births, attains to the Supreme (Supreme Goal).

6.46: The yogi is superior to the ascetic, greater than the Jnāni, and more sublime than the ritualists. Therefore, O Arjuna, thou become a yogi.

Here Lord Krishna mentions that a true yogi is superior to the ritualists who perform sacrifices, the yogis who practice austerities, and the yogis who are well versed in Vedic studies. As said earlier, a yogi has to go beyond the stage of Sabda-Brahman and attain to Param-Brahman.

6.47: Of all yogis, he, who worships Me within his mind, abiding in me within with full faith, is considered by me the most accomplished of all yogis.

Here Lord Krishna makes a great distinction among yogis. The Lord holds the Bhakti yogis as the most accomplished of all yogis for their love, devotion, self-surrender, and resignation with full faith and thoughts and the “self” centered on Bhagavan. Knowledge matters not; rituals matter not; sacrifices matter not; and work matters not: Love and devotion (Bhakti) to Krishna supersede them all and win easily.

Love in this phenomenal world waxes, wanes, and dies; blooms, withers, and falls because you are in love with a finite, a man, a woman, an object, or an idea: That is not love but animal passion. True love has no difficulties; love always goes to something or somebody, who is more magnetic; love's pull varies according to the magnetism of the subject. (There is nobody more magnetic and infinite than God Himself.) God is the most magnetic centripetal force on earth; if you step into that circular ambit of God's magnetism, you are forever free. The magnetism and luminescence of God is that of the sun; those of other objects are that of candles; that magnetism seeks love and Bhakti, which Krishna considers most dear to Him.

Bhaktas, Bhubuksus and Mumukshus

Some Acharyas classify Bhakti into Suddha (Pure) and Viddha (selfish); the latter being Karma Viddha and Jnana Viddha, by which an aspirant seeks favor from Krishna.

Pure Bhakti is the best path recommended by Bhagavan Krishna in this verse: A Yogi who worships with Sraddha and inner self abiding in Me is considered by Me as the greatest and the highest (of all Yogis).

BhaktA loves God for love's sake and the Viddhas love God for something in return. Karma Viddhas are the ubiquitous visitors (Bubhuksus- one, hungry for enjoyment) to the temple and do rituals at home and temples for health, wealth, happiness, education, employment, prosperity, matrimony, progeny ... The Jnana Viddhas are the seekers of liberation (Mumuksus) whose aptitude is towards meditation, breathings exercises (Ashtanga Yogam)... Both are seekers of something; Bhakta's substance is love, while Viddha's is want.

End of Chapter Six: The Yoga of Self-Control

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