Chandogya upanisad 1

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Chandogya upanisad 1

छान्दोग्योपनिषद्‌ - chāndogyopaniṣad

Upanishad

अथ प्रथमोऽध्यायः


प्रथमः खण्डः
Chandogya upanisad 1.1

ओमित्येतदक्षरमुद्गीथमुपासीत।
ओमिति ह्युद्गायति तस्योपव्याख्यानम्‌॥ १
omityetadakṣaramudgīthamupāsīta | omiti hyudgāyati tasyopavyākhyānam || 1

Chandogya upanisad 1.1.1

Worship ye OM, the eternal syllable. OM is Udgitha, the chant of Samaveda; for with OM they begin the chant of Sama. And this is the exposition of OM.

एषां भूतानां पृथिवी रसः पृथिव्या आपो रसोऽपामोषधयो रस ओषधीनां पुरुषो रसः पुरुषस्य वाग्रसो वाच ऋग्रस ऋचः साम रसः साम्न उद्गीथो रसः॥ २

eṣāṁ bhūtānāṁ pṛthivī rasaḥ pṛthivyā āpo raso'apāmoṣadhayo rasa oṣadhīnāṁ puruṣo rasaḥ puruṣasya vāgraso vāca ṛgrasa ṛcaḥ sāma rasaḥ sāmna udgītho rasaḥ || 2

Earth is the substantial essence of all these creatures and the waters are the essence of earth; herbs of the field are the essence of the waters; man is the essence of the herbs. Speech is the essence of man, Rigveda the essence of Speech, Sama the essence of Rik. Of Sama OM is the essence.

स एष रसाना रसतमः परमः परार्ध्योऽष्टमो यदुद्गीथः॥ ३

sa eṣa rasānā rasatamaḥ paramaḥ parārdhyo'ṣṭamo yadudgīthaḥ|| 3

This is the eighth essence of the essences and the really essential, the highest and it belongeth to the upper hemisphere of things.

कतमा कतमर्क्कतमत्कतमत्साम कतमः कतम उद्गीथ इति विमृष्टं भवति॥ ४

katamā katamarkkatamatkatamatsāma katamaḥ katama udgītha iti vimṛṣṭaṁ bhavati || 4

Which among things & which again is Rik; which among things and which again is Sama; which among things and which again is OM of the Udgitha-this is now pondered.

वागेवर्क् प्राणः सामोमित्येतदक्षरमुद्गीथः। तद्वा एतन्मिथुनं यद्वाक् च प्राणश्चर्क् च साम च॥ ५

vāgevark prāṇaḥ sāmomityetadakṣaramudgīthaḥ | tadvā etanmithunaṁ yadvāk ca prāṇaścark ca sāma ca || 5

Speech is Rik, Breath is Sama; the Imperishable is OM of Udgitha. These are the divine lovers, Speech and Breath, Rik and Sama.

तदेतन्मिथुनमोमित्येतस्मिन्नक्षरे ससृज्यते यदा वै मिथुनौ समागच्छत आपयतो वै तावन्योन्यस्य कामम्‌॥ ६

tadetanmithunamomityetasminnakṣare sasṛjyate yadā vai mithunau samāgacchata āpayato vai tāvanyonyasya kāmam || 6

As a pair of lovers are these and they cling together in OM the eternal syllable; now when the beloved and her lover meet, verily they gratify each the desire of the other.

आपयिता ह वै कामानां भवति य एतदेवं विद्वानक्षरमुद्गीथमुपास्ते॥ ७

āpayitā ha vai kāmānāṁ bhavati ya etadevaṁ vidvānakṣaramudgīthamupāste || 7

He becometh a gratifier of the desires of men who with this knowledge worshippeth OM the eternal syllable.

तद्वा एतदनुज्ञाक्षरं यद्धि किंचानुजानात्योमित्येव तदाहैषो एव समृद्धिर्यदनुज्ञा समर्धयिता ह वै कामानां भवति य एतदेवं विद्वानक्षरमुद्गीथमुपास्ते॥ ८

tadvā etadanujñākṣaraṁ yaddhi kiṁcānujānātyomityeva tadāhaiṣo eva samṛddhiryadanujñā samardhayitā ha vai kāmānāṁ bhavati ya etadevaṁ vidvānakṣaramudgīthamupāste || 8

Now this OM is the syllable of Assent; for to whatsoever one assenteth, one sayeth OM; and assent is blessing of increase. Verily he becometh a blesser and increaser of the desires of men who with this knowledge worshippeth OM the eternal syllable.

तेनेयं त्रयीविद्या वर्तत ओमित्याश्रावयत्योमिति शसत्योमित्युद्गायत्येतस्यैवाक्षरस्यापचित्यै महिम्ना रसेन॥ ९

teneyaṁ trayīvidyā vartata omityāśrāvayatyomiti śa satyomityudgāyatyetasyaivākṣarasyāpacityai mahimnā rasena || 9

By OM the triple knowledge proceedeth; with OM the priest reciteth the Rik, with OM he pronounceth the Yajur, with OM he chanteth the Sama. And all this is for the heaping up of the Imperishable and by the greatness of It and the delightfulness.

तेनोभौ कुरुतो यश्चैतदेवं वेद यश्च न वेद। नाना तु विद्या चाविद्या च यदेव विद्यया करोति श्रद्धयोपनिषदा तदेव वीर्यवत्तरं भवतीति खल्वेतस्यैवाक्षरस्योपव्याख्यानं भवति॥ १०

tenobhau kuruto yaścaitadevaṁ veda yaśca na veda | nānā tu vidyā cāvidyā ca yadeva vidyayā karoti śraddhayopaniṣadā tadeva vīryavattaraṁ bhavatīti khalvetasyaivākṣarasyopavyākhyānaṁ bhavati || 10

He doeth works by OM who hath the knowledge, and he also who hath it not; but these are diverse, the Knowledge and the Ignorance. What so work one doeth with knowledge, with faith and with the secret of Veda, it becometh to him more virile and mighty. This is the exposition of the eternal letters.


द्वितीयः खण्डः
Chandogya upanisad 1.2

देवासुरा ह वै यत्र संयेतिरे उभये प्राजापत्यास्तद्ध देवा उद्गीथमाजह्रुरनेनैनानभिभविष्याम इति॥ १

devāsurā ha vai yatra saṁyetire ubhaye prājāpatyāstaddha devā udgīthamājahruranenainānabhibhaviṣyāma iti || 1

The Gods and the Demons strove together and both were children of the Almighty Father. Then the Gods took up for weapon OM of Udgitha, for they said ìWith this we shall overcome these Titans.

ते ह नासिक्यं प्राणमुद्गीथमुपासांचक्रिरे त हासुराः पाप्मना विविधुस्तस्मात्तेनोभयं जिघ्रति सुरभि च दुर्गन्धि च पाप्मना ह्येष विद्धः॥ २

te ha nāsikyaṁ prāṇamudgīthamupāsāṁcakrire ta hāsurāḥ pāpmanā vividhustasmāttenobhayaṁ jighrati surabhi ca durgandhi ca pāpmanā hyeṣa viddhaḥ|| 2

The Gods worshipped OM as Breath in the nostrils; but the Demons came and smote it with the arrow of Evil; therefore it smelleth both alike, the sweet scent and the evil odour. For it is smitten through and through with Evil.

अथ ह वाचमुद्गीथमुपासांचक्रिरे ताहासुराः पाप्मना विविधुस्तस्मात्तयोभयं वदति सत्यं चानृतं च पाप्मना ह्येषा विद्धा॥ ३

atha ha vācamudgīthamupāsāṁcakrire tāhāsurāḥ pāpmanā vividhustasmāttayobhayaṁ vadati satyaṁ cānṛtaṁ ca pāpmanā hyeṣā viddhā|| 3

Then the Gods worshipped OM as Speech; but the Demons came and smote it with the arrow of Evil; therefore it speaketh both alike, Truth and Falsehood. For it is smitten through and through with Evil.

अथ ह चक्षुरुद्गीथमुपासांचक्रिरे तद्धासुराः पाप्मना विविधुस्तस्मात्तेनोभयं पश्यति दर्शनीयं चादर्शनीयं च पाप्मना ह्येतद्विद्धम्‌॥ ४

atha ha cakṣurudgīthamupāsāṁcakrire taddhāsurāḥ pāpmanā vividhustasmāttenobhayaṁ paśyati darśanīyaṁ cādarśanīyaṁ ca pāpmanā hyetadviddham || 4

Then the Gods worshipped OM as the Eye; but the Demons came and smote it with the arrow of Evil; therefore it beholdeth both alike, the fair to see and the foul of favour. For it is smitten through and through with Evil.

अथ ह श्रोत्रमुद्गीथमुपासांचक्रिरे तद्धासुराः पाप्मना विविधुस्तस्मात्तेनोभयशृणोति श्रवणीयं चाश्रवणीयं च पाप्मना ह्येतद्विद्धम्‌॥ ५

atha ha śrotramudgīthamupāsāṁcakrire taddhāsurāḥ pāpmanā vividhustasmāttenobhayaśṛṇoti śravaṇīyaṁ cāśravaṇīyaṁ ca pāpmanā hyetadviddham || 5

Then the Gods worshipped OM as the Ear; but the Demons came and smote it with the arrow of Evil; therefore it heareth both alike, that which is well to hear and that which is harsh and unseemly. For it is smitten through and through with Evil.

अथ ह मन उद्गीथमुपासांचक्रिरे तद्धासुराः पाप्मना विविधुस्तस्मात्तेनोभय संकल्पयते संकल्पनीयं चासंकल्पनीयं च पाप्मना ह्येतद्विद्धम्‌॥ ६

atha ha mana udgīthamupāsāṁcakrire taddhāsurāḥ pāpmanā vividhustasmāttenobhaya saṁkalpayate saṁkalpanīyaṁ cāsaṁkalpanīyaṁ ca pāpmanā hyetadviddham || 6

Then the Gods worshipped Udgitha as Mind; but the Demons came and smote it with the arrow of Evil; therefore it conceiveth both alike, right thoughts and unlawful imaginations. For it is smitten through and through with Evil.

अथ ह य एवायं मुख्यः प्राणस्तमुद्गीथमुपासांचक्रिरे तहासुरा ऋत्वा विदध्वसुर्यथाऽश्मानमाखणमृत्वा विध्वसेत॥ ७

atha ha ya evāyaṁ mukhyaḥ prāṇastamudgīthamupāsāṁcakrire tahāsurā ṛtvā vidadhvasuryathā'śmānamākhaṇamṛtvā vidhvaseta|| 7

Then the Gods worshipped OM as this which is Breath in the mouth and the Demons rushing against it dashed themselves to pieces; as when an object striketh against firm and solid rock, it dasheth to pieces upon the rock.

एवं यथाऽश्मानमाखणमृत्वा विध्वसत एव हैव स विध्वसते य एवंविदि पापं कामयते यश्चैनमभिदासति स एषोऽश्माखणः॥ ८

evaṁ yathā'śmānamākhaṇamṛtvā vidhvasata eva haiva sa vidhvasate ya evaṁvidi pāpaṁ kāmayate yaścainamabhidāsati sa eṣo'śmākhaṇaḥ|| 8

And even as an object hurling against firm and solid rock dasheth itself to pieces, so he hurleth himself upon destruction whoso desireth evil against the Knower or whoso doeth him hurt; for the Knower is as that firm and solid rock.

नैवैतेन सुरभि न दुर्गन्धि विजानात्यपहतपाप्मा ह्येष तेन यदश्नाति यत्पिबति तेनेतरान् प्राणानवति। एतमु एवान्ततोऽवित्त्वोत्क्रमति व्याददात्येवान्तत इति॥ ९

naivaitena surabhi na durgandhi vijānātyapahatapāpmā hyeṣa tena yadaśnāti yatpibati tenetarān prāṇānavati | etamu evāntato'vittvotkramati vyādadātyevāntata iti || 9

With this Breath one cogniseth neither sweet scent nor ill odour, for it hath flung Evil from it. Whatsoever one eateth with this or drinketh, thereby it cherisheth the other breaths. At the end and last when he findeth not the breath, the Spirit goeth out from the body; verily he openeth wide the mouth as he goeth.

तहाङ्गिरा उद्गीथमुपासांचक्र एतमु एवाङ्गिरसं मन्यन्तेऽङ्गानां यद्रसः॥ १०

tahāṅgirā udgīthamupāsāṁcakra etamu evāṅgirasaṁ manyante'ṅgānāṁ yadrasaḥ|| 10

Angiras worshipped OM of Udgitha as Breath in the mouth and men think of Breath in the mouth as Angiras because it is essence of the members of the body.

तेन तह बृहस्पतिरुद्गीथमुपासांचक्र एतमु एव बृहस्पतिं मन्यन्ते वाग्घि बृहती तस्या एष पतिः॥ ११

tena taha bṛhaspatirudgīthamupāsāṁcakra etamu eva bṛhaspatiṁ manyante vāgghi bṛhatī tasyā eṣa patiḥ || 11

By the strength of Angiras, Brihaspati worshipped OM as Breath in the mouth, and men think of the Breath as Brihaspati, because Speech is the great goddess and Breath is the lord of Speech.

तेन तहायास्य उद्गीथमुपासांचक्र एतमु एवायास्यं मन्यन्त आस्याद्यदयते॥ १२

tena tahāyāsya udgīthamupāsāṁcakra etamu evāyāsyaṁ manyanta āsyādyadayate|| 12

By the strength of Brihaspati, Ayasya worshipped OM as Breath in the mouth and men think of the Breath as Ayasya, because 'tis from the mouth it cometh.

तेन तह बको दाल्भ्यो विदांचकार। स ह नैमिशीयानामुद्गाता बभूव स ह स्मैभ्यः कामानागायति॥ १३

tena taha bako dālbhyo vidāṁcakāra | sa ha naimiśīyānāmudgātā babhūva sa ha smaibhyaḥ kāmānāgāyati|| 13

By the strength of Ayasya, Baka the son of Dalbha knew the Breath. And he became the Chanter of the Sama among the Naimishiyas and he chanteth their desires for them unto fulfilment.

आगाता ह वै कामानां भवति य एतदेवं विद्वानक्षरमुद्गीथमुपास्त इत्यध्यात्मम्‌॥ १४

āgātā ha vai kāmānāṁ bhavati ya etadevaṁ vidvānakṣaramudgīthamupāsta ityadhyātmam || 14

Verily he becometh a chanter unto fulfilment of the desires of men who with this knowledge worshippeth OM of Udgitha, the eternal syllable. Thus far concerning Self is the exposition.


तृतीयः खण्डः
Chandogya upanisad 1.3

अथाधिदैवतं य एवासौ तपति तमुद्गीथमुपासीतोद्यन्वा एष प्रजाभ्य उद्गायति उद्यस्तमोभयमपहन्त्यपहन्ता ह वै भयस्य तमसो भवति य एवं वेद। १

athādhidaivataṁ ya evāsau tapati tamudgīthamupāsītodyanvā eṣa prajābhya udgāyati udyastamobhayamapahantyapahantā ha vai bhayasya tamaso bhavati ya evaṁ veda | 1

Thereafter concerning the Gods. Lo yonder burning fire in the heavens, worship ye Him as the Udgitha; for the Sun riseth & singeth his bright hymn unto the peoples. Yea he riseth, & darkness is slain & its terror-therefore shall he be a slayer of the terror & the darkness, he who thus knoweth.

समान उ एवायं चासौ चोष्णोऽयमुष्णोऽसौ स्वर इतीममाचक्षते स्वर इति प्रत्यास्वर इत्यमुं तस्माद्वा एतमिमममुं चोद्गीथमुपासीत॥ २

samāna u evāyaṁ cāsau coṣṇo'yamuṣṇo'sau svara itīmamācakṣate svara iti pratyāsvara ityamuṁ tasmādvā etamimamamuṁ codgīthamupāsīta || 2

Breath & the Sun are one & alike-for the one is heat & the other is heat, and they call Breath the mover and the Sun too they call the mover & they call him also the mover that returneth upon his paths-therefore ye shall worship both the one & the other as Udgitha.

अथ खलु व्यानमेवोद्गीथमुपासीत यद्वै प्राणिति स प्राणो यदपानिति सोऽपानः। अथ यः प्राणापानयोः सन्धिः स व्यानो यो व्यानः सा वाक्‌ तस्मादप्राणन्ननपानन्वाचमभिव्याहरति॥ ३

atha khalu vyānamevodgīthamupāsīta yadvai prāṇiti sa prāṇo yadapāniti so'pānaḥ | atha yaḥ prāṇāpānayoḥ sandhiḥ sa vyāno yo vyānaḥ sā vāk tasmādaprāṇannanapānanvācamabhivyāharati || 3

Thereafter verily ye shall worship Vyana the middle breath as Udgitha. For when one breathes forth it is Prana, the Main Breath, & when one breathes down it is Apana, the lower breath. Now this which is the joint & linking of the main breath & the lower breath, is Vyana-& Vyana, it is Speech. Therefore 'tis when one neither breatheth forth nor breatheth down that one giveth utterance to Speech.

या वाक्सर्क्तस्मादप्राणन्ननपानन्नृचमभिव्याहरति यर्क्तत्साम तस्मादप्राणन्ननपानन्साम गायति यत्साम स उद्गीथस्तस्मादप्राणन्ननपानन्नुद्गायति॥ ४

yā vāksarktasmādaprāṇannanapānannṛcamabhivyāharati yarktatsāma tasmādaprāṇannanapānansāma gāyati yatsāma sa udgīthastasmādaprāṇannanapānannudgāyati || 4

But Speech is the Rik-therefore 'tis when one neither breatheth out nor breatheth in that one uttereth theRik. And Rik it is Sama-therefore 'tis when one neither breatheth out nor breatheth in that one chanteth the Sama. But Sama it is Udgitha-therefore 'tis when one neither breatheth out nor breatheth in that one singeth Udgitha.

अतो यान्यन्यानि वीर्यवन्ति कर्माणि यथाग्नेर्मन्थनमाजेः सरणं दृढस्य धनुष आयमनमप्राणन्ननपानस्तानि करोत्येतस्य हेतोर्व्यानमेवोद्गीथमुपासीत। ५

ato yānyanyāni vīryavanti karmāṇi yathāgnermanthanamājeḥ saraṇaṁ dṛḍhasya dhanuṣa āyamanamaprāṇannanapānastāni karotyetasya hetorvyānamevodgīthamupāsīta| 5

Hence whatsoever actions there be that are of might & forcefulness as smiting out fire from the tinder or leaping a great barrier or bending a stark & mighty bow, it is when one neither breatheth out nor breatheth in that one doeth these. And for this cause ye shall worship the middle breath as Udgitha.

अथ खलूद्गीथाक्षराण्युपासीतोद्गीथ इति प्राण एवोत्प्राणेन ह्युत्तिष्ठति वाग्गीर्वाचो ह गिर इत्याचक्षतेऽन्नं थमन्ने हीदसर्वस्थितम्‌॥ ६

atha khalūdgīthākṣarāṇyupāsītodgītha iti prāṇa evotprāṇena hyuttiṣṭhati vāggīrvāco ha gira ityācakṣate'nnaṁ thamanne hīdasarvasthitam|| 6

Thereafter verily ye shall worship the syllables of the Udgitha saying Udgitha&Prana is the first syllable, because one riseth up with the main breath & Speech is the second syllable, because they call Speech that which goeth forth & food is the third syllable, because in food all this Universe is established.

यौरेवोदन्तरिक्षं गीः पृथिवी थमादित्य एवोद्वायुर्गीरग्निस्थसामवेद एवोद्यजुर्वेदो गीरृग्वेदस्थं दुग्धेऽस्मै वाग्दोहं यो वाचो दोहोऽन्नवानन्नादो भवति य एतान्येवं विद्वानुद्गीथाक्षराण्युपास्त उद्गीथ इति॥ ७

dyaurevodantarikṣaṁ gīḥ pṛthivī thamāditya evodvāyurgīragnisthasāmaveda evodyajurvedo gīrṛgvedasthaṁ dugdhe'smai vāgdohaṁ yo vāco doho'nnavānannādo bhavati ya etānyevaṁ vidvānudgīthākṣarāṇyupāsta udgītha iti || 7

Heaven is the first syllable, the middle air is the second syllable, earth is the third syllable. The Sun is the first syllable, Air is the second syllable, Fire is the third syllable. The Samaveda is the first syllable, Yajurveda is the second syllable, Rigveda is the third syllable. To him Speech is a cow that yieldeth sweet milk-& what is this milking of Speech?-even that he becometh rich in food & the eater of food who knoweth these & worshippeth the syllables of Udgitha saying lo even this is Udgitha.

अथ खल्वाशीःसमृद्धिरुपसरणानीत्युपासीत येन साम्ना स्तोष्यन्स्यात्तत्सामोपधावेत्‌॥ ८

atha khalvāśīḥsamṛddhirupasaraṇānītyupāsīta yena sāmnā stoṣyansyāttatsāmopadhāvet || 8

Next follows the fulfilment of prayers. One should thus meditate on the object one wishes to obtain through meditation: he (i.e. the udgatri priest) should meditate on the Saman with which he is going chant the praise.

यस्यामृचि तामृचं यदार्षेयं तमृषिं यां देवतामभिष्टोष्यन्स्यात्तां देवतामुपधावेत्‌॥ ९

yasyāmṛci tāmṛcaṁ yadārṣeyaṁ tamṛṣiṁ yāṁ devatāmabhiṣṭoṣyansyāttāṁ devatāmupadhāvet || 9

He (the udgatri priest) should meditate on the Rik in which that Saman occurs, on the rishi to whom it was revealed and on the deity whom he is going to praise.

येन च्छन्दसा स्तोष्यन्स्यात्तच्छन्द उपधावेद्येन स्तोमेन स्तोष्यमाणः स्यात्तस्तोममुपधावेत्‌। १०

yena cchandasā stoṣyansyāttacchanda upadhāvedyena stomena stoṣyamāṇaḥ syāttastomamupadhāvet | 10

He (the udgatri priest) should meditate on the metre in which he is going to chant the praise; he should meditate on the hymn by which he is going to chant the praise.

यां दिशमभिष्टोष्यन्स्यात्तां दिशमुपधावेत्‌॥ ११

yāṁ diśamabhiṣṭoṣyansyāttāṁ diśamupadhāvet || 11

He (the udgatri priest) should meditate on the quarter of space facing which he is going to chant the praise.

आत्मानमन्तत उपसृत्य स्तुवीत कामं ध्यायन्नप्रमत्तोऽभ्याशो ह यदस्मै स कामः समृध्येत यत्कामः स्तुवीतेति यत्कामः स्तुवीतेति॥ १२

ātmānamantata upasṛtya stuvīta kāmaṁ dhyāyannapramatto'bhyāśo ha yadasmai sa kāmaḥ samṛdhyeta yatkāmaḥ stuvīteti yatkāmaḥ stuvīteti || 12

Finally, he (the udgatri priest) should meditate on himself and then on the object desired and chant the praise correctly. Thus will be quickly fulfilled for him the desire, desiring which he may offer the hymn of praise, yea, desiring which he may offer the hymn of praise.


चतुर्थः खण्डः
Chandogya upanisad 1.4

ओमित्येतदक्षरमुद्गीथमुपासीतोमिति ह्युद्गायति तस्योपव्याख्यानम्‌॥

omityetadakṣaramudgīthamupāsītomiti hyudgāyati tasyopavyākhyānam || 1

The syllable Om, called the Udgitha, should be meditated upon; for people sing the Udgitha, beginning with Om. Now follows the detailed explanation of this syllable.

देवा वै मृत्योर्बिभ्यतस्त्रयीं विद्यां प्राविशस्ते छन्दोभिरच्छादयन्यदेभिरच्छादयस्तच्छन्दसां छन्दस्त्वम्‌।

devā vai mṛtyorbibhyatastrayīṁ vidyāṁ prāviśaste chandobhiracchādayanyadebhiracchādayastacchandasāṁ chandastvam | 2

The gods, afraid of death, entered upon the threefold knowledge. They covered themselves with the metrical hymns. Because they covered (acchadayan) themselves with the hymns, the hymns are called chhandas.

तानु तत्र मृत्युर्यथा मत्स्यमुदके परिपश्येदेवं पर्यपश्यदृचि साम्नि यजुषि। ते नु विदित्वोर्ध्वा ऋचः साम्नो यजुषः स्वरमेव प्राविशन्‌॥

tānu tatra mṛtyuryathā matsyamudake paripaśyedevaṁ paryapaśyadṛci sāmni yajuṣi | te nu viditvordhvā ṛcaḥ sāmno yajuṣaḥ svarameva prāviśan || 3

As a fisherman might observe a fish in shallow water, so death observed the gods in the Rik, the Yajus and the Saman. They too came to know this, rose from the Rik, the Yajus and the Saman and entered the Svara (Om) alone.

यदा वा ऋचमाप्नोत्योमित्येवातिस्वरत्येवसामैवं यजुरेष उ स्वरो यदेतदक्षरमेतदमृतमभयं तत्प्रविश्य देवा अमृता अभया अभवन्‌॥

yadā vā ṛcamāpnotyomityevātisvaratyevasāmaivaṁ yajureṣa u svaro yadetadakṣarametadamṛtamabhayaṁ tatpraviśya devā amṛtā abhayā abhavan|| 4

When a man has mastered the Rig-Veda he loudly utters Om; he does the same when he has mastered the Sama-Veda and the Yajur-Veda. The Svara is the syllable Om; it is immortal and fearless. The gods, by entering it, became immortal and fearless.

स य एतदेवं विद्वानक्षरं प्रणौत्येतदेवाक्षर स्वरममृतमभयं प्रविशति तत्प्रविश्य यदमृता देवास्तदमृतो भवति॥

sa ya etadevaṁ vidvānakṣaraṁ praṇautyetadevākṣara svaramamṛtamabhayaṁ praviśati tatpraviśya yadamṛtā devāstadamṛto bhavati || 5

He who, knowing this, sings the praise of the syllable Om enters this same syllable, called the Svara, which is immortal and fearless. Having entered it, he becomes immortal as the gods are immortal.


पञ्चमः खण्डः
Chandogya upanisad 1.5

अथ खलु य उद्गीथः स प्रणवो यः प्रणवः स उद्गीथ इत्यसौ वा आदित्य उद्गीथ एष प्रणव ओमिति ह्येष स्वरन्नेति॥

atha khalu ya udgīthaḥ sa praṇavo yaḥ praṇavaḥ sa udgītha ityasau vā āditya udgītha eṣa praṇava omiti hyeṣa svaranneti || 1

Now, verily, that which is the Udgitha is the Pranava; that which is the Pranava is the Udgitha. Yonder sun is the Udgitha. It is the Pranava, because it moves along uttering Om.

एतमु एवाहमभ्यगासिषं तस्मान्मम त्वमेकोऽसीति ह कौषीतकिः पुत्रमुवाच रश्मीस्त्वं पर्यावर्तयाद्बहवो वै ते भविष्यन्तीत्यधिदैवतम्‌॥

etamu evāhamabhyagāsiṣaṁ tasmānmama tvameko'sīti ha kauṣītakiḥ putramuvāca raśmīstvaṁ paryāvartayādbahavo vai te bhaviṣyantītyadhidaivatam|| 2

Kaushitaki in olden times said to his son: "I sang the praise of the sun regarding it as one with its rays; therefore you are my only son. Meditate on the rays and the sun as different from each another and you will have many sons." So much with reference to the gods.

अथाध्यात्मं य एवायं मुख्यः प्राणस्तमुद्गीथमुपासीतोमिति ह्येष स्वरन्नेति॥

athādhyātmaṁ ya evāyaṁ mukhyaḥ prāṇastamudgīthamupāsītomiti hyeṣa svaranneti || 3

Now with reference to the body: One should meditate on the Udgitha as the principal prana, for (i.e. the prana) moves in the body uttering Om.

एतमु एवाहमभ्यगासिषं तस्मान्मम त्वमेकोऽसीति ह कौषीतकिः पुत्रमुवाच प्राणास्त्वं भूमानमभिगायताद्बहवो वै मे भविष्यन्तीति॥

etamu evāhamabhyagāsiṣaṁ tasmānmama tvameko'sīti ha kauṣītakiḥ putramuvāca prāṇāstvaṁ bhūmānamabhigāyatādbahavo vai me bhaviṣyantīti|| 4

Kaushitaki in olden times said to his son: "I sang the praise of the principal prana alone; therefore you are my only son. Meditate on the Udgitha as the manifold prana and you will have many sons."

अथ खलु य उद्गीथः स प्रणवो यः प्रणवः स उद्गीथ इति होतृषदनाद्धैवापि दुरुद्गीथमनुसमाहरतीत्यनुसमाहरतीति॥

atha khalu ya udgīthaḥ sa praṇavo yaḥ praṇavaḥ sa udgītha iti hotṛṣadanāddhaivāpi durudgīthamanusamāharatītyanusamāharatīti || 5

Now, verily, that which is the Udgitha is the Pranava; that which is the Pranava is the Udgitha. He (i.e. the udgatri priest) who knows this, rectifies from the seat of the hotri priest any mistake committed by him (the udgatri priest), yea he rectifies it.


षष्ठः खण्डः
Chandogya upanisad 1.6

इयमेवर्गग्निः साम तदेतदेतस्यामृच्यध्यूढ़साम तस्मादृच्यध्यूढसाम गीयत इयमेव साग्निरमस्तत्साम॥

iyamevargagniḥ sāma tadetadetasyāmṛcyadhyūṛhasāma tasmādṛcyadhyūḍhasāma gīyata iyameva sāgniramastatsāma || 1

This earth is the Rik and fire is the Saman. This Saman (i.e. fire) rests on that Rik (i.e. the earth). Therefore the Saman is sung resting on the Rik. Sa is the earth, ama is fire; thus they (the earth and fire) are designated as Sama.

अन्तरिक्षमेवर्ग्वायुः साम तदेतदेतस्यामृच्यध्यूढ साम तस्मादृच्यध्यूढ साम गीयतेऽन्तरिक्षमेव सा वायुरमस्तत्साम।

antarikṣamevargvāyuḥ sāma tadetadetasyāmṛcyadhyūḍha sāma tasmādṛcyadhyūḍha sāma gīyate'ntarikṣameva sā vāyuramastatsāma| 2

The mid-region is the Rik and the air is the Saman. This Saman (i.e. the air) rests on that Rik (i.e. the mid-region). Therefore the Saman is sung, resting on the Rik. Sa is the mid-region, ama is the air; thus they (the mid-region and the air) are designated as Sama.

द्यौरेवर्गादित्यः साम तदेतदेतस्यामृच्यध्यूढ साम तस्मादृच्यध्यूढ साम गीयते द्यौरेव सादित्योऽमस्तत्साम॥

dyaurevargādityaḥ sāma tadetadetasyāmṛcyadhyūḍha sāma tasmādṛcyadhyūḍha sāma gīyate dyaureva sādityo'mastatsāma || 3

नक्षत्रान्येवर्क्चन्द्रमाः साम तदेतदेतस्यामृच्यध्यूढ साम तस्मादृच्यध्यूढ साम गीयते नक्षत्राण्येव सा चन्द्रमा अमस्तत्साम॥

nakṣatrānyevarkcandramāḥ sāma tadetadetasyāmṛcyadhyūḍha sāma tasmādṛcyadhyūḍha sāma gīyate nakṣatrāṇyeva sā candramā amastatsāma|| 4

The stars are the Rik and the moon is the Saman. This Saman (i.e. the moon) rests on that Rik (i.e. the stars). Therefore the Saman is sung, resting on the Rik. Sa is the stars, ama is the moon; thus they (the stars and the moon) are designated as Sama.

अथ यदेतदादित्यस्य शुक्लं भाः सैवर्गथ यन्नीलं परः कृष्णं तत्साम तदेतदेतस्यामृच्यध्यूढ साम तस्मादृच्यध्यूढ साम गीयते॥

atha yadetadādityasya śuklaṁ bhāḥ saivargatha yannīlaṁ paraḥ kṛṣṇaṁ tatsāma tadetadetasyāmṛcyadhyūḍha sāma tasmādṛcyadhyūḍha sāma gīyate|| 5

Now, the white radiance of the sun is the Rik and its blue intense darkness is the Saman. This Saman (i.e. the darkness) rests on that Rik (i.e. the radiance). Therefore the Saman is sung, resting on the Rik

अथ यदेवैतदादित्यस्य शुक्लं भाः सैव साऽथ यन्नीलं परः कृष्णं तदमस्तत्सामाऽथ य एषोऽन्तरादित्ये हिरण्मयः पुरुषो दृश्यते हिरण्यश्मश्रुर्हिरण्यकेश आप्रणस्वात्सर्व एव सुवर्णः॥

atha yadevaitadādityasya śuklaṁ bhāḥ saiva sā'tha yannīlaṁ paraḥ kṛṣṇaṁ tadamastatsāmā'tha ya eṣo'ntarāditye hiraṇmayaḥ puruṣo dṛśyate hiraṇyaśmaśrurhiraṇyakeśa āpraṇasvātsarva eva suvarṇaḥ || 6

Sa is the white radiance of the sun, ama is its blue intense darkness; thus they (the radiance and the darkness) are designated as Sama. Now, the golden person who is seen in the sun, who has a golden beard and golden hair, who is golden to the very tips of his nails-his eyes are like a lotus flower, red as the rump of a monkey. His name is Ut, for he has risen (udita) above all evil. He, too, who knows this rises above all evil.

तस्य यथा कप्यासं पुण्डरीकमेवमक्षिणी तस्योदिति नाम स एष सर्वेभ्यः पाप्मभ्य उदित उदेति ह वै सर्वेभ्यः पाप्मभ्यो य एवं वेद॥

tasya yathā kapyāsaṁ puṇḍarīkamevamakṣiṇī tasyoditi nāma sa eṣa sarvebhyaḥ pāpmabhya udita udeti ha vai sarvebhyaḥ pāpmabhyo ya evaṁ veda || 7

Sa is the white radiance of the sun, ama is its blue intense darkness; thus they (the radiance and the darkness) are designated as Sama. Now, the golden person who is seen in the sun, who has a golden beard and golden hair, who is golden to the very tips of his nails-his eyes are like a lotus flower, red as the rump of a monkey. His name is Ut, for he has risen (udita) above all evil. He, too, who knows this rises above all evil.

तस्यर्क्च साम च गेष्णौ तस्मादुद्गीथस्तस्मात्त्वेवोद्गातैतस्य हि गाता स एष ये चामुष्मात्पराञ्चो लोकास्तेषां चेष्टे देवकामानां चेत्यधिदैवतम्‌॥

tasyarkca sāma ca geṣṇau tasmādudgīthastasmāttvevodgātaitasya hi gātā sa eṣa ye cāmuṣmātparāñco lokāsteṣāṁ ceṣṭe devakāmānāṁ cetyadhidaivatam || 8


सप्तमः खण्डः
Chandogya upanisad 1.7

अथाध्यात्मं वागेवर्क्प्राणः साम तदेतदेतस्यामृच्यध्यूढ साम तस्मादृच्यध्यूढ साम गीयते। वागेव सा प्राणोऽमस्तत्साम॥

athādhyātmaṁ vāgevarkprāṇaḥ sāma tadetadetasyāmṛcyadhyūḍha sāma tasmādṛcyadhyūḍha sāma gīyate| vāgeva sā prāṇo'mastatsāma|| 1

Now with reference to the body: Speech is the Rik and the prana is the Saman. This Saman (the prana) rests on that Rik (speech). Therefore the Saman is sung, resting on the Rik. Sa is speech, ama is the prana; thus they (speech and the prana) are designated as Sama.

चक्षुरेवर्गात्मा साम तदेतदेतस्यामृच्यध्यूढ साम तस्मादृच्यध्यूढ साम गीयते। चक्षुरेव साऽऽत्माऽमस्तत्साम॥

cakṣurevargātmā sāma tadetadetasyāmṛcyadhyūḍha sāma tasmādṛcyadhyūḍha sāma gīyate | cakṣureva sā''tmā'mastatsāma || 2

The eye is the Rik and the atman is the Saman. This Saman (the atman) rests on that Rik (speech). Therefore the Saman is sung, resting on the Rik. Sa is the eye, ama is the atman; thus they (the eye and the atman) are designated as Saman.

श्रोत्रमेवर्ङ्मनः साम तदेतदेतस्यामृच्यध्यूढ साम तस्मादृच्यध्यूढ साम गीयते। श्रोत्रमेव सा मनोऽमस्तत्साम॥

śrotramevarṅmanaḥ sāma tadetadetasyāmṛcyadhyūḍha sāma tasmādṛcyadhyūḍha sāma gīyate | śrotrameva sā mano'mastatsāma || 3

The ear is the Rik and the mind is the Saman. This Saman (the mind) rests on that Rik (the ear). Therefore the Saman is sung, resting on the Rik. Sa is the ear, ama is the mind; thus they (the ear and the mind) are designated as Sama.

अथ यदेतदक्ष्णः शुक्लं भाः सैवर्गथ यन्नीलं परः कृष्णं तत्साम तदेतदेतस्यामृच्यध्यूढ साम तस्मादृच्यध्यूढ साम गीयते। अथ यदेवैतदक्ष्णः शुक्लं भाः सैव साथ यन्नीलं परः कृष्णं तदमस्तत्साम॥

atha yadetadakṣṇaḥ śuklaṁ bhāḥ saivargatha yannīlaṁ paraḥ kṛṣṇaṁ tatsāma tadetadetasyāmṛcyadhyūḍha sāma tasmādṛcyadhyūḍha sāma gīyate | atha yadevaitadakṣṇaḥ śuklaṁ bhāḥ saiva sātha yannīlaṁ paraḥ kṛṣṇaṁ tadamastatsāma || 4

Now, the white radiance of the eye is the Rik and its blue intense darkness is the Saman. This Saman (darkness) rests on that Rik (radiance). Therefore the Saman is sung, resting on the Rik. Sa is the white radiance of the eye, ama is its blue intense darkness; thus they (the radiance and the darkness) are designated as Sama.

अथ य एषोऽन्तरक्षिणि पुरुषो दृश्यते सैवर्क्तत्साम तदुक्थं तद्यजुस्तद्ब्रह्म तस्यैतस्य तदेव रूपं यदमुष्य रूपं यावमुष्य गेष्णौ तौ गेष्णौ यन्नाम तन्नाम॥

atha ya eṣo'ntarakṣiṇi puruṣo dṛśyate saivarktatsāma tadukthaṁ tadyajustadbrahma tasyaitasya tadeva rūpaṁ yadamuṣya rūpaṁ yāvamuṣya geṣṇau tau geṣṇau yannāma tannāma || 5

Now, the person who is seen in the eye is the Rik, he is the Saman, he is the Uktha, he is the Yajus, he is Brahman. The form of this person in the eye is the same as the form of that person in the sun. The joints this person in the eye are the same as the joints of that person in the sun; the name of this one (Ut) is the same as the name of that one.

स एष ये चैतस्मादर्वाञ्चो लोकास्तेषां चेष्टे मनुष्यकामानां चेति तद्य इमे वीणायां गायन्त्येतं ते गायन्ति तस्मात्ते धनसनयः॥

sa eṣa ye caitasmādarvāñco lokāsteṣāṁ ceṣṭe manuṣyakāmānāṁ ceti tadya ime vīṇāyāṁ gāyantyetaṁ te gāyanti tasmātte dhanasanayaḥ || 6

He is the lord of the worlds which spread beneath that (i.e. the eye) and also of all the wishes of men. Therefore all who sing to the vina sing of him and from him they obtain wealth.

अथ य एतदेवं विद्वान्साम गायत्युभौ स गायति सोऽमुनैव स एष ये चामुष्मात्पराञ्चो लोकास्ताश्चाप्नोति देवकामाश्च॥

atha ya etadevaṁ vidvānsāma gāyatyubhau sa gāyati so'munaiva sa eṣa ye cāmuṣmātparāñco lokāstāścāpnoti devakāmāśca|| 7

He who, knowing this (i.e. the Udgitha), sings the Saman, sings both. Through that (i.e. the person in the sun) he obtains the world beyond that (i.e. the sun) and the wishes of the gods.

अथानेनैव ये चैतस्मादर्वाञ्चो लोकास्ताश्चाप्नोति मनुष्यकामाश्च तस्मादु हैवंविदुद्गाता ब्रूयात्‌॥

athānenaiva ye caitasmādarvāñco lokāstāścāpnoti manuṣyakāmāśca tasmādu haivaṁvidudgātā brūyāt|| 8

Likewise, through this (i.e. the person in the eye), he obtains the worlds that spread beneath that (i.e. the eye) and all the wishes of men. Therefore an udgatri priest who knows this may say to the sacrificer for whom he acts as priest: "What desire of yours shall I fulfil by singing?" For he who, knowing this, sings the Saman is able to fulfil wishes through his singing of the Saman, yea, through his singing of the Saman.

कं ते काममागायानीत्येष ह्येव कामागानस्येष्टे य एवं विद्वान्साम गायति साम गायति॥

kaṁ te kāmamāgāyānītyeṣa hyeva kāmāgānasyeṣṭe ya evaṁ vidvānsāma gāyati sāma gāyati || 9

Likewise, through this (i.e. the person in the eye), he obtains the worlds that spread beneath that (i.e. the eye) and all the wishes of men. Therefore an udgatri priest who knows this may say to the sacrificer for whom he acts as priest: "What desire of yours shall I fulfil by singing?" For he who, knowing this, sings the Saman is able to fulfil wishes through his singing of the Saman, yea, through his singing of the Saman.


अष्टमः खण्डः
Chandogya upanisad 1.8

त्रयो होद्गीथे कुशला बभूवुः शिलकः शालावत्यश्चैकितायनो दाल्भ्यः प्रवाहणो जैवलिरिति ते होचुरुद्गीथे वै कुशलाः स्मो हन्तोद्गीथे कथां वदाम इति॥

trayo hodgīthe kuśalā babhūvuḥ śilakaḥ śālāvatyaścaikitāyano dālbhyaḥ pravāhaṇo jaivaliriti te hocurudgīthe vai kuśalāḥ smo hantodgīthe kathāṁ vadāma iti || 1

There were three men versed in the Udgitha: Silaka the son of Salavat, Chaikitayana of the line of Dalbhya and Pravahana the son of Jivala. They said: "We are indeed versed in the Udgitha. Let us have a discussion of the Udgitha."

तथेति ह समुपविविशुः स ह प्रवाहणो जैवलिरुवाच भगवन्तावग्रे वदतां ब्राह्मणयोर्वदतोर्वाच श्रोष्यामीति।

tatheti ha samupaviviśuḥ sa ha pravāhaṇo jaivaliruvāca bhagavantāvagre vadatāṁ brāhmaṇayorvadatorvāca śroṣyāmīti | 2

"Let it be so," they said and sat down. Then Pravihana the son Jivala said: "Revered Sirs, you speak first and I shall listen to what the two brahmins have to say."

स ह शिलकः शालावत्यश्चैकितायनं दाल्भ्यमुवाच हन्त त्वा पृच्छानीति। पृच्छेति होवाच॥

sa ha śilakaḥ śālāvatyaścaikitāyanaṁ dālbhyamuvāca hanta tvā pṛcchānīti | pṛccheti hovāca || 3

Then Silaka the son of Salavat said to Chaikitayana of the line Dalbhya: "Well, may I question you?" "Do ask," he said.

का साम्नो गतिरिति स्वर इति होवाच स्वरस्य का गतिरिति प्राण इति होवाच प्राणस्य का गतिरित्यन्नमिति होवाचान्नस्य का गतिरित्याप इति होवाच॥

kā sāmno gatiriti svara iti hovāca svarasya kā gatiriti prāṇa iti hovāca prāṇasya kā gatirityannamiti hovācānnasya kā gatirityāpa iti hovāca || 4

"What is the support of the Saman?" "Tone (svara)," he replied. "What is the support of tone?" "The prana (vital breath)," he replied. "What is the support of the prana?" "Food," he replied. "What is the support of food?" "Water," he replied. "What is the support of water?" "Yonder world (heaven)," he replied. "What is the support of yonder world?" "Let no one carry the Saman beyond the heavenly world. We place the Saman in the heavenly world, for the Saman is praised as heaven."

अपां का गतिरित्यसौ लोक इति होवाचामुष्य लोकस्य का गतिरिति न स्वर्गं लोकमतिनयेदिति होवाच स्वर्गं वयं लोक सामाभिसंस्थापयामः स्वर्गसस्तावहि सामेति॥

apāṁ kā gatirityasau loka iti hovācāmuṣya lokasya kā gatiriti na svargaṁ lokamatinayediti hovāca svargaṁ vayaṁ loka sāmābhisaṁsthāpayāmaḥ svargasastāvahi sāmeti|| 5

"What is the support of the Saman?" "Tone (svara)," he replied. "What is the support of tone?" "The prana (vital breath)," he replied. "What is the support of the prana?" "Food," he replied. "What is the support of food?" "Water," he replied. "What is the support of water?" "Yonder world (heaven)," he replied. "What is the support of yonder world?" "Let no one carry the Saman beyond the heavenly world. We place the Saman in the heavenly world, for the Saman is praised as heaven."

त ह शिलकः शालावत्यश्चैकितायनं दाल्भ्यमुवाचाप्रतिष्ठितं वै किल ते दाल्भ्य साम यस्त्वेतर्हि ब्रूयान्मूर्धा ते विपतिष्यतीति मूर्धा ते विपतेदिति॥

ta ha śilakaḥ śālāvatyaścaikitāyanaṁ dālbhyamuvācāpratiṣṭhitaṁ vai kila te dālbhya sāma yastvetarhi brūyānmūrdhā te vipatiṣyatīti mūrdhā te vipatediti|| 6

Then Silaka the son of Salavat said to Chaikitayana of the line of Dalbhya: "O Dalbhya your Saman is not firmly established. If at this time anyone who knew the support of the Saman were to say: 'Your head shall fall off;' surely your head would fall off."

हन्ताहमेतद्भगवतो वेदानीति विद्धीति होवाचामुष्य लोकस्य का गतिरित्ययं लोक इति होवाचास्य लोकस्य का गतिरिति न प्रतिष्ठां लोकमतिनयेदिति होवाच प्रतिष्ठां वयं लोक सामाभिसस्थापयामः प्रतिष्ठासस्ताव हि सामेति॥

hantāhametadbhagavato vedānīti viddhīti hovācāmuṣya lokasya kā gatirityayaṁ loka iti hovācāsya lokasya kā gatiriti na pratiṣṭhāṁ lokamatinayediti hovāca pratiṣṭhāṁ vayaṁ loka sāmābhisasthāpayāmaḥ pratiṣṭhāsastāva hi sāmeti|| 7

"Well then, revered Sir, let me learn it from you," said Chaikitayana. "Learn it," replied Silaka. "What is the support of that world?" "This world," he replied. "What is the support of this world?" "Let no one carry the Saman beyond this world, which is its support. We place the Saman in this world as its support, for the Saman is praised as the support (i.e. this world)."

त ह प्रवाहणो जैवलिरुवाचान्तवद्वै किल ते शालावत्य साम यस्त्वेतर्हि ब्रूयान्मूर्धा ते विपतिष्यतीति मूर्धा ते विपतेदिति हन्ताहमेतद्भगवतो वेदानीति विद्धीति होवाच॥

ta ha pravāhaṇo jaivaliruvācāntavadvai kila te śālāvatya sāma yastvetarhi brūyānmūrdhā te vipatiṣyatīti mūrdhā te vipatediti hantāhametadbhagavato vedānīti viddhīti hovāca|| 8

Then said Pravahana the son of Jivala: O son of Salavat, your Saman (i.e. this earth) has an end. If at this time anyone who knew the support of the Saman were to say: 'Your head shall fall off,' surely your head would fall off." "Well then, let me learn this from you, revered Sir," said Silaka. "Learn it," said Pravahana.


नवमः खण्डः
Chandogya upanisad 1.9

अस्य लोकस्य का गतिरित्याकाश इति होवाच सर्वाणि ह वा इमानि भूतान्याकाशादेव समुत्पद्यन्त आकाशं प्रत्यस्तं यन्त्याकाशो ह्येवैभ्यो ज्यायानकाशः परायणम्‌॥

asya lokasya kā gatirityākāśa iti hovāca sarvāṇi ha vā imāni bhūtānyākāśādeva samutpadyanta ākāśaṁ pratyastaṁ yantyākāśo hyevaibhyo jyāyānakāśaḥ parāyaṇam || 1

"What is the support of this world?" asked Silaka. "The akasa," said Pravahana. "For all these beings are created from the akasa and return to the akasa. The akasa is greater than these; therefore the akasa is the supreme support."

स एष परोवरीयानुद्गीथः स एषोऽनन्तः परोवरीयो हास्य भवति परोवरीयसो ह लोकाञ्जयति य एतदेवं विद्वान्परोवरीयासमुद्गीथमुपास्ते॥

sa eṣa parovarīyānudgīthaḥ sa eṣo'nantaḥ parovarīyo hāsya bhavati parovarīyaso ha lokāñjayati ya etadevaṁ vidvānparovarīyāsamudgīthamupāste|| 2

This is the Udgitha (Om), the most excellent; this is endless. He who, knowing this, meditates on the Udgitha obtains the most excellent life and wins the most excellent worlds.

त हैतमतिधन्वा शौनक उदरशाण्डिल्यायोक्त्वोवाच यावत्त एनं प्रजायामुद्गीथं वेदिष्यन्ते परोवरीयो हैभ्यस्तावदस्मिल्लोके जीवनं भविष्यति॥

ta haitamatidhanvā śaunaka udaraśāṇḍilyāyoktvovāca yāvatta enaṁ prajāyāmudgīthaṁ vediṣyante parovarīyo haibhyastāvadasmilloke jīvanaṁ bhaviṣyati|| 3

Atidhanvan the son of Sunaka, having taught this Udgitha to Udarasandilya, said: "As long as any of your descendants know this Udgitha, their life shall be the most excellent in this world and likewise in the other world." He who thus knows the Udgitha and meditates on it-his life shall be the most excellent in this world and likewise in the other world, yea, the other world.

तथामुष्मिल्लोके लोक इति स य एतदेवं विद्वानुपास्ते परोवरीय एव हास्यास्मिल्लोके जीवनं भवति तथामुष्मिल्लोके लोक इति लोके लोक इति॥

tathāmuṣmilloke loka iti sa ya etadevaṁ vidvānupāste parovarīya eva hāsyāsmilloke jīvanaṁ bhavati tathāmuṣmilloke loka iti loke loka iti || 4

Atidhanvan the son of Sunaka, having taught this Udgitha to Udarasandilya, said: "As long as any of your descendants know this Udgitha, their life shall be the most excellent in this world and likewise in the other world." He who thus knows the Udgitha and meditates on it-his life shall be the most excellent in this world and likewise in the other world, yea, the other world.


दशमः खण्डः
Chandogya upanisad 1.10

मटचीहतेषु कुरुष्वाटिक्या सह जाययोषस्तिर्ह चाक्रायण इभ्यग्रामे प्रद्राणक उवास॥
maṭacīhateṣu kuruṣvāṭikyā saha jāyayoṣastirha cākrāyaṇa ibhyagrāme pradrāṇaka uvāsa || 1

Chandogya upanisad 1.10.1

When the crops of the Kurus were destroyed by thunderstorms, Ushasti the son of Chakra, with his child-wife, lived in a deplorable condition in the village of a man who owned an elephant.

स हेभ्यं कुल्माषान्खादन्तं बिभिक्षे त होवाच। नेतोऽन्ये विद्यन्ते यच्च ये म इम उपनिहिता इति॥

sa hebhyaṁ kulmāṣānkhādantaṁ bibhikṣe ta hovāca | neto'nye vidyante yacca ye ma ima upanihitā iti || 2

He (Ushasti) begged food from the owner of the elephant, who was eating some wretched beans. He (the owner of the elephant) said: "I have nothing but what is set before me."

एतेषां मे देहीति होवाच तानस्मै प्रददौ हन्तानुपानमित्युच्छिष्टं वै मे पीत स्यादिति होवाच ॥

eteṣāṁ me dehīti hovāca tānasmai pradadau hantānupānamityucchiṣṭaṁ vai me pīta syāditi hovāca || 3

Ushasti said: "Give me these." He gave the beans and said: "Here is some water left over from my drinking." Ushasti said: "If I drink this, I will then be drinking what has been left by another."

न स्विदेतेऽप्युच्छिष्टा इति न वा अजीविष्यमिमानखादन्निति होवाच कामो म उदपानमिति॥

na svidete'pyucchiṣṭā iti na vā ajīviṣyamimānakhādanniti hovāca kāmo ma udapānamiti || 4

The owner of the elephant said: "Were not those beans also left over and therefore unclean?" Ushasti replied: "I should not have lived if I had not eaten them; but I can get water wherever I like."

स ह खादित्वातिशेषाञ्जायाया आजहार साग्र एव सुभिक्षा बभूव तान्प्रतिगृह्य निदधौ॥

sa ha khāditvātiśeṣāñjāyāyā ājahāra sāgra eva subhikṣā babhūva tānpratigṛhya nidadhau || 5

Having himself eaten, Ushasti gave his wife what was left. But she, having eaten before, took them (i.e. the beans) and put them away.

स ह प्रातः संजिहान उवाच यद्बतान्नस्य लभेमहि लभेमहि धनमात्रा राजासौ यक्ष्यते स मा सर्वैरार्त्विज्यैर्वृणीतेति॥

sa ha prātaḥ saṁjihāna uvāca yadbatānnasya labhemahi labhemahi dhanamātrā rājāsau yakṣyate sa mā sarvairārtvijyairvṛṇīteti || 6

Next morning, on awaking, he said: "Alas, if I could get even little a to eat, I might earn some money. The king over here is going to perform a sacrifice; he would choose me for all the priestly offices."

तं जायोवाच हन्त पत इम एव कुल्माषा इति तान्खादित्वामुं यज्ञं विततमेयाय॥

taṁ jāyovāca hanta pata ima eva kulmāṣā iti tānkhāditvāmuṁ yajñaṁ vitatameyāya || 7

His wife said to him: "Here, my husband, are the beans." After eating them, he went to the sacrifice that was about to be performed.

तत्रोद्गातॄनास्तावे स्तोष्यमाणानुपोपविवेश स ह प्रस्तोतारमुवाच॥

tatrodgātṝnāstāve stoṣyamāṇānupopaviveśa sa ha prastotāramuvāca || 8

He saw there the assembled udgatri priests and sat near them in place where they would sing the hymns. He said to the prastotri priest:

प्रस्तोतर्या देवता प्रस्तावमन्वायत्ता तां चेदविद्वान्प्रस्तोष्यसि मूर्धा ते विपतिष्यतीति॥

prastotaryā devatā prastāvamanvāyattā tāṁ cedavidvānprastoṣyasi mūrdhā te vipatiṣyatīti || 9

"O prastotri priest, if without knowing the deity that belongs to Prastiva, you sing the Prastiva, your head will fall off"

एवमेवोद्गातारमुवाचोद्गातर्या देवतोद्गीथमन्वायत्ता तां चेदविद्वानुद्गास्यसि मूर्धा ते विपतिष्यतीति॥

evamevodgātāramuvācodgātaryā devatodgīthamanvāyattā tāṁ cedavidvānudgāsyasi mūrdhā te vipatiṣyatīti || 10

In the same manner he addressed the udgatri priest: "O udgatri priest, if without knowing the deity that belongs to the Udgitha, you sing the Udgitha, your head will fall off." In the same manner he addressed the pratihartri priest: "O pratihartri priest, if without knowing the deity that belongs to the Pratihara, you sing the Pratihara, your head will fall off." They all stopped performing their duties and sat in silence.

एवमेव प्रतिहर्तारमुवाच प्रतिहर्तर्या देवता प्रतिहारमन्वायत्ता तां चेदविद्वान्प्रतिहरिष्यसि मूर्धा ते विपतिष्यतीति ते ह समारतास्तूष्णीमासांचक्रिरे॥

evameva pratihartāramuvāca pratihartaryā devatā pratihāramanvāyattā tāṁ cedavidvānpratihariṣyasi mūrdhā te vipatiṣyatīti te ha samāratāstūṣṇīmāsāṁcakrire || 11

In the same manner he addressed the udgatri priest: "O udgatri priest, if without knowing the deity that belongs to the Udgitha, you sing the Udgitha, your head will fall off." In the same manner he addressed the pratihartri priest: "O pratihartri priest, if without knowing the deity that belongs to the Pratihara, you sing the Pratihara, your head will fall off." They all stopped performing their duties and sat in silence.


एकादशः खण्डः
Chandogya upanisad 1.11

अथ हैनं यजमान उवाच भगवन्तं वा अहं विविदिषाणीत्युषस्तिरस्मि चाक्रायण इति होवाच॥

atha hainaṁ yajamāna uvāca bhagavantaṁ vā ahaṁ vividiṣāṇītyuṣastirasmi cākrāyaṇa iti hovāca || 1

The sacrificer said to him (Ushasti): "I should like to know who you are, revered Sir." "I am Ushasti the son of Chakra," he replied.

स होवाच भगवन्तं वा अहमेभिः सर्वैरार्त्विज्यैः पर्यैषिषं भगवतो वा अहमविऽत्त्यान्यानवृषि॥

sa hovāca bhagavantaṁ vā ahamebhiḥ sarvairārtvijyaiḥ paryaiṣiṣaṁ bhagavato vā ahamavi'ttyānyānavṛṣi || 2

He (the sacrificer) said: "Revered Sir, I looked for you to perform all these priestly offices, but not finding you, Sir, I have chosen others."

भगवास्त्वेव मे सर्वैरार्त्विज्यैरिति तथेत्यथ तर्ह्येत एव समतिसृष्टाः स्तुवतां यावत्त्वेभ्यो धनं दद्यास्तावन्मम दद्या इति तथेति ह यजमान उवाच॥

bhagavāstveva me sarvairārtvijyairiti tathetyatha tarhyeta eva samatisṛṣṭāḥ stuvatāṁ yāvattvebhyo dhanaṁ dadyāstāvanmama dadyā iti tatheti ha yajamāna uvāca || 3

"But now, Sir, please take up all the priestly offices." "So be it," said Ushasti, "but let these priests, with my permission, sing the hymns of praise. You will, however, give me as much wealth as you give them." "So be it," said the sacrificer.

अथ हैनं प्रस्तोतोपससाद प्रस्तोतर्या देवता प्रस्तावमन्वायत्ता तां चेदविद्वान्प्रस्तोष्यसि मूर्धा ते विपतिष्यतीति मा भगवानवोचत्कतमा सा देवतेति॥

atha hainaṁ prastotopasasāda prastotaryā devatā prastāvamanvāyattā tāṁ cedavidvānprastoṣyasi mūrdhā te vipatiṣyatīti mā bhagavānavocatkatamā sā devateti || 4

Thereupon the prastotri priest approached him and said: "Sir, you said to me: 'O prastotri priest, if without knowing the deity that belongs to the Prastava, you sing the Prastava, your head will fall off.' Which is that deity?"

प्राण इति होवाच सर्वाणि ह वा इमानि भूतानि प्राणमेवाभिसंविशन्ति प्राणमभ्युज्जिहते सैषा देवता प्रस्तावमन्वायत्ता तां चेदविद्वान्प्रास्तोष्यो मूर्धा ते व्यपतिष्यत्तथोक्तस्य मयेति॥

prāṇa iti hovāca sarvāṇi ha vā imāni bhūtāni prāṇamevābhisaṁviśanti prāṇamabhyujjihate saiṣā devatā prastāvamanvāyattā tāṁ cedavidvānprāstoṣyo mūrdhā te vyapatiṣyattathoktasya mayeti || 5

Ushasti said: "The prana is that deity. For all these beings merge in the prana alone and from the prana alone do they rise. This is deity which belongs to the Prastava. If without knowing him you chanted the Prastava after having been cursed by me, your head would have fallen off."

अथ हैनमुद्गातोपससादोद्गातर्या देवतोद्गीथमन्वायत्ता तां चेदविद्वानुद्गास्यसि मूर्धा ते विपतिष्यतीति मा भगवानवोचत्कतमा सा देवतेति॥

atha hainamudgātopasasādodgātaryā devatodgīthamanvāyattā tāṁ cedavidvānudgāsyasi mūrdhā te vipatiṣyatīti mā bhagavānavocatkatamā sā devateti || 6

Then the udgatri priest approached him and said: "Sir, you said to me: 'O udgatri priest, if without knowing the deity that belongs to the Udgitha, you sing the Udgitha, your head will fall off.' Which is that deity?"

आदित्य इति होवाच सर्वाणि ह वा इमानि भूतान्यादित्यमुच्चैः सन्तं गायन्ति सैषा देवतोद्गीथमन्वायत्ता तां चेदविद्वानुदगास्यो मूर्धा ते व्यपतिष्यत्तथोक्तस्य मयेति॥

āditya iti hovāca sarvāṇi ha vā imāni bhūtānyādityamuccaiḥ santaṁ gāyanti saiṣā devatodgīthamanvāyattā tāṁ cedavidvānudagāsyo mūrdhā te vyapatiṣyattathoktasya mayeti || 7

Ushasti said: "The sun is that deity. For all these beings praise the sun which is high up. This is the deity which belongs to the Udgitha. If without knowing him you had chanted the Udgitha after having been cursed by me, your head would have fallen off."

अथ हैनं प्रतिहर्तोपससाद प्रतिहर्तर्या देवता प्रतिहारमन्वायत्ता तां चेदविद्वान्प्रतिहरिष्यसि मूर्धा ते विपतिष्यतीति मा भगवानवोचत्कतमा सा देवतेति॥

atha hainaṁ pratihartopasasāda pratihartaryā devatā pratihāramanvāyattā tāṁ cedavidvānpratihariṣyasi mūrdhā te vipatiṣyatīti mā bhagavānavocatkatamā sā devateti || 8

Then the pratihartri priest approached him and said: "Sir, you said to me: 'O pratihartri priest, if without knowing the deity that belongs to the Pratihara, you sing the Pratihara, your head will fall off.' Which is that deity?"

अन्नमिति होवाच सर्वाणि ह वा इमानि भूतन्यन्नमेव प्रतिहरमाणानि जीवन्ति सैषा देवता प्रतिहारमन्वायत्ता तां चेदविद्वान्प्रत्यहरिष्यो मूर्धा ते व्यपतिष्यत्तथोक्तस्य मयेति तथोक्तस्य मयेति॥

annamiti hovāca sarvāṇi ha vā imāni bhūtanyannameva pratiharamāṇāni jīvanti saiṣā devatā pratihāramanvāyattā tāṁ cedavidvānpratyahariṣyo mūrdhā te vyapatiṣyattathoktasya mayeti tathoktasya mayeti || 9

Ushasti said: "Food is that deity. For all these beings take food and live. This is the deity that belongs to the Pratihara. If without knowing him you had chanted the Pratihara after having been cursed by me, your head would have fallen off."


द्वादशः खण्डः
Chandogya upanisad 1.12

अथातः शौव उद्गीथस्तद्ध बको दाल्भ्यो ग्लावो वा मैत्रेयः स्वाध्यायमुद्वव्राज॥

athātaḥ śauva udgīthastaddha bako dālbhyo glāvo vā maitreyaḥ svādhyāyamudvavrāja || 1

Now follows the Udgitha of the dogs: One day, Vaka the son of Dalbhya, or as he was also called, Glava son of Mitra, went forth to study the Vedas.

तस्मै श्वा श्वेतः प्रादुर्बभूव तमन्ये श्वान उपसमेत्योचुरन्नं नो भगवानागायत्वशनायाम वा इति॥

tasmai śvā śvetaḥ prādurbabhūva tamanye śvāna upasametyocurannaṁ no bhagavānāgāyatvaśanāyāma vā iti || 2

A white dog appeared before him. Other dogs, gathering around, said to him (i.e. the white dog): "Revered Sir, please sing for us, so we may obtain food; we are hungry."

तान्होवाचेहैव मा प्रातरुपसमीयातेति तद्ध बको दाल्भ्यो ग्लावो वा मैत्रेयः प्रतिपालयांचकार॥

tānhovācehaiva mā prātarupasamīyāteti taddha bako dālbhyo glāvo vā maitreyaḥ pratipālayāṁcakāra || 3

He (the white dog) said to them: "Come to me here tomorrow morning." Vaka the son of Dalbhya, or as he was also called, Glava son of Mitra, kept watch.

ते ह यथैवेदं बहिष्पवमानेन स्तोष्यमाणाः स रब्धाः सर्पन्तीत्येवमास सृपुस्ते ह समुपविश्य हिंचक्रुः॥

te ha yathaivedaṁ bahiṣpavamānena stoṣyamāṇāḥ sa rabdhāḥ sarpantītyevamāsa sṛpuste ha samupaviśya hiṁcakruḥ || 4

Just as the priests move along, holding to one another, when they are about to sing praises with the Vahishpavamana hymn, so did the dogs move along. Then they sat down and uttered the syllable Him.

ओ३मदा३मों३पिबा३मों३देवो वरुणः प्रजापतिः सविता२न्नमिहा२ऽऽहरदन्नपते३ऽन्नमिहा२ऽऽहरा२ऽऽहरो३मिति॥

o3madā3moṁ3pibā3moṁ3devo varuṇaḥ prajāpatiḥ savitā2nnamihā2''haradannapate3'nnamihā2''harā2''haro3miti || 5

Om. Let us eat! Om. Let us drink! Om. Let the sun, who is the luminous deity (deva), the giver of rain (Varuna), the lord of creatures (Prajapati), bring food here! Now a prayer to the sun: O lord of food, bring food here, bring it here. Om.


त्रयोदशः खण्डः
Chandogya upanisad 1.13

अयं वाव लोको हा उकारो वायुर्हाकारश्चन्द्रमा अथकार आत्मेहकारोऽग्निरीकारः॥
ayaṁ vāva loko hā ukāro vāyurhāikāraścandramā athakāra ātmehakāro'gnirīkāraḥ || 1

Chandogya upanisad 1.13.1

This Earth is verily the syllable hau; the air is the syllable hai; the moon is the syllable atha; the self is the syllable iha; the fire is the syllable i.

आदित्य ऊकारो निहव एकारो विश्वेदेवा औहोयिकारः प्रजापतिर्हिंकारः प्राणः स्वरोऽन्नं या वाग्विराट्‌॥
āditya ūkāro nihava ekāro viśvedevā auhoyikāraḥ prajāpatirhiṁkāraḥ prāṇaḥ svaro'nnaṁ yā vāgvirāṭ || 2

Chandogya upanisad 1.13.2

The sun is the syllable u; the invocation is the syllable e; the Visve-devas are the syllable au-ho-i; Prajapati is the syllable him; the prana the syllable svara; food is the syllable ya; Virat is the syllable vak.

अनिरुक्तस्त्रयोदशः स्तोभः संचरो हुंकारः॥
aniruktastrayodaśaḥ stobhaḥ saṁcaro huṁkāraḥ || 3

Chandogya upanisad 1.13.3

Indefinable is the thirteenth stobha, namely, the variable syllable hum.

दुग्धेऽस्मै वाग्दोहं यो वाचो दोहोऽन्नवानन्नादो भवति य एतामेव साम्नामुपनिषदं वेदोपनिषदं वेद एति।
dugdhe'smai vāgdohaṁ yo vāco doho'nnavānannādo bhavati ya etāmeva sāmnāmupaniṣadaṁ vedopaniṣadaṁ veda eti | 4

Chandogya upanisad 1.13.4

To him who knows this secret knowledge of the Samans, speech yields milk and milk is speech. He becomes the possessor of food and the eater of food-he who knows this, yea, he who knows this.

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