Chandogya upanisad 4

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Chandogya upanisad 4

छान्दोग्योपनिषद्‌ - chāndogyopaniṣad

Upanishad

चतुर्थोऽध्यायः


प्रथमः खण्डः
Chandogya upanisad 4.1

ॐ जानश्रुतिर्ह पौत्रायणः श्रद्धादेयो बहुदायी बहुपाक्य आस स ह सर्वत आवसथान्मापयांचक्रे सर्वत एव मेऽत्स्यन्तीति॥

om jānaśrutirha pautrāyaṇaḥ śraddhādeyo bahudāyī bahupākya āsa sa ha sarvata āvasathānmāpayāṁcakre sarvata eva me'tsyantīti || 1

There once lived a king named Janasruti, who was a great- grandson of Janasruta. He bestowed his gifts with respect, gave away liberally and cooked much food for the hungry. He built rest-houses every-where with the thought that people everywhere would eat his food.

अथ ह हसा निशायामतिपेतुस्तद्धैव ह सो ह समभ्युवाद हो होऽयि भल्लाक्ष भल्लाक्ष जानश्रुतेः पौत्रायणस्य समं दिवा ज्योतिराततं तन्मा प्रसाङ्क्षी स्तत्त्वा मा प्रधाक्षीरिति॥

atha ha hasā niśāyāmatipetustaddhaiva ha so ha samabhyuvāda ho ho'yi bhallākṣa bhallākṣa jānaśruteḥ pautrāyaṇasya samaṁ divā jyotirātataṁ tanmā prasāṅkṣī stattvā mā pradhākṣīriti|| 2

One night some flamingos were flying along. One flamingo said to another: "Hey! Ho! Short-sighted, Short-sighted! The radiance of Janasruti, the great-grandson of Janasruta, has spread to the sky. Do not touch it, lest it should burn you."

तमु ह परः प्रत्युवाच कम्वर एनमेतत्सन्त सयुग्वानमिव रैक्वमात्थेति यो नु कथ सयुग्वा रैक्व इति॥

tamu ha paraḥ pratyuvāca kamvara enametatsanta sayugvānamiva raikvamāttheti yo nu katha sayugvā raikva iti || 3

The other replied: "Say, who is this person about whom you have spoken as though he were like Raikva, the man with the cart?" "What sort of person is this Raikva, the man with the cart?"

यथा कृतायविजितायाधरेयाः संयन्त्येवमेन सर्वं तदभिसमैति यत्किंच प्रजाः साधु कुर्वन्ति यस्तद्वेद यत्स वेद स मयैतदुक्त इति॥

yathā kṛtāyavijitāyādhareyāḥ saṁyantyevamena sarvaṁ tadabhisamaiti yatkiṁca prajāḥ sādhu kurvanti yastadveda yatsa veda sa mayaitadukta iti || 4

The short-sighted flamingo replied: "As in a game of dice, when the krita is won, the lower ones also are won, so whatever merits people acquire all accrue to that Raikva. As Raikva I describe him, too, who knows what Raikva knows."

तदु ह जानश्रुतिः पौत्रायण उपशुश्राव स ह संजिहान एव क्षत्तारमुवाचाङ्गारे ह सयुग्वानमिव रैक्वमात्थेति यो नु कथ सयुग्वा रैक्व इति॥

tadu ha jānaśrutiḥ pautrāyaṇa upaśuśrāva sa ha saṁjihāna eva kṣattāramuvācāṅgāre ha sayugvānamiva raikvamāttheti yo nu katha sayugvā raikva iti|| 5

Janasruti the great-grandson of Janasruta overheard this conversation. Immediately after getting out of bed, he said to his attendant: "Friend, did you speak of me as though I were Raikva, the man with the cart?" "What sort of person is Raikva, the man with the cart?" "As in a game of dice, when the krita is won, the lower ones also are won, so whatever merits people acquire all accrue to that Raikva. As Raikva I describe him, too, who knows what Raikva knows."

यथा कृतायविजितायाधरेयाः संयन्त्येवमेन सर्वं तदभिसमैति यत्किंच प्रजाः साधु कुर्वन्ति यस्तद्वेद यत्स वेद स मयैतदुक्त इति॥

yathā kṛtāyavijitāyādhareyāḥ saṁyantyevamena sarvaṁ tadabhisamaiti yatkiṁca prajāḥ sādhu kurvanti yastadveda yatsa veda sa mayaitadukta iti || 6

Janasruti the great-grandson of Janasruta overheard this conversation. Immediately after getting out of bed, he said to his attendant: "Friend, did you speak of me as though I were Raikva, the man with the cart?" "What sort of person is Raikva, the man with the cart?" "As in a game of dice, when the krita is won, the lower ones also are won, so whatever merits people acquire all accrue to that Raikva. As Raikva I describe him, too, who knows what Raikva knows."

स ह क्षत्ताऽन्विष्य नाविदमिति प्रत्येयाय त होवाच यत्रारे ब्राह्मणस्यान्वेषणा तदेनमर्च्छेति॥

sa ha kṣattā'nviṣya nāvidamiti pratyeyāya ta hovāca yatrāre brāhmaṇasyānveṣaṇā tadenamarccheti || 7

The attendant searched for him and returned without finding him. Then the king said to him: "Listen, where a knower of Brahman is to searched for, look for him there."

सोऽधस्ताच्छकटस्य पामानं कषमाणमुपोपविवेश त हाभ्युवाद त्वं नु भगवः सयुग्वा रैक्व इत्यह ह्यरा३ इति ह प्रतिजज्ञे स ह क्षत्ताऽ विदमिति प्रत्येयाय॥

so'dhastācchakaṭasya pāmānaṁ kaṣamāṇamupopaviveśa ta hābhyuvāda tvaṁ nu bhagavaḥ sayugvā raikva ityaha hyarā3 iti ha pratijajñe sa ha kṣattā' vidamiti pratyeyāya|| 8

After proper search the attendant came upon a person who, lying underneath his cart, was scratching an itch. Humbly he took his seat near him and said: "Revered Sir, are you Raikva, the man with the cart?" "Oh yes, I am he," he answered. Then the attendant returned, saying to himself: "I have found him out."


द्वितीयः खण्डः
Chandogya upanisad 4.2

तदु ह जानश्रुतिः पौत्रायणः षट्शतानि गवां निष्कमश्वतरीरथं तदादाय प्रतिचक्रमे त हाभ्युवाद॥

tadu ha jānaśrutiḥ pautrāyaṇaḥ ṣaṭśatāni gavāṁ niṣkamaśvatarīrathaṁ tadādāya praticakrame ta hābhyuvāda|| 1

Then Janasruti the great-grandson of Janasruta took with him six hundred cows, a necklace and a chariot with mules and went to Raikva and said: "Raikva, here are six hundred cows, a necklace and a chariot with mules. Pray, revered Sir, teach me the deity whom you worship."

रैक्वेमानि षट्शतानि गवामयं निष्कोऽयमश्वतरीरथो नु म एतां भगवो देवता शाधि यां देवतामुपास्स इति॥

raikvemāni ṣaṭśatāni gavāmayaṁ niṣko'yamaśvatarīratho nu ma etāṁ bhagavo devatā śādhi yāṁ devatāmupāssa iti|| 2

Then Janasruti the great-grandson of Janasruta took with him six hundred cows, a necklace and a chariot with mules and went to Raikva and said: "Raikva, here are six hundred cows, a necklace and a chariot with mules. Pray, revered Sir, teach me the deity whom you worship."

तमु ह परः प्रत्युवाचाह हारेत्वा शूद्र तवैव सह गोभिरस्त्विति तदु ह पुनरेव जानश्रुतिः पौत्रायणः सहस्रं गवां निष्कमश्वतरीरथं दुहितरं तदादाय प्रतिचक्रमे॥

tamu ha paraḥ pratyuvācāha hāretvā śūdra tavaiva saha gobhirastviti tadu ha punareva jānaśrutiḥ pautrāyaṇaḥ sahasraṁ gavāṁ niṣkamaśvatarīrathaṁ duhitaraṁ tadādāya praticakrame || 3

To him the other said: "Ah, may the necklace and the chariot remain with you, O Sudra, along with the cows." Thereupon Janasruti the great-grandson of Janasruta took with him a thousand cows, a chariot with mules, a necklace and his own daughter, too and went to Raikva.

त हाभ्युवाद रैक्वेद सहस्रं गवामयं निष्कोऽयमश्वतरीरथ इयं जायाऽयं ग्रामो यस्मिन्नास्सेऽन्वेव मा भगवः शाधीति॥

ta hābhyuvāda raikveda sahasraṁ gavāmayaṁ niṣko'yamaśvatarīratha iyaṁ jāyā'yaṁ grāmo yasminnāsse'nveva mā bhagavaḥ śādhīti || 4

Janasruti said to him: "Raikva, here are a thousand cows, a necklace, a chariot with mules, this wife and this village where you shall dwell. Revered Sir, teach me."

तस्या ह मुखमुपोद्गृह्णन्नुवाचाजहारेमाः शूद्रानेनैव मुखेनालापयिष्यथा इति ते हैते रैक्वपर्णा नाम महावृषेषु यत्रास्मा उवास तस्मै होवाच॥

tasyā ha mukhamupodgṛhṇannuvācājahāremāḥ śūdrānenaiva mukhenālāpayiṣyathā iti te haite raikvaparṇā nāma mahāvṛṣeṣu yatrāsmā uvāsa tasmai hovāca || 5

Then considering her (the princess) as the door for imparting knowledge, Raikva said: "O Sudra! You brought these cows and other presents; this is good. But you will make me speak now only through this means (i.e. the princess)." These are the villages named Raikvaparna, in the country of Mahavrishas, where Raikva lived. Now Raikva said to the king:


तृतीयः खण्डः
Chandogya upanisad 4.3

वायुर्वाव संवर्गो यदा वा अग्निरुद्वायति वायुमेवाप्येति यदा सूर्योऽस्तमेति वायुमेवाप्येति यदा चन्द्रोऽस्तमेति वायुमेवाप्येति॥

vāyurvāva saṁvargo yadā vā agnirudvāyati vāyumevāpyeti yadā sūryo'stameti vāyumevāpyeti yadā candro'stameti vāyumevāpyeti || 1

"Verily, Vayu (the air) is the swallower (samvarga). For when fire goes out it is indeed swallowed by the air. When the sun sets it is swallowed by the air. When the moon sets it is swallowed by the air.

यदाप उच्छुष्यन्ति वायुमेवापियन्ति वायुर्ह्येवैतान्सर्वान्संवृङ्क्त इत्यधिदैवतम्‌॥

yadāpa ucchuṣyanti vāyumevāpiyanti vāyurhyevaitānsarvānsaṁvṛṅkta ityadhidaivatam || 2

"When water dries up it is swallowed by the air. For indeed the air absorbs them all. So much with reference to the gods.

अथाध्यात्मं प्राणो वाव संवर्गः स यदा स्वपिति प्राणमेव वागप्येति प्राणं चक्षुः प्राण श्रोत्रं प्राणं मनः प्राणो ह्येवैतान्सर्वान्संवृङ्क्त इति॥

athādhyātmaṁ prāṇo vāva saṁvargaḥ sa yadā svapiti prāṇameva vāgapyeti prāṇaṁ cakṣuḥ prāṇa śrotraṁ prāṇaṁ manaḥ prāṇo hyevaitānsarvānsaṁvṛṅkta iti|| 3

"Now with reference to the body: Verily, the prana is the swallower. When a man sleeps, speech goes into the prana, sight goes into the prana, hearing goes into the prana and the mind goes into the prana. For indeed the prana absorbs them all.

तौ वा एतौ द्वौ सम्वर्गौ वायुरेव देवेषु प्राणः प्राणेषु॥

tau vā etau dvau samvargau vāyureva deveṣu prāṇaḥ prāṇeṣu || 4

"These are the two swallowers: the air among the gods, the prana among the senses."

अथ ह शौनकं च कापेयमभिप्रतारिणं च काक्षसेनिं परिविष्यमाणौ ब्रह्मचारी बिभिक्षे तस्मा उ ह न ददतुः॥

atha ha śaunakaṁ ca kāpeyamabhipratāriṇaṁ ca kākṣaseniṁ pariviṣyamāṇau brahmacārī bibhikṣe tasmā u ha na dadatuḥ || 5

Once Saunaka of the line of Kapi and Abhipratarin, the son of Kaxasena, were being waited upon at their meal, when a brahmacharin begged food of them. They did not give him anything.

स होवाच महात्मनश्चतुरो देव एकः कः स जगार भुवनस्य गोपास्तं कापेय नाभिपश्यन्ति मर्त्या अभिप्रतारिन्बहुधा वसन्तं यस्मै वा एतदन्नं तस्मा एतन्न दत्तमिति॥

sa hovāca mahātmanaścaturo deva ekaḥ kaḥ sa jagāra bhuvanasya gopāstaṁ kāpeya nābhipaśyanti martyā abhipratārinbahudhā vasantaṁ yasmai vā etadannaṁ tasmā etanna dattamiti || 6

He said: "One God, Prajapati, swallowed the four great ones. He is the Guardian of the world. O descendent of Kapi, O Abhipratarin, mortals do not see Him though he abides in manifold forms. Verily, this food has not been given to Him to whom it belongs."

तदु ह शौनकः कापेयः प्रतिमन्वानः प्रत्येयायाऽत्मा देवानां जनिता प्रजाना हिरण्यदष्ट्रो बभसोऽनसूरिर्महान्तमस्य महिमानमाहुरनद्यमानो यदनन्नमत्तीति वै वयं ब्रह्मचारिन्नेदमुपास्महे दत्तास्मै भिक्षामिति॥

tadu ha śaunakaḥ kāpeyaḥ pratimanvānaḥ pratyeyāyā'tmā devānāṁ janitā prajānā hiraṇyadaṣṭro babhaso'nasūrirmahāntamasya mahimānamāhuranadyamāno yadanannamattīti vai vayaṁ brahmacārinnedamupāsmahe dattāsmai bhikṣāmiti|| 7

Sanaka of the line of Kapi, pondering on those words, went to the brahmacharin and said: "He is the self of the gods, the creator of all beings, with unbroken teeth, the eater, the truly wise one. They speak of His magnificence as great, because without being eaten, He eats even what is not common food. O brahmacharin, we meditate upon this Brahman." Then he said to the attendants: "Give him food."

तस्मा उ ह ददुस्ते वा एते पञ्चान्ये पञ्चान्ये दश सन्तस्तत्कृतं तस्मात्सर्वासु दिक्ष्वन्नमेव दश कृत सैषा विराडन्नादी तयेद सर्वं दृष्ट सर्वमस्येदं दृष्टं भवत्यन्नादो भवति य एवं वेद य एवं वेद॥

tasmā u ha daduste vā ete pañcānye pañcānye daśa santastatkṛtaṁ tasmātsarvāsu dikṣvannameva daśa kṛta saiṣā virāḍannādī tayeda sarvaṁ dṛṣṭa sarvamasyedaṁ dṛṣṭaṁ bhavatyannādo bhavati ya evaṁ veda ya evaṁ veda|| 8

They gave food to him. Now these five (i.e. the eater vayu and fire, the sun, the moon and water, which are its food) and those five (i.e. the eater prana and the organs of speech, the eye, the ear and the mind, which are its food) make ten. These together constitute the krita (the highest throw in a game of dice). On account of this similarity of ten, these ten are the food in the ten quarters and further, they are Virat, the eater of food, by which all this becomes seen. All this he sees and the eater of food he becomes, who knows this, yea, who knows this.


चतुर्थः खण्डः
Chandogya upanisad 4.4

सत्यकामो ह जाबालो जबालां मातरमामन्त्रयांचक्रे ब्रह्मचर्यं भवति विवत्स्यामि किंगोत्रो न्वहमस्मीति ॥

satyakāmo ha jābālo jabālāṁ mātaramāmantrayāṁcakre brahmacaryaṁ bhavati vivatsyāmi kiṁgotro nvahamasmīti || 1

Once upon a time, Satyakama the son of Jabala addressed his mother and said: "Revered Mother, I wish to become a brahmacharin. Of what ancestry am I?"

सा हैनमुवाच नाहमेतद्वेद तात यद्गोत्रस्त्वमसि बह्वहं चरन्ती परिचारिणी यौवने त्वामलभे साहमेतन्न वेद यद्गोत्रस्त्वमसि जबाला तु नामाहमस्मि सत्यकामो नाम त्वमसि स सत्यकाम एव जाबालो ब्रुवीथा इति॥

sā hainamuvāca nāhametadveda tāta yadgotrastvamasi bahvahaṁ carantī paricāriṇī yauvane tvāmalabhe sāhametanna veda yadgotrastvamasi jabālā tu nāmāhamasmi satyakāmo nāma tvamasi sa satyakāma eva jābālo bruvīthā iti || 2

She said to him: "I do not know, my child, of what ancestry you are. In my youth I was preoccupied with many household duties and with attending on guests when I conceived you. I do not know of what ancestry you are. I am Jabala by name and you are Satyakama. So you may speak of yourself as Satyakama Jabala (the son of Jabala).

स ह हारिद्रुमतं गौतममेत्योवाच ब्रह्मचर्यं भगवति वत्स्याम्युपेयां भगवन्तमिति॥

sa ha hāridrumataṁ gautamametyovāca brahmacaryaṁ bhagavati vatsyāmyupeyāṁ bhagavantamiti || 3

He came to Gautama the son of Haridrumata and said: "Revered Sir, I wish to live with you as a brahmacharin. May I approach you, as a pupil?"

त होवाच किंगोत्रो नु सोम्यासीति स होवाच नाहमेतद्वेद भो यद्गोत्रोऽहमस्म्यपृच्छं मातर सा मा प्रत्यब्रवीद्बह्वहं चरन्ती परिचारिणी यौवने त्वामलभे साऽहमेतन्न वेद यद्गोत्रस्त्वमसि जबाला तु नामाहमस्मि सत्यकामो नाम त्वमसीति सोऽह सत्यकामो जाबालोऽस्मि भो इति॥

ta hovāca kiṁgotro nu somyāsīti sa hovāca nāhametadveda bho yadgotro'hamasmyapṛcchaṁ mātara sā mā pratyabravīdbahvahaṁ carantī paricāriṇī yauvane tvāmalabhe sā'hametanna veda yadgotrastvamasi jabālā tu nāmāhamasmi satyakāmo nāma tvamasīti so'ha satyakāmo jābālo'smi bho iti|| 4

Gautama said to him: "Of what ancestry are you, dear friend?" Satyakama said: "I do not know, Sir, of what ancestry I am. I asked my mother about it and she replied: 'In my youth I was preoccupied with many household duties and with attending on guests when I conceived you. I do not know of what ancestry you are. I am Jabala by name and you are Satyakama.' I am therefore, Sir, Satyakama Jabala."

त होवाच नैतदब्राह्मणो विवक्तुमर्हति समिध सोम्याऽऽहरोप त्वा नेष्ये न सत्यादगा इति तमुपनीय कृशानामबलानां चतुःशता गा निराकृत्योवाचेमाः सोम्यानुसंव्रजेति ता अभिप्रस्थापयन्नुवाच नासहस्रेणावर्तेयेति स ह वर्षगणं प्रोवास ता यदा सहस्र संपेदुः॥

ta hovāca naitadabrāhmaṇo vivaktumarhati samidha somyā''haropa tvā neṣye na satyādagā iti tamupanīya kṛśānāmabalānāṁ catuḥśatā gā nirākṛtyovācemāḥ somyānusaṁvrajeti tā abhiprasthāpayannuvāca nāsahasreṇāvarteyeti sa ha varṣagaṇaṁ provāsa tā yadā sahasra saṁpeduḥ|| 5

Gautama said: "None but a true brahmin would thus speak out. Fetch the fuel, dear friend; I shall initiate you. You have not departed from truth." He initiated Satyakama. Having separated out four hundred lean and weak cows from his herd, he said: "Dear friend, go with these." Driving them away toward the forest, Satyakama said: "I shall not return until they become a thousand." He lived a number of years in the forest. When the cows had become a thousand.


पञ्चमः खण्डः
Chandogya upanisad 4.5

अथ हैनमृषभोऽभ्युवाद सत्यकाम३ इति भगव इति ह प्रतिशुश्राव प्राप्ताः सोम्य सहस्र स्मः प्रापय न आचार्यकुलम्‌॥

atha hainamṛṣabho'bhyuvāda satyakāma3 iti bhagava iti ha pratiśuśrāva prāptāḥ somya sahasra smaḥ prāpaya na ācāryakulam || 1

The bull of the herd, addressing him, said: "Satyakama!" "Revered Sir!" Satyakama replied. The bull said: "Dear friend, we have become a thousand, take us to teacher's house.

ब्रह्मणश्च ते पादं ब्रवाणीति ब्रवीतु मे भगवानिति तस्मै होवाच प्राची दिक्कला प्रतीची दिक्कला दक्षिणा दिक्कलोदीची दिक्कलैष वै सोम्य चतुष्कलः पादो ब्रह्मणः प्रकाशवान्नाम॥

brahmaṇaśca te pādaṁ bravāṇīti bravītu me bhagavāniti tasmai hovāca prācī dikkalā pratīcī dikkalā dakṣiṇā dikkalodīcī dikkalaiṣa vai somya catuṣkalaḥ pādo brahmaṇaḥ prakāśavānnāma || 2

"I will declare to you one foot of Brahman." "Declare it, Revered Sir." The bull said to him: "The east is one quarter, the west is one quarter, the south is one quarter, the north is one quarter. This, dear friend, is foot of Brahman, consisting of four quarters and this foot is called Prakasavat (shining).

स य एतमेवं विद्वाश्चतुष्कलं पादं ब्रह्मणः प्रकाशवानित्युपास्ते प्रकाशवानस्मिल्लोके भवति प्रकाशवतो ह लोकाञ्जयति य एतमेवं विद्वाश्चतुष्कलं पादं ब्रह्मणः प्रकाशवानित्युपास्ते॥

sa ya etamevaṁ vidvāścatuṣkalaṁ pādaṁ brahmaṇaḥ prakāśavānityupāste prakāśavānasmilloke bhavati prakāśavato ha lokāñjayati ya etamevaṁ vidvāścatuṣkalaṁ pādaṁ brahmaṇaḥ prakāśavānityupāste || 3

"He who knows this and meditates on the foot of Brahman consisting four quarters as shining, becomes shining on this earth. He conquers shining worlds-he who knows this and meditates on the foot of Brahman consisting of four quarters as shining."


षष्ठः खण्डः
Chandogya upanisad 4.6

अग्निष्टे पादं वक्तेति स ह श्वोभूते ग आभिप्रस्थापयांचकार ता यत्राभि सायं बभूवुस्तत्राग्निमुपसमाधाय गा उपरुध्य समिधमाधाय पश्चादग्नेः प्राङुपोपविवेश॥

agniṣṭe pādaṁ vakteti sa ha śvobhūte ga ābhiprasthāpayāṁcakāra tā yatrābhi sāyaṁ babhūvustatrāgnimupasamādhāya gā uparudhya samidhamādhāya paścādagneḥ prāṅupopaviveśa|| 1

The bull further said: "Agni (fire) will declare to you another foot of Brahman." Satyakama then, when it was the morrow, drove the cows in the direction of the teacher's house. And when they came together toward evening, he lighted a fire, penned the cows, laid fuel on the fire and sat down behind the fire, facing the east.

तमग्निरभ्युवाद सत्यकाम३ इति भगव इति ह प्रतिशुश्राव॥

tamagnirabhyuvāda satyakāma3 iti bhagava iti ha pratiśuśrāva|| 2

Agni (fire), addressing him, said: "Satyakama!" "Revered Sir!" Satyakama replied.

ब्रह्मणः सोम्य ते पादं ब्रवाणीति ब्रवीतु मे भगवानिति तस्मै होवाच पृथिवी कलाऽन्तरिक्षं कला द्यौः कला समुद्रः कलैष वै सोम्य चतुष्कलः पादो ब्रह्मणोऽनन्तवान्नाम॥

brahmaṇaḥ somya te pādaṁ bravāṇīti bravītu me bhagavāniti tasmai hovāca pṛthivī kalā'ntarikṣaṁ kalā dyauḥ kalā samudraḥ kalaiṣa vai somya catuṣkalaḥ pādo brahmaṇo'nantavānnāma || 3

"Dear friend, I will declare to you one foot of Brahman." "Declare it, revered Sir." Agni said to him: "The earth is one quarter, the sky is one quarter, heaven is one quarter, the ocean is one quarter. This, dear friend, is one foot of Brahman, consisting of four quarters and this foot is called Anantavat (endless).

स य एतमेवं विद्वाश्चतुष्कलं पादं ब्रह्मणोऽनन्तवानित्युपास्तेऽनन्तवानस्मिल्लोके भवत्यनन्तवतो ह लोकाञ्जयति य एतमेवं विद्वाश्चतुष्कलं पादं ब्रह्मणोऽनन्तवानित्युपास्ते॥

sa ya etamevaṁ vidvāścatuṣkalaṁ pādaṁ brahmaṇo'nantavānityupāste'nantavānasmilloke bhavatyanantavato ha lokāñjayati ya etamevaṁ vidvāścatuṣkalaṁ pādaṁ brahmaṇo'nantavānityupāste|| 4

"He who knows this and meditates on the foot of Brahman consisting of four quarters as endless, becomes endless on this earth. He conquers endless worlds-he who knows this and meditates on the foot of Brahman consisting of four quarters as endless."


सप्तमः खण्डः
Chandogya upanisad 4.7

हसस्ते पादं वक्तेति स ह श्वोभूते गा अभिप्रस्थापयांचकार ता यत्राभि सायं बभूवुस्तत्राग्निमुपसमाधाय गा उपरुध्य समिधमाधाय पश्चादग्नेः प्राङुपोपविवेश॥

hasaste pādaṁ vakteti sa ha śvobhūte gā abhiprasthāpayāṁcakāra tā yatrābhi sāyaṁ babhūvustatrāgnimupasamādhāya gā uparudhya samidhamādhāya paścādagneḥ prāṅupopaviveśa|| 1

Agni further said: "A hamsa (swan) will declare to you another foot." Satyakama then, when it was the morrow, drove the cows in the direction of the teacher's house. And when they came together toward evening, he lighted a fire, penned the cows, laid fuel on the fire and sat down behind the fire, facing the east.

त हस उपनिपत्याभ्युवाद सत्यकाम३ इति भगव इति ह प्रतिशुश्राव॥

ta hasa upanipatyābhyuvāda satyakāma3 iti bhagava iti ha pratiśuśrāva|| 2

Then a swan flew to him and said: "Satyakama!" "Revered Sir!" Satyakama replied.

ब्रह्मणः सोम्य ते पादं ब्रवाणीति ब्रवीतु मे भगवानिति तस्मै होवाचाग्निः कला सूर्यः कला चन्द्रः कला विद्युत्कलैष वै सोम्य चतुष्कलः पादो ब्रह्मणो ज्योतिष्मान्नाम॥

brahmaṇaḥ somya te pādaṁ bravāṇīti bravītu me bhagavāniti tasmai hovācāgniḥ kalā sūryaḥ kalā candraḥ kalā vidyutkalaiṣa vai somya catuṣkalaḥ pādo brahmaṇo jyotiṣmānnāma|| 3

Dear friend, I will declare to you one foot of Brahman." "Declare it, revered Sir." The swan said to him: "Fire is one quarter, the sun is one quarter, the moon is one quarter, lightning is one quarter. This, dear friend, is one foot of Brahman, consisting of four quarters and this foot is called Jyotishmat (luminous).

स य एतमेवं विद्वाश्चतुष्कलं पादं ब्रह्मणो ज्योतिष्मानित्युपास्ते ज्योतिष्मानस्मिल्लोके भवति ज्योतिष्मतो ह लोकाञ्जयति य एतमेवं विद्वाश्चतुष्कलं पादं ब्रह्मणो ज्योतिष्मानित्युपास्ते॥

sa ya etamevaṁ vidvāścatuṣkalaṁ pādaṁ brahmaṇo jyotiṣmānityupāste jyotiṣmānasmilloke bhavati jyotiṣmato ha lokāñjayati ya etamevaṁ vidvāścatuṣkalaṁ pādaṁ brahmaṇo jyotiṣmānityupāste|| 4

He who knows this and meditates on the foot of Brahman consisting of four quarters as luminous, becomes luminous on this earth. He conquers luminous worlds-he who knows this and meditates on the foot of Brahman consisting of four quarters as luminous.


अष्टमः खण्डः
Chandogya upanisad 4.8

मद्गुष्टे पादं वक्तेति स ह श्वोभूते गा अभिप्रस्थापयांचकार ता यत्राभि सायं बभूवुस्तत्राग्निमुपसमाधाय गा उपरुध्य समिधमाधाय पश्चादग्नेः प्राङुपोपविवेश॥

madguṣṭe pādaṁ vakteti sa ha śvobhūte gā abhiprasthāpayāṁcakāra tā yatrābhi sāyaṁ babhūvustatrāgnimupasamādhāya gā uparudhya samidhamādhāya paścādagneḥ prāṅupopaviveśa || 1

The swan further said: "A madgu (diver-bird) will declare to you another foot." Satyakama then, when it was the morrow, drove the cows in the direction of the teacher's house. And when they came together toward evening, he lighted a fire, penned the cows, laid fuel on the fire and sat down behind the fire, facing the east.

तं मद्गुरुपनिपत्याभ्युवाद सत्यकाम३ इति भगव इति ह प्रतिशुश्राव॥

taṁ madgurupanipatyābhyuvāda satyakāma3 iti bhagava iti ha pratiśuśrāva || 2

Then a diver-bird flew to him and said: "Satyakama!" "Revered Sir!" Satyakama replied.

ब्रह्मणः सोम्य ते पादं ब्रवाणीति ब्रवीतु मे भगवानिति तस्मै होवाच प्राणः कला चक्षुः कला श्रोत्रं कला मनः कलैष वै सोम्य चतुष्कलः पादो ब्रह्मण आयतनवान्नाम॥

brahmaṇaḥ somya te pādaṁ bravāṇīti bravītu me bhagavāniti tasmai hovāca prāṇaḥ kalā cakṣuḥ kalā śrotraṁ kalā manaḥ kalaiṣa vai somya catuṣkalaḥ pādo brahmaṇa āyatanavānnāma || 3

"Dear friend, I will declare to you one foot of Brahman." "Declare it, revered Sir." The diver-bird said to him: "The prana is one quarter, the eye is one quarter, the ear is one quarter, the mind is one quarter. This, dear friend, is one foot of Brahman, consisting of four quarters and this foot is called Ayatanavat (having support).

स य एतमेवं विद्वाश्चतुष्कलं पादं ब्रह्मण आयतनवानित्युपास्त आयतनवानस्मिल्लोके भवत्यायतनवतो ह लोकाञ्जयति य एतमेवं विद्वाश्चतुष्कलं पादं ब्रह्मण आयतनवानित्युपास्ते ॥

sa ya etamevaṁ vidvāścatuṣkalaṁ pādaṁ brahmaṇa āyatanavānityupāsta āyatanavānasmilloke bhavatyāyatanavato ha lokāñjayati ya etamevaṁ vidvāścatuṣkalaṁ pādaṁ brahmaṇa āyatanavānityupāste || 4

"He who knows this and meditates on the foot of Brahman consisting of four quarters as Ayatanavat, possesses a support (i.e. home) on this earth. He conquers the worlds which offer a home-he who knows this and meditates on the foot of Brahman consisting of four quarters as Ayatanavat."


नवमः खण्डः
Chandogya upanisad 4.9

राप हाऽऽचर्यकुलं तमाचर्योऽभ्युवाद सत्यकाम३ इति भगव इति ह प्रतिशुश्राव॥

prāpa hā''caryakulaṁ tamācaryo'bhyuvāda satyakāma3 iti bhagava iti ha pratiśuśrāva || 1

Satyakama reached the teacher's house. The teacher said to him: "Satyakama!

ब्रह्मविदिव वै सोम्य भासि को नु त्वाऽनुशशासेत्यन्ये मनुष्येभ्य इति ह प्रतिजज्ञे भगवास्त्वेव मे कामे ब्रूयात्‌॥

brahmavidiva vai somya bhāsi ko nu tvā'nuśaśāsetyanye manuṣyebhya iti ha pratijajñe bhagavāstveva me kāme brūyāt || 2

The teacher said: "Dear friend, you shine like one who knows Brahman. Who has taught you?" "Others than men," he replied. "But I wish, revered Sir, that you alone should teach me."

रुत ह्येव मे भगवद्दृशेभ्य आचार्याद्धैव विद्या विदिता साधिष्ठं प्रापतीति तस्मै हैतदेवोवाचात्र ह न किंचन वीयायेति वीयायेति॥

śruta hyeva me bhagavaddṛśebhya ācāryāddhaiva vidyā viditā sādhiṣṭhaṁ prāpatīti tasmai haitadevovācātra ha na kiṁcana vīyāyeti vīyāyeti|| 3

"For I have heard from persons like your good self that only knowledge which is learnt from a teacher (acharya) leads to the highest good." Then he (Gautama) taught him the same knowledge. Nothing whatsoever was left out, yea, nothing whatsoever was left out.


दशमः खण्डः
Chandogya upanisad 4.10

उपकोसलो ह वै कामलायनः सत्यकामे जाबाले ब्रह्मचार्यमुवास तस्य ह द्वादश वार्षाण्यग्नीन्परिचचार स ह स्माऽन्यानन्तेवासिनः समावर्तय स्तं ह स्मैव न समावर्तयति॥

upakosalo ha vai kāmalāyanaḥ satyakāme jābāle brahmacāryamuvāsa tasya ha dvādaśa vārṣāṇyagnīnparicacāra sa ha smā'nyānantevāsinaḥ samāvartaya staṁ ha smaiva na samāvartayati || 1

Upakosala the son of Kamala dwelt as a brahmachirin (religious student) with Satyakama the son of Jabala. He tended his teacher's fires for twelve years. Satyakama allowed his other pupils to return to their homes after they had finished their Vedic studies but did not allow Upakosala to depart.

तं जायोवाच तप्तो ब्रह्मचारी कुशलमग्नीन्परिचचारीन्मा त्वाऽग्नयः परिप्रवोचन्प्रब्रूह्यस्मा इति तस्मै हाप्रोच्यैव प्रवासांचक्रे॥

Transliteration

taṁ jāyovāca tapto brahmacārī kuśalamagnīnparicacārīnmā tvā'gnayaḥ paripravocanprabrūhyasmā iti tasmai hāprocyaiva pravāsāṁcakre || 2

Then his wife said to him: "This brahmachirin, practising austerities, has intelligently tended your fires. Give him instruction lest the fires should blame you." The teacher, however, went away on a journey without teaching him.

स ह व्याधिनानशितुं दध्रे तमाचार्यजायोवाच ब्रह्मचारिन्नशान किं नु नाश्नासीति स होवाच बहव इमेऽस्मिन्पुरुषे कामा नानात्यया व्याधीभिः प्रतिपूर्णोऽस्मि नाशिष्यामीति॥

sa ha vyādhinānaśituṁ dadhre tamācāryajāyovāca brahmacārinnaśāna kiṁ nu nāśnāsīti sa hovāca bahava ime'sminpuruṣe kāmā nānātyayā vyādhībhiḥ pratipūrṇo'smi nāśiṣyāmīti || 3

The brahmachirin out of mental grief began to fast. Then the teacher's wife said to him: "Brahmachirin, why do you not eat?" He said: "There are in a man like me many desires directed to various objects. I am full of sorrows. I will not eat."

अथ हाग्नयः समूदिरे तप्तो ब्रह्मचारी कुशलं नः पर्यचारीद्धन्तास्मै प्रब्रवामेति तस्मै होचुः प्राणो ब्रह्म कं ब्रह्म खं ब्रह्मेति॥

atha hāgnayaḥ samūdire tapto brahmacārī kuśalaṁ naḥ paryacārīddhantāsmai prabravāmeti tasmai hocuḥ prāṇo brahma kaṁ brahma khaṁ brahmeti || 4

Thereupon the fires said among themselves: "This brahmachirin, practising austerities, has intelligently tended us. Come, let us teach him." They said to him: "The prana is Brahman, ka (joy) is Brahman, kha (the akaha) is Brahman."

स होवाच विजानाम्यहं यत्प्राणो ब्रह्म कं च तु खं च न विजानामीति ते होचुर्यद्वाव कं तदेव खं यदेव खं तदेव कमिति प्राणं च हास्मै तदाकाशं चोचुः॥

sa hovāca vijānāmyahaṁ yatprāṇo brahma kaṁ ca tu khaṁ ca na vijānāmīti te hocuryadvāva kaṁ tadeva khaṁ yadeva khaṁ tadeva kamiti prāṇaṁ ca hāsmai tadākāśaṁ cocuḥ|| 5

He said: "I understand that the prana is Brahman, but I do not understand 'joy' (ka) and 'the akasa' (kha)." They said: "What is joy (ka) is the akasa (kha), what is the akasa (kha) is joy (ka)." They taught him the prana (i.e. Brahman) and the akasa related to it.


एकादशः खण्डः
Chandogya upanisad 4.11

अथ हैनं गार्हपत्योऽनुशशास पृथिव्यग्निरन्नमादित्य इति य एष आदित्ये पुरुषो दृश्यते सोऽहमस्मि स एवाहमस्मीति॥

atha hainaṁ gārhapatyo'nuśaśāsa pṛthivyagnirannamāditya iti ya eṣa āditye puruṣo dṛśyate so'hamasmi sa evāhamasmīti|| 1

Next the Garhapatya Fire taught him: "The earth, fire, food and the sun are my forms. The person that is seen in the sun-I am he, I am he indeed.

स य एतमेवं विद्वानुपास्तेऽपहते पापकृत्यां लोकी भवति सर्वमायुरेति ज्योग्जीवति नास्यावरपुरुषाः क्षीयन्त उप वयं तं भुञ्जामोऽस्मिश्च लोकेऽमुष्मिश्च य एतमेवं विद्वानुपास्ते॥

sa ya etamevaṁ vidvānupāste'pahate pāpakṛtyāṁ lokī bhavati sarvamāyureti jyogjīvati nāsyāvarapuruṣāḥ kṣīyanta upa vayaṁ taṁ bhuñjāmo'smiśca loke'muṣmiśca ya etamevaṁ vidvānupāste || 2

"He who, knowing this, meditates on the fire frees himself from sinful actions, obtains the World of the Garhapatya Fire, reaches his full age and lives brightly. His descendants do not perish. We support him in this world and in the other who, knowing this, meditates on the fire."


द्वादशः खण्डः
Chandogya upanisad 4.12

अथ हैनमन्वाहार्यपचनोऽनुशशासापो दिशो नक्षत्राणि चन्द्रमा इति य एष चन्द्रमसि पुरुषो दृश्यते सोऽहमस्मि स एवाहमस्मीति॥

atha hainamanvāhāryapacano'nuśaśāsāpo diśo nakṣatrāṇi candramā iti ya eṣa candramasi puruṣo dṛśyate so'hamasmi sa evāhamasmīti || 1

Then the Anvaharya (Southern) Fie taught him: "Water, the quarters, the stars and the moon are my forms. The person that is seen in the moon-I am he, I am he indeed.

स य एतमेवं विद्वानुपास्तेऽपहते पापकृत्यां लोकी भवति सर्वमायुरेति ज्योग्जीवति नास्यावरपुरुषाः क्षीयन्त उप वयं तं भुञ्जामोऽस्मिश्च लोकेऽमुष्मिश्च य एतमेवं विद्वानुपास्ते॥

sa ya etamevaṁ vidvānupāste'pahate pāpakṛtyāṁ lokī bhavati sarvamāyureti jyogjīvati nāsyāvarapuruṣāḥ kṣīyanta upa vayaṁ taṁ bhuñjāmo'smiśca loke'muṣmiśca ya etamevaṁ vidvānupāste || 2

"He who, knowing this, meditates on the fire frees himself from sinful actions, obtains the World of the Anvaharya Fire, reaches his full age and lives brightly. His descendants do not perish. We support him in this world and in the other who, knowing this, meditates on the fire."


त्रयोदशः खण्डः
Chandogya upanisad 4.13

अथ हैनमाहवनीयोऽनुशशास प्राण आकाशो द्यौर्विद्युदिति य एष विद्युति पुरुषो दृश्यते सोऽहमस्मि स एवाहमस्मीति॥

atha hainamāhavanīyo'nuśaśāsa prāṇa ākāśo dyaurvidyuditi ya eṣa vidyuti puruṣo dṛśyate so'hamasmi sa evāhamasmīti || 1

Then the Ahavaniya Fire taught him: "The prana, the akaha, heaven and lightning are my forms. The person that is seen in lightning-I am he, I am he indeed.

स य एतमेवं विद्वानुपास्तेऽपहते पापकृत्यां लोकी भवति सर्वमयुरेति ज्योग्जीवति नास्यावरपुरुषाः क्षीयन्त उप वयं तं भुञ्जामोऽस्मिश्च लोकेऽमुष्मिश्च य एतमेवं विद्वानुपास्ते॥

Transliteration

sa ya etamevaṁ vidvānupāste'pahate pāpakṛtyāṁ lokī bhavati sarvamayureti jyogjīvati nāsyāvarapuruṣāḥ kṣīyanta upa vayaṁ taṁ bhuñjāmo'smiśca loke'muṣmiśca ya etamevaṁ vidvānupāste|| 2

"He who, knowing this, meditates on the fire frees himself from sinful actions, obtains the World of the Anvaharya Fire, reaches his full age and lives brightly. His descendants do not perish. We support him in this world and in the other who, knowing this, meditates on the fire.


चतुर्दशः खण्डः
Chandogya upanisad 4.

ते होचुरुपकोसलैषा सोम्य तेऽस्मद्विद्यात्मविद्या चाचार्यस्तु ते गतिं वक्तेत्याजगाम हास्याचार्यस्तमाचार्योऽभ्युवादोपकोसल३ इति॥

te hocurupakosalaiṣā somya te'smadvidyātmavidyā cācāryastu te gatiṁ vaktetyājagāma hāsyācāryastamācāryo'bhyuvādopakosala3 iti || 1

Then they (i.e. all the fires) said: "Upakosala, dear friend, thus we taught you the knowledge of ourselves and the knowledge of the Self. But the teacher will teach you the way." The teacher returned and said to him: "Upakosala!"

भगव इति ह प्रतिशुश्राव ब्रह्मविद इव सोम्य ते मुखं भाति को नु त्वानुशशासेति को नु मानुशिष्याद्भो इतीहापेव निह्नुत इमे नूनमीदृशा अन्यादृशा इतीहाग्नीनभ्यूदे किं नु सोम्य किल तेऽवोचन्निति॥

bhagava iti ha pratiśuśrāva brahmavida iva somya te mukhaṁ bhāti ko nu tvānuśaśāseti ko nu mānuśiṣyādbho itīhāpeva nihnuta ime nūnamīdṛśā anyādṛśā itīhāgnīnabhyūde kiṁ nu somya kila te'vocanniti || 2

He replied: "Revered Sir!" "Dear friend, your face shines like that of one who knows Brahman. Who has taught you?" "Who should teach me, Sir?" Here he conceals the fact, as it were. And he said pointing to the fires: "For this reason they are of this form now, though they were of a different form before." "Dear friend, what did they teach you?" "This," Upakosala replied and repeated some of what the fires had told him. The teacher said: "They told you, dear friend, only about the worlds, but I shall tell you about Brahman. As water does not cling to the lotus leaf, so no evil clings to one who knows this." Upakosala said to him: "Revered Sir, please tell me."

इदमिति ह प्रतिजज्ञे लोकान्वाव किल सोम्य तेऽवोचन्नहं तु ते तद्वक्ष्यामि यथा पुष्करपलाश आपो न श्लिष्यन्त एवमेवंविदि पापं कर्म न श्लिष्यत इति ब्रवीतु मे भगवानिति तस्मै होवाच॥

idamiti ha pratijajñe lokānvāva kila somya te'vocannahaṁ tu te tadvakṣyāmi yathā puṣkarapalāśa āpo na śliṣyanta evamevaṁvidi pāpaṁ karma na śliṣyata iti bravītu me bhagavāniti tasmai hovāca|| 3

He replied: "Revered Sir!" "Dear friend, your face shines like that of one who knows Brahman. Who has taught you?" "Who should teach me, Sir?" Here he conceals the fact, as it were. And he said pointing to the fires: "For this reason they are of this form now, though they were of a different form before." "Dear friend, what did they teach you?" "This," Upakosala replied and repeated some of what the fires had told him. The teacher said: "They told you, dear friend, only about the worlds, but I shall tell you about Brahman. As water does not cling to the lotus leaf, so no evil clings to one who knows this." Upakosala said to him: "Revered Sir, please tell me."


पञ्चदशः खण्डः
Chandogya upanisad 4.15

य एषोऽक्षिणि पुरुषो दृश्यत एष आत्मेति होवाचैतदमृतमभयमेतद्ब्रह्मेति तद्यद्यप्यस्मिन्सर्पिर्वोदकं वा सिञ्चति वर्त्मनी एव गच्छति॥

ya eṣo'kṣiṇi puruṣo dṛśyata eṣa ātmeti hovācaitadamṛtamabhayametadbrahmeti tadyadyapyasminsarpirvodakaṁ vā siñcati vartmanī eva gacchati || 1

He said: "The person that is seen in the eye-that is the Self. This is the immortal, the fearless; this is Brahman. That is why, if one drops melted butter or water in the eye, it flows away on both sides.

एत संयद्वाम इत्याचक्षत एत हि सर्वाणि वामान्यभिसंयन्ति सर्वाण्येनं वामान्यभिसंयन्ति य एवं वेद॥

eta saṁyadvāma ityācakṣata eta hi sarvāṇi vāmānyabhisaṁyanti sarvāṇyenaṁ vāmānyabhisaṁyanti ya evaṁ veda || 2

"The seers call him Samyadvama, for all blessings (vama) go towards him (samyanti). All blessings go towards him who knows this.

एष उ एव वामनीरेष हि सर्वाणि वामानि नयति सर्वाणि वामानि नयति य एवं वेद।

eṣa u eva vāmanīreṣa hi sarvāṇi vāmāni nayati sarvāṇi vāmāni nayati ya evaṁ veda | 3

"He is also Vamani, for he carries to living beings (nayati) all blessings (vama). He who knows this carries all blessings.

एष उ एव भामनीरेष हि सर्वेषु लोकेषु भाति सर्वेषु लोकेषु भाति य एवं वेद॥

eṣa u eva bhāmanīreṣa hi sarveṣu lokeṣu bhāti sarveṣu lokeṣu bhāti ya evaṁ veda || 4

"He is also called Bhamani, for he shines (bhati) in all the worlds. He who knows this shines in all the worlds.

अथ यदु चैवास्मिञ्छव्यं कुर्वन्ति यदि च नार्चिषमेवाभिसंभवन्त्यर्चिषोऽहरह्न आपूर्यमाणपक्षमापूर्यमाणपक्षाद्यान्षडुदङ्ङेति मासास्तान्मासेभ्यः संवत्सर संवत्सरादादित्यमादित्याच्चन्द्रमसं चन्द्रमसो विद्युतं तत् पुरुषोऽमानवः स एनान्ब्रह्म गमयत्येष देवपथो ब्रह्मपथ एतेन प्रतिपद्यमाना इमं मानवमावर्तं नावर्तन्ते नावर्तन्ते॥

atha yadu caivāsmiñchavyaṁ kurvanti yadi ca nārciṣamevābhisaṁbhavantyarciṣo'harahna āpūryamāṇapakṣamāpūryamāṇapakṣādyānṣaḍudaṅṅeti māsāstānmāsebhyaḥ saṁvatsara saṁvatsarādādityamādityāccandramasaṁ candramaso vidyutaṁ tat puruṣo'mānavaḥ sa enānbrahma gamayatyeṣa devapatho brahmapatha etena pratipadyamānā imaṁ mānavamāvartaṁ nāvartante nāvartante || 5

"Now, whether or not they perform the funeral rites for such a person, he goes to light, from light to day, from day to the bright half of the moon, from the bright half of the moon to the six months during which the sun goes to the north, from those months to the year, from the year to the sun, from the sun to the moon, from the moon to lightning. There a person who is not a human being meets him and leads him to Brahman. This is the Path of the Gods (Devayana), the path leading to Brahman. Those who travel by it do not return to the whirl of humanity, yea, they do not return."


षोडशः खण्डः
Chandogya upanisad 4.16

एष ह वै यज्ञो योऽयं पवते एष ह यन्निद सर्वं पुनाति यदेष यन्निद सर्वं पुनाति तस्मादेष एव यज्ञस्तस्य मनश्च वाक्च वर्तनी।

eṣa ha vai yajño yo'yaṁ pavate eṣa ha yannida sarvaṁ punāti yadeṣa yannida sarvaṁ punāti tasmādeṣa eva yajñastasya manaśca vākca vartanī| 1

Verily, he who moves along (i.e. the air) is the sacrifice; for he, moving along, purifies everything. And because, moving along, he purifies everything, he is the sacrifice. Of that sacrifice, the mind and speech are the two ways.

तयोरन्यतरां मनसा सस्करोति ब्रह्मा वाचा होताध्वर्युरुद्गातान्यतरायत्रौपाकृते प्रातरनुवाके पुरा परिधानीयाया ब्रह्मा व्यवदति॥

tayoranyatarāṁ manasā saskaroti brahmā vācā hotādhvaryurudgātānyatarāyatraupākṛte prātaranuvāke purā paridhānīyāyā brahmā vyavadati || 2

The Brahma priest purifies one of the two (i.e. the mind) by his mind. The other (i.e. speech) is purified through words by the hotri priest, the adhvaryu priest and the udgatri priest. If the Brahma priest, after the Prataranuvaka hymn has begun and before the recitation of the Paridhaniya hymn, breaks his silence and speaks, he purifies only one of the ways (i.e. speech), but the other (i.e. the mind) is injured. As a man walking on one leg, or a carriage going on one wheel, is injured, likewise the sacrifice is injured. Following the injury to the sacrifice, the sacrificer too is injured. By performing the defective sacrifice he becomes more sinful.

अन्यतरामेव वर्तनी सस्करोति हीयतेऽन्यतरा स यथैकपाद्व्रजन्रथो वैकेन चक्रेण वर्तमानो रिष्यत्येवमस्य यज्ञोरिष्यति यज्ञ रिष्यन्तं यजमानोऽनुरिष्यति स इष्ट्वा पापीयान्भवति॥

anyatarāmeva vartanī saskaroti hīyate'nyatarā sa yathaikapādvrajanratho vaikena cakreṇa vartamāno riṣyatyevamasya yajñoriṣyati yajña riṣyantaṁ yajamāno'nuriṣyati sa iṣṭvā pāpīyānbhavati || 3

The Brahma priest purifies one of the two (i.e. the mind) by his mind. The other (i.e. speech) is purified through words by the hotri priest, the adhvaryu priest and the udgatri priest. If the Brahma priest, after the Prataranuvaka hymn has begun and before the recitation of the Paridhaniya hymn, breaks his silence and speaks, he purifies only one of the ways (i.e. speech), but the other (i.e. the mind) is injured. As a man walking on one leg, or a carriage going on one wheel, is injured, likewise the sacrifice is injured. Following the injury to the sacrifice, the sacrificer too is injured. By performing the defective sacrifice he becomes more sinful.

अथ यत्रोपाकृते प्रातरनुवाके न पुरा परिधानीयाया ब्रह्मा व्यवदत्युभे एव वर्तनी सस्कुर्वन्ति न हीयतेऽन्यतरा॥

atha yatropākṛte prātaranuvāke na purā paridhānīyāyā brahmā vyavadatyubhe eva vartanī saskurvanti na hīyate'nyatarā || 4

But if the Brahma priest, after the Prataranuvaka hymn has begun and before the recitation of the Paridhaniya, does not break his silence and speak, he purifies both the ways and neither of them is injured. As a man walking on two legs or a carriage going on two wheels goes on without obstacle, likewise the sacrifice goes on without obstacle. Following the success of the sacrifice, the sacrificer too fares well. Having performed the sacrifice he becomes better.

स यथोभयपाद्व्रजन्रथो वोभाभ्यां चक्राभ्यां वर्तमानः प्रतितिष्ठत्येवमस्य यज्ञः प्रतितिष्ठति यज्ञं प्रतितिष्ठन्तं यजमानोऽनुप्रतितिष्ठति स इष्ट्वा श्रेयान्भवति॥

sa yathobhayapādvrajanratho vobhābhyāṁ cakrābhyāṁ vartamānaḥ pratitiṣṭhatyevamasya yajñaḥ pratitiṣṭhati yajñaṁ pratitiṣṭhantaṁ yajamāno'nupratitiṣṭhati sa iṣṭvā śreyānbhavati || 5


सप्तदशः खण्डः
Chandogya upanisad 4.17

प्रजापतिर्लोकानभ्यतपत्तेषां तप्यमानाना रसान्प्रावृहदग्निं पृथिव्या वायुमन्तरिक्षातादित्यं दिवः॥

prajāpatirlokānabhyatapatteṣāṁ tapyamānānā rasānprāvṛhadagniṁ pṛthivyā vāyumantarikṣātādityaṁ divaḥ || 1

Prajapati brooded over the worlds; from them, thus brooded over, he squeezed the essences: agni (fire) from the earth, vayu (air) from the mid-region and aditya (the sun) from heaven.

स एतास्तिस्रो देवता अभ्यतपत्तासां तप्यमानाना रसान्प्रावृहदग्नेरृचो वायोर्यजूषि सामान्यादित्यात्‌॥

sa etāstisro devatā abhyatapattāsāṁ tapyamānānā rasānprāvṛhadagnerṛco vāyoryajūṣi sāmānyādityāt || 2

He brooded over these three deities; from them, thus brooded over, he squeezed the essences. The Rik-verses from fire, the Yajus-verses from the air and the Saman-verses from the sun.

स एतां त्रयीं विद्यामभ्यतपत्तस्यास्तप्यमानाया रसान्प्रावृहद्भूरित्यृग्भ्यो भुवरिति यजुर्भ्यः स्वरिति सामभ्यः॥

sa etāṁ trayīṁ vidyāmabhyatapattasyāstapyamānāyā rasānprāvṛhadbhūrityṛgbhyo bhuvariti yajurbhyaḥ svariti sāmabhyaḥ || 3

He brooded over the threefold knowledge (i.e. the three Vedas); from them, thus brooded over, he squeezed the essences: Bhuh from the Rik-verses, Bhuvah from the Yajus-verses and Svah from the Saman-verses.

तद्यदृक्तो रिष्येद्भूः स्वाहेति गार्हपत्ये जुहुयादृचामेव तद्रसेनर्चां वीर्येणर्चां यज्ञस्य विरिष्ट संदधाति॥

tadyadṛkto riṣyedbhūḥ svāheti gārhapatye juhuyādṛcāmeva tadrasenarcāṁ vīryeṇarcāṁ yajñasya viriṣṭa saṁdadhāti|| 4

If the sacrifice is injured with regard to the Rik-verses, one should then offer a libation in the Garhapatya Fire saying: "Bhuh Svaha!" Thus is healed the injury with regard to the Rik-verses by means of the essence and the power of the Rik-verses themselves.

स यदि यजुष्टो रिष्येद्भुवः स्वाहेति दक्षिणाग्नौ जुहुयाद्यजुषामेव तद्रसेन यजुषां वीर्येण यजुषां यज्ञस्य विरिष्ट संदधाति॥

sa yadi yajuṣṭo riṣyedbhuvaḥ svāheti dakṣiṇāgnau juhuyādyajuṣāmeva tadrasena yajuṣāṁ vīryeṇa yajuṣāṁ yajñasya viriṣṭa saṁdadhāti || 5

If the sacrifice is injured with regard to the Yajus-verses, one should then offer a libation in the Southern (Daxina) Fire, saying: "Bhuvah Svaha!" Thus is healed the injury with regard to the Yajus-verses by means of the essence and the power of the Yajus-verses themselves.

अथ यदि सामतो रिष्येत्स्वः स्वाहेत्याहवनीये जुहुयात्साम्नामेव तद्रसेन साम्नां वीर्येण साम्नां यज्ञस्य विरिष्टं संदधाति॥

atha yadi sāmato riṣyetsvaḥ svāhetyāhavanīye juhuyātsāmnāmeva tadrasena sāmnāṁ vīryeṇa sāmnāṁ yajñasya viriṣṭaṁ saṁdadhāti || 6

If the sacrifice is injured with regard to the Saman-verses, one should then offer a libation in the Ahavaniya Fire, saying: "Svah Svaha!" Thus is healed the injury with regard to the Saman-verses by means of the essence and the power of the Saman-verses themselves.

तद्यथा लवणेन सुवर्ण संदध्यात्सुवर्णेन रजत रजतेन त्रपु त्रपुणा सीस सीसेन लोहं लोहेन दारु दारु चर्मणा॥

tadyathā lavaṇena suvarṇa saṁdadhyātsuvarṇena rajata rajatena trapu trapuṇā sīsa sīsena lohaṁ lohena dāru dāru carmaṇā || 7

As one binds gold by means of borax and silver by means of gold and tin by means of silver and lead by means of tin and iron by means of lead and wood by means of iron or leather, Likewise one heals any injury done to the sacrifice with the power of these worlds, these gods and these three Vedas. That sacrifice is well healed in which there is a Brahma priest who knows this.

एवमेषां लोकानामासां देवतानामस्यास्त्रय्या विद्याया वीर्येण यज्ञस्य विरिष्ट संदधाति भेषजकृतो ह वा एष यज्ञो यत्रैवंविद्ब्रह्मा भवति॥

evameṣāṁ lokānāmāsāṁ devatānāmasyāstrayyā vidyāyā vīryeṇa yajñasya viriṣṭa saṁdadhāti bheṣajakṛto ha vā eṣa yajño yatraivaṁvidbrahmā bhavati || 8

As one binds gold by means of borax and silver by means of gold and tin by means of silver and lead by means of tin and iron by means of lead and wood by means of iron or leather, Likewise one heals any injury done to the sacrifice with the power of these worlds, these gods and these three Vedas. That sacrifice is well healed in which there is a Brahma priest who knows this.

एष ह वा उदक्प्रवणो यज्ञो यत्रैवंविद्ब्रह्मा भवत्येवंविद ह वा एषा ब्रह्माणमनुगाथा यतो यत आवर्तते तत्तद्गच्छति॥

eṣa ha vā udakpravaṇo yajño yatraivaṁvidbrahmā bhavatyevaṁvida ha vā eṣā brahmāṇamanugāthā yato yata āvartate tattadgacchati || 9

That sacrifice is inclined to the north in which there is a Brahma priest who knows this. And with regard to such a Brahma priest, there is the following gatha: "Wherever it is injured, thither he (the Brahma priest) goes." The silent Brahma alone, as one or the priests, protects the sacrificer, as a mare protects a warrior. Because the Brahma priest who knows this protects the sacrifice, the sacrificer and all the priests, one should therefore make a person who knows this the Brahma priest and not one who knows it not, yea, not one who knows it not.

मानवो ब्रह्मैवैक ऋत्विक्कुरूनश्वाभिरक्षत्येवंविद्ध वै ब्रह्मा यज्ञं यजमान सर्वाश्चर्त्विजोऽभिरक्षति तस्मादेवंविदमेव ब्रह्माणं कुर्वीत नानेवंविदं नानेवंविदम्‌॥

mānavo brahmaivaika ṛtvikkurūnaśvābhirakṣatyevaṁviddha vai brahmā yajñaṁ yajamāna sarvāścartvijo'bhirakṣati tasmādevaṁvidameva brahmāṇaṁ kurvīta nānevaṁvidaṁ nānevaṁvidam|| 10

That sacrifice is inclined to the north in which there is a Brahma priest who knows this. And with regard to such a Brahma priest, there is the following gatha: "Wherever it is injured, thither he (the Brahma priest) goes." The silent Brahma alone, as one or the priests, protects the sacrificer, as a mare protects a warrior. Because the Brahma priest who knows this protects the sacrifice, the sacrificer and all the priests, one should therefore make a person who knows this the Brahma priest and not one who knows it not, yea, not one who knows it not.

Chandogya upanisad 4.

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