King and Rulers of Sri Lanka
KUVENI, Queen of Heladipa (later became Sinhala Dipa), succeeded her father as Queen and ruled the island before the arrival of Vijaya
- VIJAYA 544-505 BC - In the fifth century Prince Vijaya and seven hundred of his followers landed in Sri Lanka in the region called Thambapanni near Puttalam. He established a monarchy and named the new race of people Sinhala (Lion Race) after his grandfather, who was perhaps a man nicknamed as “lion”. (the Mahavansa [Great Dynasty] & the Chulavansa [Lower Dynasty]. The entire chronicle covers a time period between 483 BC - 1825 AD)
Vijaya was the founder of the first dynasty in Sri Lanka. His grandmother, Suppa Devi, was the daughter of the King of Bengal. She had twins, a boy and a girl, most probably fathered by a bandit nicknamed “LION”, who had carried her off and lived in a cavern. At the age of 16 the boy ran away with his sister and mother, entered a forest, and after walking for four days, sighted a hamlet and staggered into the midst of its inhabitants. The people of the village, seeing the weariness and tiredness of the strangers, escorted them to their chief who welcomed them, fed them, and gave them comfortable bedding. The following day they were taken to the King and he learned from the mother that she was Princess Suppa Devi.
The King, who had been a very close friend of her father, informed her that both her parents had died some years ago, and, since he had no children of his own, invited Suppa Devi to live with him as his daughter and her children as his grandchildren. Six months after the adoption of Suppa Devi and her children by the King the territory was under invasion and attack by a ruthless and fierce enemy. The bandit (LION) had come to take his wife back from the King. The bandit killed each and every soldier that confronted him in battle and finally met his own son in combat who killed him. The people of the land, so pleased with the boys prowess of killing the enemy so bravely, named him SINHA BAHU meaning “The Lion Slayer”. The old King was also pleased with his adopted grandsons bravery and courage and named him the heir to the throne. Sinha Bahu returned to the country of his birth, Lala (Gujarat), where he established a kingdom and founded a city named Sinhapura (Lion City).
On the death of the old King Sinha Bahu became King and married his sister. They had many sons of whom the eldest was Vijaya. He was a problem child and the King was very disturbed by his behavior. By the time he was eighteen years old Vijaya was even more than a problem child. He was the sole disruptor of the peace and contentment of the people. The King, having thought of the safety of his throne, decided to banish Vijaya and his followers. Their heads were shaven like criminals except for the strand at the back which was left uncut. Vijaya and his seven hundred followers were boarded into an anchored ship without rudders. The ship landed at a spot near Puttalam in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) and was named TAMBAPANI by Vijaya on account of the copper color of the earth and planted a flag with a Lion symbol on the very day the Buddha had died in Kusinara.
At this time, Kuveni, a wise and learned woman had succeeded her father as ruler of Heladipa (Lanka). She was told of the arrival of Vijaya and his followers and on meeting him fell in love with him and were united and blessed by Sandu the moon goddess. Preparations were made for the wedding according to the ancient rites and ceremonies of the people of Heladipe. An elderly man of the tribe conducted the ceremony and a hundred throbbing drums proclaimed that Kuveni, Queen of Heladipa, was wedded to Vijaya, the Aryan Prince. The coronation ceremony of the King followed the marriage.
Vijaya and Kuveni reigned as King and Queen of Heladipa for five years and their subjects were happy and contented. They had a son and a daughter. Vijaya abandoned Kuveni and his two children to marry an Aryan Princess from a Royal family to whom he had been betrothed before he was banished from his homeland. He made her his new Queen of the Island of Heldaipa (Lanka). His followers married women from the land of this Queen and from this union sprang the Sinhalese race. The name Heladipa was changed to Sinhadipa.
Kuveni, broken hearted and alone, cursed Vijaya, his Kingdom and all the future rulers of the Island stating that no ruler would ever be able to rule the land without bloodshed and strife. She then went back to her people and was received with a hail of stones. She fell to the ground and lay in a heap as the stones pounded the life out of her. After the death of Queen Kuveni, under the hands of her own kinsmen whom she had earlier betrayed, her son and daughter escaped to the jungle and started a progeny, the SABARAS, the present day Veddahs.
Vijaya did not have the expected son from his new Aryan Queen and died without an heir. He reigned with perfect justice for thirty eight years.
- UPATISSA 505-504 BC – The Chief Minister of Vijaya – He took over as Regent as Vijaya died without an heir. He governed for one year until the arrival of Panduvasudeva, the younger son of Vijaya’s brother, Summitha.
- PANDUVASUDEVA 504-474 BC – Son of King Vijaya’s brother – Prince Panduvasudeva arrived accompanied by thirty two noble youth. Princess Buddhakachchana, daughter of a King named Panda, from an ancient Royal family, a cousin of the Buddha also arrived from Vijaya’s homeland with thirty two female attendants. Prince Panduvasudeva and Princess Buddhakachchana were married and duly concesrated as the second King and Queen of Lanka. The king gave his thirty two noble men in marriage to the queen’s thirty two attendants.
The King had ten sons, the eldest named Abhaya, and one daughter names Ummadha Citta.
A court Brahimn (learned astrologer) predicted that the son who will be born to Princess Citta will destroy his uncles. The sons of King Panduvasudeva held a meeting led by the second son Tissa and planned to kill their sister, Princess Citta. The eldest son, Abhaya, did not approve of such an extreme and cruel action, and with the consent of his father, the King, ordered her to be placed in solitary confinement. She was placed in a chamber adjoining the King’s own private chamber and the Queen’s personal maid, Cetiya, was entrusted with the task of taking care of the infant princess.
As the years went by Princess Citta grew into a beautiful woman. Shortly after her sixteenth year she was looking down at the garden from her chamber window and saw her brother Prince Tissa talking to a stranger under a tree. She asked Cetiya, her maid, who this man was and was told that he was Prince Dighagamini, the ruler of a neighboring state. The princess expressed her desire to meet this Prince and the maid Cetiya arranged this and a meeting took place between them. Soon, it was discovered by Citta and Princess Cetiya that the Princess was pregnant. Princess Citta confided this situation to her brother Prince Abhaya and he then learned that the person responsible was his own cousin Prince Dhigagamini.
Abhaya told his father the story and persuaded him to marry the princess to Prince Dhigagamini. The King agreed. Abhaya next told his brothers who were all furious with anger. Tissa proclaimed that if Citta’s child was a boy he would kill him immediately. Citta, in her attempt to protect her child should he be a boy, planned to substitute a female newborn child in the place of hers if her child was a boy which was the case. Her new born son was smuggled out of the palace and a new born female child was substituted in his place. Her mother the Queen and the maidservant Cetiya, both, agreed to help in this caper. The newborn son was spirited away into the safe and secluded territory of the Ruhuna (south of the Island). A female newborn child was substituted in his place by the side of Citta. The King was overjoyed at the birth of his granddaughter and named her Canna, after her grandmother.
The boy, now growing up in distant Ruhuna, was named Pandukabhaya, a combination of the names of Citta’s father, Panduvasudeva, and her eldest brother Abhaya, who had been her lifelong friend and savior. The reservoir, Abhaya Wewa, was built during their reign in the year 505 BC. The King died after a peaceful ad prosperous reign of thirty years. His sea of government, during this reign, was Vijitapura.
- ABHAYA 474-454 BC – Eldest son of King Panduvasudeva – On the death of King Panduvasudeva his ten sons assembled together and chose Prince Abhaya, the oldest among them, to be the Sovereign of Lanka. Princess Ummada Citta’s cunning plan to conceal her son from her wicked brothers did not remain a closed secret for very long. They tried hard to seek him and kill him but failed. King Abhaya was accused by his brothers for having connived and helped their sister protect her son Pandukabhaya. Thus he was deposed and the second son, Prince Tissa, was given the throne.
- TISSA 454-437 BC – Second son of King Panduvasudeva, younger brother of King Abhaya – He was appointed the regent by his eight younger brothers after the deposition of the oldest brother, King Abhaya, from the throne. Tissa claimed that he would be consecrated king only after he had finally defeated his nephew Pandukhabaya. This, however, was not to be as Pandukabhaya swept on triumphantly. Tissa was slain in battle along with all his eight younger brothers. Abhaya was spared. Pandukabhaya, the undisputed victor, called upon his uncle Abhaya to take up the throne again. Abhaya declined.
- PANDUKABHAYA 437-367 BC – Grandson of King Panduvasudeva, Son of Princess Umaddha Citta, Nephew of King Abhaya and Prince Tissa – Umaddha Citta had entrusted the education of her son, Pandukabhaya, to a Brahmin by the name of Pandula. This Brahmin made his own son, Canda, the fellow student of the Prince and the two became good friends. Pandukabhaya married a beautiful princess named Swarnapali (Pali), daughter of Girikandasiva, an uncle of his who was governing the territory of Girikandaka. They were consecrated King and Queen of Lanka.
Pandukabhaya founded the city of Anuradhapura and the seat of government was moved to the new city. He appointed his friend, Canda (son of his Brahin teacher), to the office of Adigar (Minister). He also appointed his uncle Abhaya, Mayor of the city. To his father-in-law Girikandasiva he restored the city of Girikandaka. He devoted much of his time to the the adornment and civil government of the new capital city of Anuradhapura. Agriculture too received his due share of attention. He constructed the Jaya Wewa and Gamini Wewa. Magnificent was the tolerance and encouragement of all religious systems during this period of Lanka’s history. He also built a special palace for his mother, Umaddha Citta, at Anuradhapura. He died after having reigned for seventy years.
- MUTASIVA 367-307 BC – Son of King Pandukabhaya -
- DEVANAMPIYA TISSA 307-267 BC – second Son of King Mutasiva – His close friendship with Emperor Asoka in India led to the introduction of Buddhism by Mahinda in 247 BC. Their Sangamitta arrived with the branch of the Bodhi Tree from Buddha Gaya. The tree still exists as the oldest historical tree in the world. She also established the order of the Bhikkuni’s (Nuns)
- UTTIYA 267-257 BC – Brother of King Devanampiya Tissa -
- MAHASIVA 257-247 BC – Second (younger) brother of King Devanampiya Tissa -
- SURATISSA 247-237 BC – Younger brother of King Mutasiva
- SENA & GUTTILA 237-215 BC – Two Tamil Chief’s, horse dealers, joint rulers who came from South India, killed King Suratissa and usurped the Sinhalese throne at Anuradhapura (first historically reported account of Tamil rule in Sri Lanka) Sinhala rule was re-established in 215 BC
- ASELA 215-205 BC – Youngest (ninth) brother of King Devanampiya Tissa, younger brother of King Suratissa regained the kingdom from the Indian invaders
- ELARA 205-161 BC (the Just) – A Tamil Prince of the Chola Dynasty from South India ruled the country for 44 years after invading Anuradhapura and killing King Asela – During this period of rule by the Tamil King Elara whio ruled from Anuradhapura, the capital of Raja Rata (King’s Territory), there were two Sub-Divisions of the Island known as Maya Rata to the South West and Ruhuna to the South East. They were administered by Sub-Kings who were loyal subjects and supporters of the supreme Monarch. At the time Elara ruled at Anuradhapura, Kelani Tissa was king of Maya Rata and Kavan Tissa was king of Ruhuna. Elara was a just ruler, and though a Hindu, was tolerant of Buddhism. The tank situated in the Northern Province called Vanunik Kulam was also constructed by him. He ruled over Lanka for forty four years when he was slain in battle by Prince Dutu Gemunu (Dutta Gamini) in 161 BC. At this time the south of the island was ruled by King Kavantissa.
- KELANI TISSA – Mahanaga who established a local sovereignty at Magama devoted his time to religion. The Tissa Wewa of the Southern Province was constructed by him. He was succeeded, at his death, by his son Yatalaka Tissa who fixed his Capital at Kelaniya and built the Kelaniya Dagaba. On the death, Yakalaka Tissa was succeeded by his son, Gotabhaya, who went to Magama to reign at his grandfather’s capital, leaving a Kshatriya by the name of Kelani Tissa, to reign at Kelaniya.
KAVAN TISSA - Son of Gotabhaya succeeded his father on his death at Magama. He built many edifices in different parts of his kingdom for the cause of religion amongst which is the Tissa Maha Vihara and the Dighavapi Tank. Neither of them even contemplated war against Elara as they believed he was too powerful to be confronted and defeated.
- DUTU GEMUNU aka DUTTA GAMINI or GAMINI 161-137 BC – Eldest son of King Kavan Tissa of Ruhuna, (originally the ruler of the southeastern kingdom of Ruhuna), took power from Elara by killing him in battle after a 15 year campaign -
- SADDHA TISSA 137-119 BC – Brother of King Dutu Gemunu -
- THULLATTANA (Tulna) 119 BC – Second son of King Saddha Tissa ruled for 1 month and 10 days -
- LAJJA TISSA 119-110 BC – Older brother of King Thullattana, oldest son of King Saddha Tissa -
- KHALLATANAGA (Kalunna) 110-104 BC – Brother of King Lajja Tissa, third son of King Saddha Tissa -
- VALAGAMBAHU I 104 BC – (Vattagamini Abhaya), fourth son of King Saddha Tissa -
- PULAHATHA 103-100 BC – Tamil Chief – Reigned supreme for three years and was murdered by his Chief Minister, Bahiya.
- BAHIYA 100-98 BC – Chief Minister of Pulahatha – Ruled for two years with the Chief Panayamara as Prime Minister who also murdered him and took power.
- PANAYAMARA 98-91 BC – Prime Minister of Bahiya – Reigned for seven years and was murdered by his Chief Minister, Piliyamara
- PILAYAMARA 91 BC – Chief Minister of Panayamara – Reigned for seven months and was murdered by his Chief Minister, Dathiya
- DATHIYA 90-88 BC – Chief Minister of Pilayamara – Reigned for two years before he was killed.
- VALAGAMBAHU I 88-76 BC – Fourth son of King Saddha Tissa (137-119BC), restored the dynasty of King Dutu Gemunu – It was during his rule that a dissention amonhst the priesthood between Mahavihara and Abhayagiri Vihara. One memorable event was the writing down of the Tripitaka texts in Pali at the Aluvihara Temple at Matale.
- MAHA CULA MAHA TISSA 76-62 BC – Son of Khallatanaga (110-104BC), nephew and adopted son of Valagambahu I -
- CHORA NAGA (Mahanaga) 62-50 BC – Son of Valagambahu I, cousin of Maha Cola – He succeeded his cousin, Maha Cola, after his death. Lanka is said to have suffered a famine during this era. Cora Naga was killed with poisoned food given to him by his consort Anula after a reign of twelve years.
- KUDA TISSA 50-47 BC – Son of Maha Cula Maha Tissa – After the death of Cora Naga, Kuda Tissa seized the throne and made himself king and took Anula as his Queen. After an uneventful reign of three years Anula developed a passion for Siva, the senior gate porter at the King’s Palace, poisoned the king and ascended the throne as the FIRST QUEEN of Lanka.
- Queen ANULA 47-41 BC – Widow of Chora Naga and Kuda Tissa, first Queen of Lanka – She made Siva, the palace porter as her consort. Subsequently she poisoned Siva and lived with an Indian carpenter, Vatuka, a firewood carrier Dharubatissa, and a palace priest named Neeliya, all of whom she poisoned, till she finally ruled the country alone and continued tolive an infamous life four months. She was burnt alive by Kuttakanna Tissa, the second son of Cula Maha Tissa, who found that he had the backing of all of the people of Lanka to puit an end to such an ignominous sovereign.
- KUTTAKANNA TISSA 41-19 BC – Brother of Kuda Tissa (50-47BC), second son of Maha Cula Maha Tissa (76-62BC) -
- BHATIKA ABHAYA 19 BC-9 AD – Bhatika Tissa, son of Kuttakanna Tissa -
- MAHA DHATIKA MAHA NAGA 9-21 AD – Brother of Bhatika Abhaya -
- AMANDA GAMINI ABHAYA 21-30 AD – Son of Maha Dhatika Maha Naga – built Ridi Vihara
- KANIRA JANU TISSA 30-33 AD – Brother of Amanda Gamini Abhaya -
- CHULABHAYA 33-34 AD – Son of Amanda Gamini Abhaya (21-20AD) -
- QUEEN SIVALI 34 AD – Sister of Chulabhaya – ruled for 4 months
- ILA NAGA 34-44 AD (Elunna) – Nephew of Queen Sivali – built Tissamaharama (Naga Maha Vihara)
- CHANDHRAMUKA SIVA 44-52 AD – Son of Ila Naga – slain by younger brother Yasalaka Tissa
- YASALAKA TISSA 52-60 AD – Younger brother of Candhamuka Siva -
- SUBHA 60-66 AD – The hall porter of King Yasalaka Tissa -
- VASABHA 66-110 AD – A member of the Lambakanna clan – raised the wall around the city of Anuradhapura and built eleven tanks
- VANKANASIKA TISSA 110-113 AD – Son of Vasabha – during this period a Chola named Karikkal invaded the country and took away 12,000 Sinhalese to work on the irrigation project of the Kaveri river in South India
- GAJABAHU I 113-125 AD – Son of Vankanasika Tissa – invaded the Chola kingdom and brought back the 12,000 Sinhalese plus another 12,000 Chola captives. He also brought back the tooth relic of the Buddha and introduced the Pattini cult to Sri Lanka.
- MAHALLAKA NAGA 125-131 AD – Father-in-Law of Gajabahu I -
- BHATIKA TISSA 131-155 AD – Son of Mahallaka Naga -
- KANITTHA TISSA 155-183 AD – Younger brother of Bhatika Tissa -
- KHULA NAGA 183-185 AD – Son of Kanitta Tissa -
- KHUDA NAGA 185-186 AD – Brother of Cula Naga – grate famine “EKANALIKA” occurred during this era
- SIRI NAGA I 186-205 AD – Brother-in-Law of Kuda Naga and Commander of the troops – placed a parasol over the MahaThupa and rebuilt the Lova Mahapaya up to five storeys and also added 4 entrances to the Bodhi Tree
- VOHARIKA TISSA (Vira Tissa) 205-227 AD – Son of Siri Naga I – suppressed heresies and checked Vaitulya doctrine
- ABHAYA NAGA 227-235 AD – Brother of Voharaka Tissa -
- SIRI NAGA II 235-237 AD – Son of Voharaka Tissa (205-227AD) -
- VIJAYA KUMARA 237-238 AD – Son of Siri Naga II -
- SANGHA TISSA 238-242 AD – A Lambakanna -
- SIRI SANGHA BODHI I 242-244 AD – A Lambakanna – epidemic occured
- GOTHABHAYA 244-257 AD – Minister of State, a Lambakanna – seized the Capital. King Sangha Bodhi fled to the forest. Abhayagiri monks succeeded to the Dhakkina Valley. A new sect called Sagaliya was formed. A price was offered for the Kings head and he surrendered himself
- JETTHA TISSA I 267-269 AD – Eldest son of Gothabhaya -
- MAHASENA (Maha Sen) 269-296 AD – Brother of Jettha Tissa, younger son of Gothabhaya – a period of religious dissention followed. The Maha Vihara Bhikkus were persecuted and left abandoning the Maha Vihara for 9 years. Lovamahapaya was destroyed. Later the King became reconciled and Maha Vihara was repaired. He built 17 tanks.
- KIT SIRI MEGHAVANNA (Kit Siri Mevan) 296-324 AD – Son of Mahasena – Sacred Tooth Relic was brought back from Kalinga by Princess Hemamali. He built a 3-storey Aramaya at Bddha Gaya for the monks
- JETTHA TISSA II 324-333 AD – Brother of Kith Siri Meghavanna -
- BUDDHADASA 333-362 AD – Son of Jettha Tissa II -
- UPATISSA I 362-404 AD – Eldest son of Buddhadasa -
- MAHANAMA 404-426 AD – Brother of Upatissa I -
- SOTTHISENA 426 AD – Mahanama’s son born to a Tamil mother -
- JANTU (Lamani Tissa) 426-427 AD – Husband of Sangha, daughter of Mahanama by his Sinhala Queen
- MITTA SENA 427-428 AD - A noted plunderer – rule of Lambakanna Dynasty ended here
- PANDU 428-433 AD – A Tamil invader, the first of this era -
- PARINDA 433 AD – Son of Pandu, second Tamil ruler -
- KHUDA PARINDA 433-449 AD – Younger brother of Pandu, Third Tamil ruler during this period -
- TIRITARA 449 AD – Fourth Tamil ruler – was defeated and slain by Dhatusena within 2 months
- DATHIYA 449-452 AD – Fifth Tamil ruler - was defeated and slain by Dhatusena after a war lasting 3 years
- PITHIYA 452 AD – Sixth Tamil ruler - was defeated and slain by Dhatusena at the end of 7 months and with this the Indian dynasty was extinguished
- DHATUSENA 452-470 AD – Son of Sangha, the daughter of Mahanama. liberated Anuradhapura from 27 years of Pandyan (Tamil) Rule – He improved agriculture by building tanks like the Kalawewa. During his reign an uncle priest of the king completed the Pali Mahavamsa. His two sons Kasyapa and Mogallana quarreled over succession and Kasyapa seized power while Mogallana fled the country.
- KASYAPA 470-488 AD - son of King Dhatusena by a Pallava woman, killed his father and moved his capital from Anuradhapura to Sigiraya. He was later dethroned by his exiled brother, Mogallana, who returned the capital to Anuradhapura – built the famous rock fortress at Sigiriya and also adorned the rock cave faces with the world famous paintings of Sigiriya. His rule ended when his brother Mogallana returned with an army from India and he committed suicide during this battle.
- MOGALLANA (Mugalan) 488-506 AD – Son of Dhatusena, brother of Kasyapa -
- KUMARA DHATUSENA (Kumaradasa) 506-515 AD – Son of Mogallana -
- KIRTI SENA 515 AD – Son of Kumara Dhatusena – ruled for 9 months and was murdered by his maternal uncle, Siva
- SIVA 515 AD – Uncle of Kirti Sena – Murdered by Upatissa. Was not allowed to rule for more than 25 days.
- UPATISSA II 515-517 AD – Son-in-Law of Kumara Dhatusena (506-515AD) -
- SILAKALA 517-530 AD – A prince of Lambakanna stock – prebviously son-in-law of King Dhatusena and brother-in-law of Mogalanna. Later son-in-law of Upatissa. Had three sons.
- DATHAPATISSA 530 AD – Second son of Silakala – had his brother Upatissa murdered to become king for 6 months
- MOGALLANA II (Dala Mugalan) 530-550 AD – Eldest brother of Dathapatissa – killed his brother
- KIRTI SIRIMEGHA (Kuda Kitsirimevan) 550 AD – Son of Mogallana II -
- MAHANAGA 550-553 AD – A prince from pure Moriya stock who occupied the position of Minister of War under King Dathapatissa (539AD) -
- AGGABODHI I (Akbo) 553-587 AD – brother of Mahanaga, Nephew and Sub-King of Mahanaga -
- AGGABODHI II (Kuda Akbo) 587-597 AD – Nephew and son-in-law of Aggabodhi I -
- SANGHA TISSA II 597 AD – Brother and Sword-bearer of Aggabodhi II -
- DALLA MOGALLANA 597-603 AD – Commander-in-Chief during the reign of Kuda Akbo (587-597AD) -
- SILAMAGHAVANNA 603-612 AD – King Mogallana’s Sword-bearer, a prince of the Lambakanna stock -
- AGGABODHI III 612-628 AD – Son of Silimeghavanna -
- JETTHA TISSA III 613 AD – Son of King Sangha Tissa -
- AGGABODHI III 613-623-640 AD – Son of Silimeghavanna (603-612AD) – restored to power
- DATHOPA TISSA 624-636 AD – General of Jettha Tissa (Dathasiva) – Despoiled all the wealth of the Temples and religious places insteasd of paying homage and respect to them. Aggabodhi III returned with an army from India and deposed him and ascended the throne for the third time. Aggabodhi was again defeated by Dathopa Tissa and fled to the Ruhuna District where he died of a malady that afflicted him in 628 AD. Thereupon the sub-king Kassapa defeated Dathopa Tissa and drove him to India and ruled himself. Dathopa Tissa returned with a large army from India but was defeated and killed in 636 AD.
- KASSAPA II 636-645 AD – Brother of Agbo II, Sub-King of Dathopa Tissa -
- DAPPULA I 645 – Son in law of Silimeghavanna -
- DATHOPA TISSA II 645-654 AD – Nephew of Dathopa Tissa I (Hattha Datha) – died in 673
- AGGABODHI IV (Siri Sangha Bodhi III) 654-670 AD – Younger brother of Dathopa Tissa -
- DATTA 670-672 AD – A chief of Royal blood who was placed on the throne by a wealthy Tamil Officer, Pottha-Kuttha
- HALHA-DATHA I 672 AD – A youth also placed on the throne by the Tamil Officer, Pottha-Kuttha after the death of Datta -
- MANAVAMMA 672-707 AD – Son of Kassapa I, descendant of Silamegahavanna - In the seventh century A.D., Tamil influence became firmly embedded in the island's culture when Sinhalese Prince Manavamma seized the throne with Pallava assistance. The dynasty that Manavamma established was heavily indebted to Pallava patronage and continued for almost three centuries. During this time, Pallava influence extended to architecture and sculpture, both of which bear noticeable Hindu motifs. By the middle of the ninth century, the Pandyans had risen to a position of ascendancy in southern India, invaded northern Sri Lanka, and sacked Anuradhapura. The Pandyans demanded an indemnity as a price for their withdrawal. Shortly after the Pandyan departure, however, the Sinhalese invaded Pandya in support of a rival prince, and the Indian city of Madurai was sacked in the process.
- AGGABODHI V 707-713 AD – Son of Manavamma -
- KASSAPA III 713-720 AD – Brother of Aggabodhi V -
- MAHINDA I 720-723 AD – Younger brother of Kassapa III -
- SILAMEGHA (Aggabodhi VI) 723-763 AD – Son of Kassapa III -
- AGGABODHI VII 763-769 AD – Son of Mahinda -
- MAHINDA II 769-789 AD – Son of Aggabodhi VI (Silamegha) -
- DAPPULA II (Udaya I) 789-794 AD – The sub-king of Mahinda II (son of Mahinda II) -
- MAHINDA III 794-798 AD – Son of Dappula II (Udaya I) -
- AGGABODHI VIII 798-809 – Brother of Mahinda III -
- DAPPULA III 809-825 AD – Younger brother of Aggabodhi VIII -
- AGGABODHI IX 825-827 AD – Son of Dappula III -
Pandyans invaded and plundered Anuradhapura 846-866
- SENA I (Silamegha II) 827-847 AD – Younger brother of Aggabodhi IX -
- SENA II 847-882 AD – Nephew of Sena I, son of Kassapa -
- UDAYA I* 882-893 AD – Brother of sub-king of Sena II -
- KASSAPA IV* 893-910 AD – Son of Sena II (sub-king of Udaya I) -
- KASSAPA V* 913-920 AD – Son of Kassapa IV -
- DAPPULA IV* 920 AD – Son of Kassapa V – ruled for 9 months
- DAPPULA V (Kuda Dappula)* 920-922 AD – Brother of Dappula IV -
- UDAYA II* 922-925 AD – Nephew of Sena II, sub-king of Dappula V -
- SENA III* 925-934 AD – Brother of Udaya II -
- UDAYA III* 934-942 AD – Sub-king of Sena III (a great friend of the king) -
- SENA IV* 942-945 AD – Son of Kassapa V, sub-king of Udaya III -
- MAHINDA IV 945-961 AD – Brother of Sena IV, nephew of Udaya III, sub-king of Sena -
- SENA V 961-971 AD – Son of Mahinda IV -
- MAHINDA V 971-1007 AD – younger brother of Sena V, the last of the Sinhalese monarchs to rule from Anuradhapura, fled to Ruhuna, where he reigned until 1007, when the Chola took him prisoner. He subsequently died in India in 1037 -
- RAJADIRAJA THE GREAT 1007-1019 AD – Chola (Tamil) Administration -
- KASSAPA VI (Vikrama Bahu) 1019-1031 AD – Son of Mahinda -
- KIRTI 1031 AD – A nobleman of Ruhuna -
- MAHALANA KIRTI 1031-1034 AD – A Chief -
- VIKRAMA PANDU 1034-1035 AD – A Sinhala Prince -
- JAGATIPALA 1035-1039 AD – A native of Ayodhya, slain in battle by the Cholians (Tamils) -
- LOKESVARA (Loka) 1039-1045 AD – An inhabitant of Ruhuna -
- KASSAPA VII 1045 AD – A Chief -
- VIJAYABAHU I 1045-1095 AD – Grandson of Vikrama Bahu a member of the Sinhala Royal Family – The valiant prince Kirti, who had started his military career at the age of thirteen and was now seventeen years of age, who spent his early days in the jungles of Ruhuna, was proclaimed king under the name of Vijaya Bahu I. He then made every preparation for ridding the country of Chola (Tamil) domination. After nineteen years of ceaseless campaigning he succeeded in expelling the Tamils from Polonnaruwa and Anuradhapura. Later, he sent strong forces into Pihiti Rata (Jaffna) and after bitter battles, succeeded in capturing and fortifying the Cholans (Tamils).
Thereafter, Vijaya Bahu, who until then was crowned only as King of Ruhuna, had himself crowned as King of Lanka at Anuradhapura but chose Polonnaruwa as his capital of administration.
Having rid the country of Chola (Tamil) domination he produced order, peace and prosperity out of the chaos and misery that had prevailed when he ascended the throne. The king brought Bhikku’s from Burma and thus gave an impetus to the great revival of Buddhism. It is also significant that Hindu Devale’s were respected and Tamil soldiers were maintained in the service of the king. In order to worship the footprint of the Buddha he provided resting places along the route to the mountain, Adam’s Peak (Sri Pada).
King Vijaya Bahu married Princess Lilavati, the daughter of Prince Jayatipala, as his chief queen. Later, the king married a princess from Kalinga Royal Family as his second Mahesi, and from her he had a son named Vikrama Bahu and a daughter named Ratnavali. His sister, Mitta, was given in marriage to a Pandya Prince who had three sons, the eldest of whom named Manabharana, became the husband of Ratnavali. Their son was Parakrama Bahu I.
King Vijaya Bahu, one of the greatest of Lanka’s Kings, died peacefully in the fifty fifth year of his reign at Polonnaruwa.
- JAYA BAHU I 1095 AD – Brother of Vijaya Bahu I, Prime Minister of Vijaya Bahu – On the death of King Vijaya Bahu, at his capital Polonnaruwa, his sister Mitta, conspiring with her three sons, the chief officers of the state and the monks of the chief Vihara’s, had Jaya Bahu appointed king over Lanka, and in violation of ancient custom, had her eldest son Manabharana appointed sub-king.
When Vikrama Bahu, the son of Vijaya Bahu who was residing in the Ruhuna, received the news of his father’s death and of the subsequent developments in particular, that the conspirators (his cousins) were advancing towards his district, he made every preparation for war. Having defeated them in sux successive battles, he reached his father’s capital and took up residence there. He expelled Jaya Bahu from the throne and became king of Raja Rata.
Meanwhile, Manabharana, took the administration of Maya Rata. Kirti Siri Megha took Giruwapattu and Siri Vallabha took Atha Sahassa.
King Jaya Bahu and his sister Metta resided with Mitta’s second son Kirti Siri Megha, where they died after a few years.
- VIKRAMA BAHU I 1096-1117 AD – Son of Vijaya Bahu from a princess of Kalinga – Became king after expelling Jaya Bahu, brother and Prime Minister of Vijaya Bahu I.
An Indian invasion led by an experienced chieftan, Viradeva of Palandipa, arrived and received a crushing defeat at Polonnaruwa. In the meantime Vikrama Bahu’s three cousins, Manabharana, Kirti Sri Megha and Siri Vallabha, were making preparations to wrest the administration of Pihiti Rata from him. He advanced with his army into Maya Rata and routed their conjoint armies.
Manabharana died a few years after the birth of his son, Prince Parakrama Bahu, whereupon his brother, Kirti Siri Megha took upon himself the administration of Maya Rata, letting his brother Siri Vallabha administer the whole of Ruhuna District. Manabharana’s wife, Ratnavali, her two daughters and son Parakrama Bahu, resided with Siri Vallabha. Vikrama Bahu died in the twentieth year of his administration.
- GAJA BAHU II 1117-1138 AD – Son of Vikrama Bahu I – The king’s uncle, Kirti Sirimegha, and Siri Vallabha made a second attempt to gain Pihiti Rata but failed. By this time, Prince Parakrama Bahu joined his uncle Kirti Sirimegha at the place of his birth. Kirti Sirimegha closely associated his nephew with himself in the course of administering the country. Later, Parakrama Bahu’s restless and ambitious spirit began to assert itself. He left to Pihiti Rata with a handful of the army youth, with the intention of acquainting himself of the exact conditions prevailing there, without the consent of his uncle Kirti Sirimegha.
King Gaja Bahu received the news of young Parkrama Bahu’s presence within his dominion and invited him to be a guest in his Palace. In order to allay all suspicions in King Gaja bahu’s mind, Parakrama Bahu sent for his sister, Bhaddavi, and gave her in marriage to King Gaja Bahu. Latr on Parakrama bahu sent troops against his uncle Gaja bahu. In the meantime Manabharana established himself at Polonnaruwa, determined at putting end to the rule of Gaja Bahu. King Gaja Bahu sent a pitiful appeal to Parakrama Bahu begging him to deliver him from his affliction. Thereupon, Parakrama Bahu recaptured Polonnaruwa setting Gaja Bahu at liberty and compelling Manabharana to seek safety in Ruhuna. Gaja Bahu fought Parakrama Bahu oncemore. After a long and fierce struggle Parakrama Bahu took Gaja bahu prisoner. On the exhortation of the Sangha the king was allowed to reign until his death. King Gaja Bahu died a few years after he had resumed the administration of his province.
- PARAKRAMA BAHU I 1140-1173 AD – Grandson of Vijaya Bahu I, Prince of Royal Blood, Pandyan descent, son of Manabharana and Vijaya Bahu’s sister, Mitta – Parakrama Bahu I could not become king of Raja Rata at once because Manabharana too wanted to succeed Gaja Bahu. A war followed and Manabharana was defeated. Parakrama Bahu I became King of Lanka and the people filled the air with shouts of joy and victory. One of his first acts, after he ascended the throne, was to ensure that the city was self-sufficient in food. He did this by utilizing the vast resources that nature had so lavishly blessed the land with.
Viharas such as Jetavana and a temple for the Tooth Relic were built. He also built more than a thousand tanks, one of which was called “The sea of Parakrama” (Parakrama Samudra). A seven storeyed palace of great splendor, named Vijayanta (Palace of the Gods) and a Council Chamber arose in the city. During his reign of thirty three years Polonnaruwa rose to the zenith of its greatness and Anuradhapura’s former prosperity was restored. Buddhism, shattered by heresies, was purified and a friendlier spirit established among the Sangha. At the same time Barhminism was also tolerated. Arts, laws, and literature flourished. He also built an university called “Vijamandapa” to promote scienc and research into herbal remedies and hospitals for the sick. The country was united and its government reorganized. He made Lanka the granary of the East and caused wealth and plenty to prevail and flow all around, inspired poets to song, and brought in the Sinhala Golden Age. The kings fame spread throughout the world. Parakrama Bahu I married Princess Lilavati, a learned woman, daughter of his uncle, Sri Vallabha, as his second queen.
Parakrama Bahu I died after a reign of thirty three years leaving behind no heir to the throne.
- VIJAYA BAHU II 1173-1174 AD – Parakrama Bahu’s nephew (sisters son) – Was nominated king as King Parakrama bahu had no heir to inherit the throne. He was a devout Buddhist endowed with great tenderness of heart and purity. He was also aman of considerable literary achievements and a poet of great renown. He pardoned numerous political prisoners that filled the jails in the country.
King Vijaya Bahu II was not destined to occupy the throne for longer than a year, having been foully murdered at the instance of a treacherous friend of his 0 a native of Kalinga named Mahinda.
- MAHINDA VI 1174 AD – A Kalinga – Was put to death, by Kirti Nissanka, within five days of occupying the throne. Nissanka had occupied the office of sub-king during the reign of King Vijaya Bahu II.
- NISSANKA MALLA (Kirti Sri Nissanka) 1174-1183 AD – A Kalinga Prince, sub-king of Vijaya Bahu II - (the Brahmanic legal system came to regulate the Sinhalese caste system in this period). Ascended the throne with the unanimous approval of the chiefs of Lanka. He was quiet and patriotic. A king of great energy and achievement who devoted much during his short reign of nine years to achieve internal reforms. He reduced taxation and eradicated robbery based on the concept that they who steal do so because of need and provided the people with every necessity. He also built beautiful mansions and temples. Improvements were made to to the Rankot Vihara by buulding a number of profusely ornamental chaples around it. He had two queens. One a Kalinga Princess named Subadhra and the other was Queen Kalyanavati.
His reign was followed by one of treachery, intrigue, dishonor and murder. Thus the Sinhalese Kingdom of Polonnaruwa moved rapidly to its collapse and annihilation.
- VIRA BAHU I 1183 AD – Son of Nissanka Malla – ruled for one day – Was killed on the very day that he was installed as king by the commander-in-chief of the army, tavuru Senevirat on the grounds that he was a son not equal to his father.
- VIKRAMA BAHU II 1183 AD – Younger brother of Nissanka Malla – Ruled the country for three months after which time he was murdered by a prince named Codanaga, a son of King Nissanka Malla’s sister.
- CODANAGA 1183-1184 AD – Nephew of Nissanka Malla – Ruled for nine months and was deposed and deprived of his eyes by the General Senevirat who placed Lilavati, one of the queens of King parakrama Bahu I, on the throne.
- QUEEN LILAVATI 1184-1187 AD – Widow of King Parakrama Bahu I –The country was peaceful and prosperous and the Queen was able to devote her time to the development of literature, music, drama and art. She ruled for three years wisely and well. She was removed from the throne by her co-Ministers.
- SAHASSA MALLA 1187-1189 AD – King Nissanka Malla’s younger brother – Ruled for two years. Was also known as “The lion hearted king”. He was deposed by Ayasmantha, the chief of the army, who placed Kalyanavati, the queen of the late King Nissanka Malla, on the throne.
- QUEEN KALYANAWATI 1189--1195 AD – Queen of late King Nissanka Malla – She was installed Queen by General Ayasmantha and the general ruled the country through her for six years. His reign came to an end after she was deposed.
- DHAMMASOKA 1195-1196 AD – Infant King 3 months old was put to death by Anikanga – General Ayasmantha installed an infant, three months old, on to the throne and acted as Regent and ruled the country for another year. The infant Dhammasoka and Regent Ayasmantha were put to death by Anikanga, the governor of Maya Rata.
- ANIKANGA 1196 AD – Governor of Maya Rata – Occupied the throne for seventeen days. Was assassinated by his own valiant, but treacherous, General Camunakka, who placed the deposed Queen Lilavati back on the throne.
- QUEEN LILAVATI 1196-1197 AD - Widow of King Parakrama Bahu – She was placed on the throne for the second time by General Camunakka and he ruled the country through her for one year. She was deposed by Lokissara, who arrived in Lanka with an army enlisted abroad, and defeated the royal forces at the capital of Polonnaruwa.
- LOKISSARA 1197 AD – Arrived with an army enlisted abroad and defeated the Royal forces at Polonnaruwa – Ruled for nine months and was deposed when the commander-in-chief of the Suinhala army installed Queen Lilavati back to the throne for the third time.
- QUEEN LILAVATI 1197-1198 AD - Widow of King Parakrama Bahu – Ascended the throne for the third time. She was of undiluted Royal blood and a woman of dignity who commanded the respect and admiration of those with whom she came in contact. In the seventh month of her reign King Parakrama of Pandu invaded Lanka and deposed her.
- PARAKRAMA PANDU (Parakum Pandi) 1198-1201 – South Indian Invader (Pandyan) – He ascended the throne deposing Queen Lilavati. He produced himself to be wise and capable monarch who administered justice strictly in accordance with the law of the land.
Lanka was invaded by Magha, a prince of Kalinga, in the third year of King Pandu’s reign. The king was taken captive, his eyes were plucked out and he was robbed of all his riches.
- MAGHA (Kalinga) 1201-1222 AD – A prince of Kalinga – Magha had himself crowned king. The Tamils under Magha were merciless than any previous invaders. The ferocity, cruelty and barbarism of these invaders were such as Lanka had never known before even in spite of the many wars waged on her soil. They ransacked the kingdom, killed man and beast, broke images, destroyed temples, viharas, tortured the rich of their wealth and gave land to Cholas. The Tooth and Bowl relics were hidden. He tyrannized over the inhabitants of Pihiti Rata for twenty one years. As for the Maya district the invaders were complelled to retire into Pihiti Rata by the forces of Vijaya Bahu, a prince of Sinhala Royal blood.
- VIJAYA BAHU III 1222-1226 AD – A patriotic Prince of Sinhala Royal blood – After the expulsion of the invaders from Maya Rata, Vijaya Bahu III reigned as king of that district for four years. He built many Vihara’s and repaired all the temples in his district that had been damaged by the invaders.
Vijaya Bahu was a sedulous patron of learning and established a free school in every village of his kingdom. He had two sons named Parakrama bahu and Bhuvaneka Bahu respectively. He moved his seat of governance to Dambadeniya. He died in the fourth year of his reign.
- PANDITHA PARAKRAMA BAHU II 1222-1257 AD – Eldest son of Vijaya Bahu III – On the death of Vijaya Bahu III, his son, Parakrama Bahu II, known as Panditha Parakrama on account of his great learning, succeeded the throne. King Magha, the soverign of Pihita Rata was defeated by the Sinhala army of King panditah Parakrama bahu. King Magha then decided to evacuate the country rather than allow himself to be taken captive. On their way they were mercilessly slaughtered by a Sinhala army. His reign is famous, not only for the labors of the king in the cause of religion, education and literature, but also for those of other eminent men in the field of literature.
The Tamils, led by a Prince named Chandra Bhanu, son of the first ruler of Jaffna, invaded the country in the eleventh year of Panditha Parakrama Bahu’s reign. The king sent his valiant nephew, Vira Bahu, at the head of a strong force to give them battle. The invaders were defeated.
Although he was crowned at Polonnaruwa he ruled at dambadeniya. Panditha Parakrama Bahu reigned as king over the whole of Lanka for thirty five years. He died and was succeeded by his illustrious son, Vijaya Bahu. The king had five sons.
- VIJAYA BAHU IV 1257-1259 AD – Eldest son of Panditha Parakrama Bahu II –. Vijaya Bahu appointed his cousin, Vira Bahu as Chief Minister, his brother Tilokamala as the Commander of the Sinhala army, which protected the Southern portion of the country from foreign invasion, his brother Bhuvaneka Bahu I as the Commander of the army which guarded the Northern portion of the country, and his brothers Parakrama Bahu and Jaya Bahu to attend the work in his capital. He himself journeyed throughout the country with Vira Bahu. He reigned for two years and was treacherously murdered by a servant, who had been bribed for the purpose by one of his Generals named Mitta who was desirous of ascending the throne. He was assassinated in 1270
- MITTA 1259 AD – A General of the Army – Mitta ascended the throne. The sub-king Bhuvaneka Bahu fled to Yapahuva and took refuge until Mitta was killed. Not many days was Mitta spared to occupy the throne of Lanka. He was slain in the Royal Palace at Dambadeniya by the loyal Aryan officer Thakuraka. Bhuvaneka Bahu I now ascended the throne.
- BHUVANEKA BAHU I 1259-1270 – Brother of Vijaya Bahu IV (1257-1259AD) – He was a beneficent monarch. During the early part of his reign Lanka was repeatedly but unsuccessfully invaded by Indian forces. He ruled at Dambadeniya and later shifted his capital to Yapahuva. He died at Yapahuva in the eleventh year of his reign. He spread knowledge of the Pali scriptures throughout the land. Bhuvaneka Bahu I greatly extended and adorned Yapahuva so that it shone with exceeding beauty. He was responsible for the erection of the Temple of the Tooth and the Royal Palace. The life of Yapahuva as the capital of Lanka lasted only till the death of King Bhuvaneka Bahu I, when it was subjugated and despoiled by another Tamil invasion.
- CHANDRA BHANU 1270 AD – Son of the first ruler of Yapa Patuna (Jaffnapatnam) – He captured the Fort of Yapahuva but was deprived of his victory by the Pandya Emperor Kulasekera.
- PARAKRAMA BAHU III 1270-1275 – Nephew of Buvaneka Bahu I, son of Vijaya Bahu IV – His mother was a sister of Kulasekera. He was established as King of Polonnaruwa. During his reign the island was invaded by a Pandyan army led by one Chakravarti. The invaders succeeded in capturing the forces of Yapahuva and carrying off the sacred Tooth-Relics. However, King Parakramu bahu III succeeded in bringing it back to Lanka and placed the relics in an ancient temple at the noble city of Polonnaruwa where he reigned. He was regulating the affairs of state strictly in accordance with the laws of the land. He was not allowed to reign for long.
- BHUVANEKA BAHU II 1275-1277 – Son of Buvaneka Bahu I, cousin of Parakrama Bahu III – Bhuvaneka Bahu advanced to Polonnaruwa, slew Parakrama in battle and brought the Tooth-Relics to Kurunegala. Kulasekera, the Pandya Emperor, came himself to avenge the death of his nephew Parakrama Bahu III. He forced the Sinhalese King to action against an army outnumbering his. Bhuvaneka bahu died fighting heroically. He had ruled for two years from Kurunegala. A staunch supporter of the Buddhist faith he devoted himself to many works of charity during his reign.
- PARAKRAMA BAHU IV 1277-1301 AD – son of Buvanekka Bahu II – Prince Parakrama bahu, son of Bhuvaneka Bahu II, proclaimed himself as soverign against the Pandya emperor Kulasekera, invaded Yapa Patuna Kingdom and captured its capital. He was a very scholarly monarch. Parakrama Bahu, together with his Prime Minister, Weerasinghe Pathiraja, translated the Pansiya Panas Jataka (the 550 birth-stories of Buddha) from Pali to Sinhala. He built many Vihara’s during his reign from Kurunegala.
- BHUVANEKA BAHU III 1301-1307 AD – Known as Vanni Buvaneka Bahu – Historians tell us very little about the his reign and relationship to Parakrama Bahu IV. Varying accounts have been given of the ends of Parakrama Bahu IV and Bhuvaneka Bahu III.
Vathimi Raja, son of Bhuvaneka Bahu II by his Muslim wife, Fathima, was killed by Parakramabahu IV by pushing him over a cliff, the location of which is presently venerated by many as Galey Bandara. It is also said that he was the aforementioned Vathimi Raja, son of Bhuvaneka Bahu II by his Muslim wife Fathima.
- VIJAYA BAHU V (Jaya Bahu) 1307 AD – Second son of Chandra Banu of Jaffnapatnam – Vijaya Bahu was reigning in the north of the Malayan Peninsula, retreated to Anuradhapura, where he met Parakrama bahu IV.
His son, Bodamapananda, came into conflict with Parakrama bahu with the result that Kurunegala was seized by Bodamapananda for his father, and Vijaya Bahu was installed on the throne as Vijaya Bahu V. He abandoned Kurunegala and retreated to Senkadagala (Kandy) after the eleventh year of his reign, as the Arya Chakravarti, the first ruler of Yapa Patuna having captured Anuradhapura had advanced to Yapahuva and taken possession of the fortress, having slain Vijaya Bahu’s son Bodamapananda. The king died and his son Bhuvaneka Bahu IV ascended the throne.
- BHUVANEKA BAHU IV 1341-1351 AD – Son of Vijaya Bahu V – capital was shifted to Gampola where he established himself with the support of the General Senalankadhikara, brother-in-law of Bhuvaneka Bahu IV. It is probable that the capital was shifted from Kurunegala to Gampola owing to civil strife among the Sinhala themselves. Bhuvaneka Bahu IV was a man of great wisdom and faith, and a mind of excellent virtues. After his death his brother, Parakrama Bahu V, ascended the throne.
- PARAKRAMA BAHU V 1344-1359 AD – Brother of Buvaneka Bahu IV, son of Vijaya Bahu V – assumed power at Dedigama. He was associated with his brother Bhuvaneka Bahu IV as king for a greater part of his reign, with Dedigama as his capital, and later moved to Gampola and received the backing of Senalankadhikara. Vikrama Bahu III, son of Bhuvaneka Bahu IV from a sister of Senalankadhikara, was heir apparent. Parakrama Bahu V lost his throne and fled to Java (Malay Peninsula)
- VIKRAMA BAHU III 1357-1374 AD – Son of Buvaneka Bahu IV – The struggle for power between Senalankadhikara and Alagakonnara (Alakesvara) of Rayigama gave the opportunity to Nissanka Alakesvara to establish himself as the de facto ruler of Gampola, reducing Vikrama Bahu III to the position of a mere figurehead and also becoming the joint husband with his brothers of that kings sister. The Tamil Kingdom of Yapa Patuna under King Arya Chakravarti, was growing in power and influence. Nissanka Alakeswara, later, defeated the Yapa Patuna ruler and forced him to swear allegiance to Gampola. He thus became the de facto ruler of a United Lanka.
- BHUVANEKA BAHU V 1357-1374 AD – Nissanka Alakeswara’s son by the sister of Vikrama Bahu III – He was proclaimed de jure king, as Bhuvaneka Bahu V. He was a staunch Buddhist and devoted the greater part of his time for the furtherance of religion.
The Jaffna King, Arya Chakravarti, sent armies by sea and land and the expedition by land seems to have had some success as Bhuvaneka bahu had fled Gampola and retired at Raigama where he reigned in the shadow of Vira Alakeswara.
Vira Alakeswara destroyed Arya Chakravarti’s army and marched on in triumph to Kotte. As Bhuvaneka Bahu was unable to return to Gampola the Sinhala Chiefs installed Vira Bahu, an energetic and ambitious prince, as king.
After the death of Bhuvaneka Bahu, Vira Bahu’s elder brother Vijaya Bahu, who was living at Raigama, was enthroned King of Kotte by Alakeswara and exercised authority over the Kingdom for twelve years. Vira Alakeswara developed and constructed the City of Jayavaddhanakotta.
He maltreated foreigners resorting to the Island and he plundered their vessels. A mission from China was insulted and waylaid, and, with difficulty effected an escape from Lanka. N the following year another mission was sent and they inverted the capital, made a prisoner of the king and carried him captive, together with his queen, children, officers of state and attendants. The prisoners were presented at court. The Chinese Ministers pressed for their execution but the emporer set him at liberty, yet, commanded them to select a virtuous man from the same family to occupy the throne. All captives declared in favor of Seay-pa-nea-na (Prince Sepanana or Parakrama Bahu VI) whereupon the sovereignty of the Sinhala Kingdom was given to him.
- VIRA BAHU II 1408-1410 AD – Brother in law of King Buvaneka Bahu V – held power at Rayigama. He occupied the throne of Lanka during the period of time that elapsed between the capture of Bhuvaneka Bahu V and the appointment of Parakrama Bahu VI on the throne.
- PARAKRAMA BAHU VI 1410-1462 AD – Prince named Sepanana (Jayapala) descended from Parakrama Bahu, the third son of Chandra Banu of Yapa Patuna (Jaffnapatnam), and whose mother, Sunethradevi, was a daughter of the daughter of Parakrama Bahu V of Dedigama –
Sepanana, who was born and bred in Palembang, made himself accepted as the ruler of the South and the West, by the Sinhalese, with the backing of the prelate of Raigama, Vidagama Maha Thera. He assumed the name Parakrama Bahu VI and made Kotte the capital of his kingdom and proved himself to be an exemplary monarch. The king had two adopted sons, named Sapumal Kumara and Ambulugala Kumara. When these princes had attained their manhood, the king, desirous of bringing the whole of Lanka – the Northern protion of which had fallen into the hands of a South Indian king – under his sway, entrusted the task of expelling the invader and subjugating the district to his eldest son Sapumal Kumara. He fell upon many villages belonging to Jaffna and brought many prisoners of war to Kotte. The king sent his son out for the second time with another army. On this occasion, after a fierce battle, Sapumal Kumara captured the kingdom and took the King of Jaffna, Arya Chakravarthi, a prisoner, and putting him to death brought his wife and children to Kotte, where he presented them to his father, King Parakrama Bahu. The king, highly pleased with the exploits of his son, handed over the administration of Jaffna to him. The king brought the highland kingdom (Kanda Uda Rata) also under his authority.
The king was a great patron of literature. Great educational programs were made during his reign. Schools and Pirivena’s flourished. Poets of imperishable renown like Totagamuve Sri Rahula gave learning and culture an impetus such as it had never been before. At the village of Pepiliyana, near Kotte, he built a temple with a school attached and named it Sunetra Devi Pirivena, after his mother so that merit may accrue to her. The Sinhalese, in their new capital, reached their last period of brillianct achievements. He thus became the ruler of a United Lanka. Parakrama Bahu VI died a peaceful death in the fifty second year of his reign.
- VIRA PARAKRAMA BAHU VII 1462 AD – Jaya Bahu son of Parakrama Bahu II’s natural daughter, Ulakudaya Devi – Jaya Bahu, on ascension to the throne assumed the name Vira Parakrama Bahu. He was not allowed to occupy the throne for many days. His uncle Sapumal Kumara hastened to Kotte from Jaffna and put him to death.
- BHUVANEKA BAHU VI 1462-1469 AD – Sapumal Kumara, son of Parakrama Bahu VI – After putting to death Vira Parakrama Bahu VII, Sapumal Kumara ascended the throne under the title Bhuvaneka Bahu VI. He was a staunch Buddhist and was devoted to furthering the welfare of his people and religion. During his reign a chief of Pasdun Korale named Siriwardena Patty Raja raised a rebellion. This insurrection was speedily quelled by the kings brother Ambulagala Kumara. Bhuvaneka Bahu VI died in the seventh year of his reign.
- PANDITA PARAKRAMA BAHU 1469 AD – Adopted son of Buvaneka Bahu VI - The King, on ascending the throne, appointed the rebel Patty Raja as general. The late King Sapumal Kumara’s brother, Amubulagala Kumara, on receiving the news of his brother’s death and of the usurpation of the throne, hurried with his army, where, after a fiercely fought battle, the kings General, Patty Raja was slain. He also cruelly put to death King Pandita Parakrama Bahu and all members of his family.
- VIRA PARAKRAMA BAHU VIII 1469-1489 AD – Ambulagala Kumara, son of Parakrama Bahu VI – Ambulagala Kumara crowned himself King assuming the name Vira Parakrama Bahu. He spent large sums of money in the furtherance of Buddhism. He had four princes and princesses and reigned for twenty years.
- DHARMA PARAKRAMA BAHU IX 1489-1509 AD – Son of Vira Parakrama Bahu – During his reign there existed several “Kings” (Rajas) ruling various parts of the country. They all paid tribute to the ruler at Kotte and called him the “Emperor” (Maha Rajah). The Indian Moors effected a landing in Chilaw during this period. The Raja’s of Udugampola and Madampe inflicted a crushing defeat on them in which there leader Kadiraya was slain. About this time, the Portuguese had started competing with the Moors for trade in the East Indies. On receiving news that the Portuguese had arrived off Galle on Nov 15 1505, the Emperor sent Chakrayudha Rajah in person to deal with them as he thought best in the interest of the Island.
The Portuguese formed an alliance with the king and established a factory or trading station in Colombo. They put to sea a stone cross at Colombo to record the event of their arrival.
King Dharma Parakrama Bahu died in the twentieth year of his reign.
Beginning of Portuguese Colonial rule in Ceylon. At this time, there were three kingdoms. Foremost was the kingdom of Kotte. A separate dynasty was ruling in Kandy, having broken away from Kotte and the kingdom of Jaffna in the North.
- VIJAYA BAHU VI OF KOTTE 1509-1524 AD – Brother of Dharma Parakrama Bahu IX, Rajah of Menik Kadavara – The king was informed that the proposed factory or trading station, requested by the Portuguese, was to be mounted with canon. After many pleadings by the Portuguese the king gave a reluctant assent and the first European stronghold in Ceylon began to rise out on the rocky beach at Colombo. Thus came into being the Fort of Colombo.
King Vijaya Bahu had three sons, Bhuvaneka Bahu, Maha Raigam Bandara and Mayadunne by his first wife. On her death he married an Indian Princess by whom he had a son named Deva Raja Kumara. The sons of the kings first wife, having learnt that the king, in consultation with his Ministers, had decided upon appointing their step brother as his successor to the throne, fled from Kotte and having secured the assistance of Jayavira – the Raja of Kandy, marched on to the capital (Kotte) and had their father murdered in his palace.
Bhuvaneka Bahu, the eldest brother ascended the throne. Thereafter Raigam Bandara took up his abode at Raigama as Raja of that district, and Mayadunne built himself a city at Sitavaka and established himself as Raja of that district. Civil strife and internal dissensions gave the Portuguese the opportunity of obtaining a permanent foothold in the Island.
- BHUVANEKA BAHU VII 1524-1551 AD – Eldest son of Vijaya Bahu - Shortly before his death in 1551, the king successfully obtained Portuguese recognition of his grandson, Dharmapala, as his successor. Portugal pledged to protect Dharmapala from attack in return for privileges, including a continuous payment in cinnamon and permission to rebuild the fort at Colombo on a grander scale. When Bhuvanekabahu died, Dharmapala, still a child, was entrusted to the Franciscans for his education, and, in 1557, he converted to Roman Catholicism. His conversion broke the centuries-old connection between Buddhism and the state, and a great majority of Sinhalese immediately disqualified the young monarch from any claim to the throne. The rival king at Sitawake exploited the issue of the prince's conversion and accused Dharmapala of being a puppet of a foreign power.
Before long, rival King Mayadunne had annexed much of the Kotte kingdom and was threatening the security of the capital city itself. The Portuguese were obliged to defend Dharmapala (and their own credibility) because the ruler lacked a popular following. They were subsequently forced to abandon Kotte and retreat to Colombo, taking the despised puppet king with them. Mayadunne and, later, his son, Rajasinha, besieged Colombo many times. The latter was so successful that the Portuguese were once even forced to eat the flesh of their dead to avoid starvation. The Portuguese would probably have lost their holdings in Sri Lanka had they not had maritime superiority and been able to send reinforcements by sea from their base at Goa on the western coast of India.
- DHARMAPALA 1551-1597 AD – Grandson of King Bhuvaneka Bahu VII, son of Vidiya Bandara – On the death of Bhuvaneka Bahu, his grandson Dharmapala, Vidiya Bandara’s son, was officially proclaimed king.
Kotte became a Portuguese protectorate as the king of Portugal had undertaken at Bhuvaneka Bahu’s request to protect and uphold Dharmapala against Mayadunne. Vidiya Bandara was the first to swear the oath of allegiance to his son. Since he was yet too young to rule the Ministers unanimously elected Vidiya Bandara to function as Regent. Mayadunne, hearing of his brothers death rose again in rebellion. Before Vidiya could crush this rebellion the Portuguese Viceroy Noronha arrived in Colombo with a large army in search of the late king’s treasures. They went on the rampage causing more bloodshed than ever before. The viceroy requested the king to convert to Christianity but he politely excused himself on the ground that it would furnish Mayadunne with a weapon to be used against him on the grounds that he had deserted his national faith. The viceroy set sail for Goa, having instructed the Governor of Colombo to arrest the king’s father Vidiya Bandara. Hardly had he left the shores, Vidiya Bandara descended on Kotte like a thunderbolt, made no secret of his hostility to the Portuguese and their religion. He massacred them as much as he hated them and thus began his anti-Catholic campaign. He destroyed every catholic Church and re-established Buddhist Vihare’s there and put to death some who had embraced the Catholic faith. Vidiya Bandara was imprisoned in a dungeon. He escaped and entered into an agreement with the king of Jaffna to join together to drive away the perverter of their religion and laws. Whilst this agreement was being solemnized in the famous temple of Nallur an accidental explosion of some gunpowder took place which made Vidiya think that he was to be the victim of an act of treachery on the part of the Tamil King. He hastily drew his sword against the king and after a desperate struggle between the Sinhalese and Tamils within the sacred Temple, Vidiya Bandara was cut down whilst his treasures, wife, and other possessions fell into the hands of the Jaffna king.
Vidiya Bandara died as he had lived, sword in hand. A worthy end to the life of undoubtedly the greatest General this country has ever produced. The king of Jaffna greatly deplored this sad tragedy, especially as it had occurred in his presence and had been unable to prevent it. He built a Temple in honor of Vidiya Bandara in Jaffna, deifying him. Now Dharmapala found himself free to act on his own. He became a Christian taking the name of the reigning King of Portugal, John III. Thus a Christian sat on the Sinhala throne. The first and only catholic King of this island. He was a puppet king in the hands of the Portuguese. He donated his kingdom to the Portuguese and at his death lost it altogether for Sinhala royalty and the people, for not having issue to succeed him.
Philip I of Portugal became suzerain of the Kingdom of Kotte on the death of Dharmapala in 1597. With the Kingdom of Kotte now directly under Portuguese rule, the missionaries became very active throughout the Kingdom.
- MAYADUNNE OF SITAVAKA 1551-1581 AD – Brother of Bhuvaneka Bahu VII, son of Vijaya Bahu VII – He ruled at Sitavaka – a fierce opponent of the Portuguese. He devoted the whole of his life to an attempt to oust his brother King Bhuvaneka Bahu and thereby preserve the independence of Lanka, which was being undermined by the Portuguese intrigue. He made constant invasions on the territory of Bhuvaneka Bahu of Kotte.
Together with his war-like son Tikiri Bandara (Rajasinghe I), he fought many battles with the Portuguese. The greatest battle for national freedom was fought in 1559 on the left bank of the Kelani river (Mulleriyawa). It was one of the bloodiest and most decisive battles in Sinhala history. “blood flows like water” says the old chronicle. The Sinhalese, led by Mayadunne’s son Raja Singha, the Lion Hearted, fought on undismayed and with never-flapping courage. The father and son continued their onslaught on the Portuguese. Mayadunne and his son, whose exceptional military prowess has been recognized and accepted by the Portuguese themselves, launched massive attacks on Kotte, laid siege to it several times, and, almost succeeded in taking it. Finally, the city being badly battered and the Portuguese, unable to withstand the attacks, moved to Colombo in 1565. Mayadunne became master of the greater part of the kingdom of Kotte. He died in 1581 at the ripe age of eighty years.
- VIKRAMA BAHU 1469-1511 AD – Senasammata – He ruled in Kandy, having broken away from Kotte in 1474. The founder of a new dynasty in Kandy called “The Kandyan Dynasty”. This opened a new chapter in the country’s history. The Sinhalese in the highlands, “Kanda Uda-Rata”, asserted their sovereignty as a distinct political entity and all true Sinhalese allied to its banner like children of one mother.
During this period, there were two other Kingdoms in Lanka, the Kingdom of the South West Wet Zone and the Kingdom of Jaffna in the North
- VIJAYAVIRA BANDARA 1511-1552 AD – Cousin of Mayadunne – The kingdom of Kandy remained in spite of repeated attempts by the Portuguese to subdue it. Their efforst to convert the ruler, Jayaweera Bandara, to Christianity ended in failure.
- KARALLIYADDE BANDARA 1552-1582 AD – Grandson of Senasammata Vikrama Bahu – Was placed on the Kandyan throne by the Portuguese.
- RAJASINGHA I 1581-1593 AD – Son of Mayadunne – King Mayadunne’s son, Tikiri Banda, ascended the throne of Sri Lanka as Rajasinghe I after the death of his father. He fought battles, persecuted Buddhist monks and put to death any suspected of being critical of him.
Sitavaka gained in prestige and its king became the rallying point of the Sinhalese. In the course of a very few years he made himself master of the interior. He captured and annexed Kandy to Sitavaka.
He drove Karaliyadde Bandara, the King of Kandy, a puppet ruler placed on the throne of Kandy by the Portuguese by allying himself with them and giving his sister as queen to Dharmapala of Kotte, into exile. Karaliyadde Bandara, with his queen, their three children and his nephew, fled for safety to the Portuguese. Not satisfied with having driven him away he had perversely set fire to the magnificent Senkadagala Palace. Rajasinghe then placed Vijayasundara Bandara (a Kandyan aristocrat) on the throne in 1587 and later cruelly put him to death, as he was getting popular and powerful. Vijayasundara Bandara’s son, Konappu Bandara, after his fathers assassination, sought refuge with the Portuguese.
Konappu Bandara, who was now a political refugee, was converted to Christianity and was known as Don Juan to the Portuguese. He was sent by them to raise a rebellion against Raja Singha, which he accomplished successfully.
During this period, the King of Jaffna, PUVIRAJA PANDARAM PARARAJASEGARAM was overthrown and ETHIRIMANA SINGHAM PARARAJASEGARAM sat on the throne – a protectorate of Portugal
- VIMALA DHARMA SURIYA I 1592-1604 AD – (Konappu Bandara) son of Vijayasundara Bandara – King Karaliyadde died of smallpox and his Queen and sons leaving to the care of the Portuguese, an infant daughter Kusuma Devi, and nineteen year old nephew Yamasinghe Bandara, son of his sister, Tikiri Kumari.
After the Portuguese gained Kandy from Raja Singha of Sitavaka, under the leadership of Konappu Bandara, they placed Yamasinghe Bandara, nephew of King Karalaiyadde Bandara, on the throne.. Yamasinghe Bandara suddenly died and his twelve year old son, named Don Joao, was acclaimed king. Konappu Bandara who was Yamasinghe Bandara’s commander-in-chief turned against the Portuguese, attacked and proclaimed himself King of Kandy as Vimala Dharma Suriya I. Young Don Joao escaped to the Portuguese and later became a priest. In 1594, the Portuguese once again sent a large army, led by an experienced officer named Pedro Lopez, to invade Kandy and place Princess Kusuma Devi (baptized as Dona Catherina), daughter of the late King Karaliyadde Bandara, on the throne. She was the rightful heir to the throne.
Vimala Dharma Suriya, having annihilated the Portuguese force, took alive Dona Catherina and married her on the battle-field in the presence of his whole army assembled there and established a legal claim to the throne. The Portuguese resorted to violent methods of retaliation and a war of extermination, unsurpassed in atrocity and bloodshed, ensued. The war lasted for a long time and the Portuguese were defeated. Kandy, therefore, began to play a new role in the history of Lanka as Vimala Dharma Suriya was now the sole surviving Sinhala Kings. Kandy preserved its independence.
Although his reign was a continuous struggle with the Portuguese, he did all in his power to promote the cause of learning the Buddhist religion, which had received a staggering blow at the hands of his predecessor, King Raja Singha I.
He was a complete statesman.
The Dutch arrived in Ceylon during his reign, on May 28 1602. The king died, in 1604, after a reign of twelve years, leaving behind a son and two daughters, who were all of tender years.
A contest for the throne, between the prince of Uva and Senarat, cousin of Vimala Dharma Suriya, became imminent. At this juncture, Queen Mother Dona Catherina, declared herself regent for her young son Prince Mahastenne, and thus prevented a civil war. Later, Dona Catherina bestowed upon Senarat, who had but recently relinquished the priestly robes, her heart and hand and with them the sovereignty of Ceylon.
- SENARAT 1604-1635 AD – Cousin of Vimala Dharma Suriya I – Prince Senarat, young and popular among the people, now married to late King Vimala Dharma Suriya’s widowed Queen, Dona Catherina, was named King Senarat the first of Kandy. Prince mahastenne, son of Dona Catherina by Vimala Dharma Suriya, died in 1612. The following year Dona Catherina died of grief. She was only 35 years of age.
King Senarat then took her elder daughter, Suriya Devi, by Vimala Dharma Suriya, as his wife. She too died in 1617. He then married the second daughter of Dona Catherina and Vimala Dharma Suriya, Sama Devi.
These marriages show that Senarat, son of a village headman from matale, realized the weakness of his claim to the throne and tried to establish his relationship with the old dynasty of Kandy through Dona Catherina (Kusuma Devi), daughter of Karaliyadde.
In 1628, Constantine de Sao, commander-in-chief of the Portuguese force, with a large force, boldly pushed his way to Kandy, burning and destroying everything which came within the reach of his army along the way. A great battle was fought. Prince Raja Singha, son of King Senarat, though but seventeen years of age, was in the midst of the fray directing and controlling the forces. The Portuguese army was completely defeated.
After a reign of twenty eight years, he died in his old age in 1632, leaving behind three sons to administer the Empire. To the eldest of them, Komara Singha Hastanne, he entrusted the administration of Uva; to the second, Vijaya Pala, he entrusted the principality of Matale, and to his youngest son, Raja Singha (Mahastenne), the kingship of Kandy.
- RAJA SINGHA II 1635-1687 AD – Son of Dona Catherina and Senarat - (beginning of the period of Dutch occupation of Ceylon). Youngest son of King Senarat he assumed the title of Emperor and proceeded to administer the whole of his father’s dominions as Emperor Raja Singha II, the last great Sinhala Monarch. He continued the national struggle against the Portuguese and was the hero of Gannoruva, the last great battle of the Singhalese.
A large army commanded by Don Diego de Mello, a Portuguese General, penetrated into Kandy once again, set fire to the city, plundered it and slaughtered cows in the temples and retired to Gannoruwa.
The king, determined to punish Don Diego, surrounded them with his forces, put them all to death by the sword, and subsequently cut off their heads and piled them up in pyramidal form as a warning to all aggressors, and history asserts that only thirty eight Europeans escaped to tell the tale.
King Raja Singha, perceiving the difficulty that he would have to expel the Portuguese from Lanka, had sent an emissary to a Dutch settlement in India requesting assistance for the purpose of driving them from the Island. Eventually a treaty of alliance was entered into between the Dutch and the Sinhala monarch.
Ever since the arrival of the Dutch in Lanka, in 1638, the king had treated them as no other than merceranies engaged for the particular purpose of expelling the Portuguese.
All Portuguese territories were captured and with the fall of Jaffna on June 24, 1658, the Portuguese were completely expelled from the Island. The treaty entered into by the king and the Dutch stipulated that the Portuguese territories captured should be surrendered to the king in return for a monopoly of the export trade of the country. But the treacherous Dutch did not fulfil the conditions stipulated in the treaty. Soon the Dutch became traitors and ended their career as masters.
In the reign of Raja Singha II, Kandy reached the peak of its power. Never before, and possibly never again, did Kandy show signs of so much strength and vitality as it did under this able and astute monarch. He had a son and daughter from his right and lawful Queen from Malabar coast.
He died after a reign of fifty five years on Dec 6, 1687, and was succeeded by his son Mahastenne.
- VIMALA DHARMA SURIYA II 1687-1707 AD – Son of King Rajasinghe II – whose son Mahastenne, ascended the throne, and took the name of Vimala Dharma Suriya II. He was by nature a religious and non-ambitious man who lived at peace with the Dutch. He married the daughter of Mahesi from Madurai and reigned for 19 years.
- SRI VIRA PARAKRAMA NARENDRA SINGHA 1707-1739 AD – Son of Vimala Dharma Suriya II – Was seventeen years old when he ascended the throne and was a temple of wisdom, valor and virtue. He conferred special favors on a novice bhikku named Saramkara, who was a poet, preacher, controversialist, and teacher of great reknown. At the instance of the king this bhikku composed the religious book titled “Sarattha Sangaha” consisting of 11,000 gathas (verses) and also translated the “Maha Bodhivamsa” and the “Bhesajja Manjusa”, a medical work, into Sinhala.
He was a very pious monarch, who, like his father, lived at peace with the Dutch and devoted himself to the furtherance of literature and religion. In 1708 the king married a bride from Madurai, the daughter of Pitti Nayakkar. Again, in 1770, he married another bride who came to Lanka from Madurai. He had no children by either of the queens. He also had a Kandyan wife, a noble lady of exquisite beauty, the daughter of Monaravila Dissave of Matale, a great favorite of the King’s father. She bore him a son, but the boy died at a very early age. The king also had a concubine, a woman of high caste, who bore a son named Unambuwe, who did survive. The bar to his succession was the lack of royal status in the mother.
Thus, the king nominated, as his successor, the brother of his first queen who had remained at the court ever since his sister married him. He reigned for 32 years.
- SRI VIJAYA RAJA SINGHA 1739-1747 AD – Brother-in-law of King Narendra Singha – Narendra Singha’s first wife brother, from Madurai, ascended the throne of Kandy, as Sri Vijaya Raja Singha. He came from the line of Vijayanagar kings of South India and henceforth filled the Sinhala throne.
Sri Vijaya Raja Singha was a man of considerable culture and devoted his attention almost entirely to the furtherance of the national religion. He is said to have caused life sized images of Buddha in recumbent, standing and sitting postures to be cut in the rock caves in various parts of the country.
He married a bride from the Royal family of Madurai.
- KIRTI SRI RAJA SINGHA 1747-1782 AD – Sri Vijaya Raja Singha’s wife’s eldest brother from Madura – The second of the South Indian line. He was a tender young man when he succeeded his brother-in-law, and it was not until the year 1751 that he ascended the throne as Kirti Sri Raja Singha. He devoted the first few years of his reign to the advancement of literature and religion.
The king, with the assistance of the Dutch, got down learned Bhikkus from Siam (Thailand) for the purpose of advancing Buddhism in Lanka. It was during this period that the Raja Maha Vihara (Gangarama) was built at Kandy.
He married the daughter of one Nadukattu Sami Nayakkar in 1749. He further contracted three other Nayakkar marriages but had no children from the madurai queens. He had six daughters and two sons by his favorite Sinhala lady (Yakada Doli), daughter of the late Dissave (Headman) of Bintenna, grand-daughter of the blind and aged Mampitiya Dissave. Both his sons survived the king and his daughters married Nayakkar relatives of the king. Mampitiya’s sons claim for the throne were overlooked and the choice fell on the king’s brother who was living in court.
In spite of all the difficulties that the king had faced during his reign, the sentimental attachment to the King of Kandy, Kirti Sri Raja Singha. It was seen that this feeling was intensified with the religious revival. The King died in 1782.
- SRI RAJADHI RAJA SINGHA 1782-1798 AD – Brother of Kirthi Sri Raja Singha – Ascended the throne as Sri Rajadhi Raja Singha having come from South India while still a child. He was raised as a Kandyan and a Sinhala and was a brilliant pupil of the chief prelate of the Malwatte Temple at that time. He was a very cultured person and learned many languages amongst which were Pali and Sanskrit. A great lover of poetry he himself was a poet. A lavish patron of Buddhism he died childless in 1798 without nominating a successor. The burden fell on Pilimatalava, the first Adigar (Prime Minister), who was an able, ambitious and intriguing chief, to select a successor to the vacant throne. (Monarchs of Sri Lanka by H M Mervyn Herath)
- SRI VIKRAMA RAJA SINGHA 1798-1815 AD – Son of a sister of King Rajadhi Raja Singha’s Queen Upendramma - (beginning of British Colonial era). Sri Vickrama Raja Singha, who ascended the throne was known as Prince Kannasamy, whose father was Venkata Perumal who died before the child was born. The widow, Subhamma, and her son, Kannasamy, came to Lanka on the invitation of her sister, Queen Upendramma, Queen of King Rajadhi Rajasinghe. Their was a rival claimant to succeed King Rajadhi Raja Singha, the brother of Queen Upendramma, who had a stronger claim. However, Pilimatalava, the first Adigar (Prime Minister) saw to it that the South Indian Prince, who was barely 18 years old, was placed on the Kandyan Throne, because he had a deep seated plan to oust him and become king himself and set up a new dynasty of his own. Sri Vikrama Raja Singha did not have the advantage, either of the family background or the preliminary training which the preceeding three kings before him had. He came to the throne “like a flame of fire in darkness” and proceeded to rule “radiating great merit, splendor, authority and prowess and delighted the people with the fourfold virtues, charity, affability, service and impartiality.
Up to the time of Sri Vikrama Raja Singha, the British who had succeeded the Dutch in the maritimeprovinces, had not interfered in the politics of the Sinhala Kingdom of the hill country. Pilimatalava, the first Adigar of the king had secret talks with the British in order to dishonor the king in Sinhala eyes, and also to urge him to an act of aggression which could give the British an excuse to seize the Kandyan Kingdom.
These intrigues were eminently successful. The King, exasperated by the alternate threats, committed the “desired act of aggression”. War was at once declared. The king had fled and the king’s cabinet had also evacuated the city. The British reached Kandy on March 22, 1803 and found the capital deserted.
On June 24, 1803, the Adigar massacred the British troops stationed in kandy and restored Sri Vikra Raja Singha to the throne. The Adigar, Pilimatalava, instead of seizing the crown, conspired to kill the King and seize the crown. His evil plot was discovered and he was pardoned on two occasions. However, when he was accused for the third time the king ordered his execution.
Pilimatalava was succeeded by his nephew, Ehelepola, and as he too began to plot against the king, Sri Vikrama Raja Singha could not tolerate his evil anymore through constant fear of assassination.
When, in 1818, a rebellion broke out in Sabaragamuwa and Ehelepola was implicated in it, the king ordered the Adigar to return to the Capital. However, Ehelepola knew the fate that awaited him and fled to the British in Colombo. The king dismissed him from his high office, confiscated his lands, and cast his wife and children in prison. They were, then, executed. The eldest boy, who was eleven years old, clung to his mother terrified and crying; her second son, nine years old, with all the inspiration of martyrdom, heroically stepped forward and bade his brother not to be afraid – as he would show him the way to die. By one blow of a sword his head was severed and thrown into a rice pounding mortar where the pestle was put into the mothers hand and she was ordered to pound it. One by one, the heads of all the children were cut off and, one by one, the mother had to pound them in the mortar. The mother was later drowned in the King’s ornamental Bogambara Lake.
The whole of Kandy wept and sobbed unable to suppress their feelings of grief and horror.
The British started to make extensive preparations for the invasion of the King’s dominion with the assistance of Ehelepola. The principal reasons stated for the invasion were the alleged tyranny of the king and his unwillingness to enter into any terms with the British.
The king, finding the situation hopeless, abandoned the capital and fled to Medamaha-Nuwara, where he took refuge in a house of a peasant. King Sri Vikrama Raja Singha was captured and taken prisoner with his Queen Venkata Angammal.
On Mar 2, 1815, Lanka was ceded to the British under a treaty called the Kandyan Convention. With Sri Vikrama Raja Singha ended, not only the last vestige of national freedom but also a civilization based on an entire and unique ethno-religious social philosophy, which our forefathers, with their toil, sweat, blood, and tears, had protected for 2,358 years. The downfall of the Sinhala Kingdom was mainly caused by the disunity of the people themselves. The Lion Flag which King Vijaya had planted in 544 BC was finally handed down.
The King was taken to Colombo on Mar 6, 1815, where he remained until Jan 24, 1816, when he and all his relatives, dependents, and adherents, amounting about 100 individuals, were transferred to India. They were first sent to Madras and finally to the fort of Vellore, where Sri Vikrama Raja Sinha died of dropsy on Jan 30, 1832, aged 52 years. The ex-king’s body was cremated and ashes were floated down the river. The king had ruled for seventeen years. (Monarchs of Sri Lanka by H M Mervyn Herath)
End of Nayakkar Dynasty
Names of Tamil Kings and their period of rule of Jaffnapatnam
- KALINGAMAN alias KOOLANGAI SINGAI ARYAN alias KALINGA VIJEYABAHU 1210-1246 (when there was no successor to the Throne, Chieftan Pandi Malavan, who hailed from the village of Ponpatti went to Madurai and brought Prince Singai Aryan and crowned him as King of Jaffna)
- KULASEKARA SINGAI ARYAN 1246-1256 son of Koolangai Singai Aryan
- KULOTUNGA SINGAI ARYAN 1256-1279 son of Kulasekara Singai Aryan
- VIKRAMA SINGAI ARYAN 1279-1302 son of Kulotunga Singai Aryan
- VAROTYA SINGAI ARYAN 1302-1325 son of Vikrama Singai Aryan
- MARTANDA SINGAI ARYAN 1325-1348 son of Varotya Singai Aryan
- KUNAPUSHANA SINGAI ARYAN 1348-1371 son of Martanda Singai Aryan
- VIROTAYA SINGAI ARYAN 1371-1380 son of Kunapushana Singai Aryan
- JAYAWIRA SINGAI ARYAN 1380-1410 son of Virotaya Singai Aryan
- KUNAWIRA SINGAI ARYAN 1410-1440 son of Jayawira Singai Aryan
- KANAGASURIYA SINGAI ARYAN 1440-1450 son of Kunawira Singai Aryan . From 1450 to 1467 the Jaffna Kingdom came under the rule of the Kotte Kingdom Troops which came under the command of Sapumal Kumaraya (alias Chengappa Perumal) captured Jaffna Sapumal Kumaraya was the adopted son of Parakrama Bahu VI Later Sapumal Kumaraya became King of Kotte under the name of King Bhuvanekabahu VI. He ruled Jaffna Kingdom for 17 years from 1450 to 1467
- SAPUMAL KUMARAYA aka CHENPAGAP PERUMAL 1450-1467
(adopted son of PARAKRAMA BAHU VI who was later known as BHUVANEKABAHU VI when he ruled the Kingdom of Kotte)
King Kanagasuriya Singai Aryan fled to TamilNadu and came back with an army and re-captured the Jaffna Kingdom and ruled again from 1467 to 1478
- KANAGASURIYA SINGAI ARYAN 1467-1478 son of Kunawira Singai Aryan (2nd reign)
- SINGAI PARARAJASEKARAN 1478-1519 son of Kanagasuriya Singai Aryan
Spouse #1: + Raja Lakshmi Ammal
Spouse #2: + Valli Ammai
Spouse #3: + Mangath Ammal
- SANKILI SEGARAJASEKARAN I 1519-1561 son of Singai Pararajasekaran & Mangath Ammal
- PUVIRAJA PANDARAM PARARAJASEKARAN 1561-1565 son of Sankili Segarajasekaran
- KURUNCHI NAINAR 1565-1570 (Usurper)
- PERIYA PILLAI SEGARAJASEKARAN 1570-1582
- PUVIRAJA PANDARAM PARARAJASEKARAN 1582-1591 (2nd reign) son of Sankili Segarajasekaran
- ETHIRIMANNA SINGA PARAJASEKARAN 1591-1615 (Portuguese Colonial Rule) son of Periya Pillai Segarajasekaran
- ARAKESARI 1615-1617 (Regent for the Infant Crown Prince, Leuke Kumaran, son of Ethirimanna Singa Pararajasekaran)
- SANKILI KUMARAN II 1617-1619 (Nephew of Ethirimanna Singa Pararajasekaran)
Colonial Empires of Sri Lanka
- Portuguese Rule (15 Nov 1505-1638AD)
- Dutch Rule (1685-1796AD)
- British Rule (1796-1948AD)
- Independence (Feb-4-1948 to date AD)
- 1815-1820: King George III
- 1820-1830: King George IV
- 1830-1837: King William IV
- 1837-1901: Queen Victoria
- 1901-1910: King Edward VII
- 1910-1936: King George V
- 1936: King Edward VIII
- 1936-1952: King George VI
- 1952-1972: Queen Elizabeth II
- 1798-1805: Hon Frederick North
- 1805-1811: Rt Hon Sir Thomas Maitland
- 1812-1820: Sir Robert Brownrigg
- 1820-1823: Sir Edward Paget
- 1824-1831: Sir Edward Barnes
- 1831-1837: Rt Hon Sir Robert Horton
- 1837-1841: Rt Hon James Mackenzie
- 1841-1847: Sir Colin Campbell
- 1847-1850: Rt Hon Viscount Torrington
- 1850-1855: Sir Geo Anderson
- 1855-1860: Sir Henry Ward
- 1860-1863: Sir Charles McCarthey
- 1865-1872: Sir Hercules Robinson
- 1872-1877: Rt Hon Sir William Gregory
- 1877-1883: Sir James Longden
- 1883-1890: Hon Sir Arthur Gordon
- 1890-1895: Sir Arthur Havelock
- 1895-1903: Rt Hon Sir J West Ridgeway
- 1903-1907: Sir Henry Blake
- 1907-1913: Sir Henry MacCallum
- 1913-1916: Sir Robert Charmers
- 1916-1918: Sir John Anderson
- 1918-1925: Sir William Manning
- 1925-1927: Sir Hugh Clifford
- 1927-1931: Sir Herbert Stanley
- 1931-1933: Sir Grame Thompson
- 1933-1937: Sir Reginald Edward Stubbs
- 1937-1944: Sir Andrew caldecott
- 1948-1949: Sir Henry Monck Mason Moore (Governor General 1948-1949)
- 1949-1954: Rt Hon Viscount Soulbury (Governor General)
- 1954-1962: Sir Oliver Goonetilleke (Governor General)1962-1972: William Gopallawa (Governor General)
- 1947-1952: Rt Hon Don Stephen Senanayake
- 1952-1953, 1960-1960 & 1965-1970: Dudley Senanayake
- 1953-1956: Sir John Kotalawela
- 1956-1959: Solomon West Ridgeway Bandaranaike
- 1959-1960: Dr W Dahanayake
- 1960-1965, 1970-1977, & 1994-2000: Ms Sirimavo Bandaranaike-Ratwatte
- 1977-1978: Junius Richard Jayawardena
- 1978-1989: Ranasinghe Premadasa
- 1989-1993: D. B. Wijetunga
- 1993-1994: Ranil Wickremasinghe
- 1994-1994: Ms Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga
- 2000-2002: Ratnasiri Wickramanayaka
- 2002- : Ranil Wickremasinghe
- 1972-1978: William Gopallawa (President)
- 1978-1989: Junius Richard Jayawardena (Executive President)
- 1989-1993: Ranasinghe Premadasa (Executive President)
- 1993-1994: D. B. Wijetunga (Executive President)
- 1994- : Ms Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga (Executive President)