List of Mahabharata tribes

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List of Mahabharata tribes

List of Mahabharata tribes

List of Mahabharata tribes by by Laxman Burdak

Introduction

The Mahabharata Epitomizes The Indian Genre Of historical literature, known as Itihasa. It is the country's most famous history and epic poem. Yet it is far more than an ordinary narrative of events leading up to a great war, and encompasses both a philosophy of life as well as a code of conduct. The German Indologist Hermann Oldenberg observed:

"In the Mahabharata breathe the united soul of India and the individual souls of her people." The Mahabharata itself states that that which is not found here cannot be found elsewhere, so comprehensive is its treatment of dharma and the philosophy of life.

Two of the most popular prayers of the Hindus, the Vishnu Sahasranama (revealed by a dying Bhishma to Yudhisthira) and the Bhagvata Gita (enunciated by Krishna to a distraught Arjuna on the battlefield, on the very eve of the war), come down to us from the Mahabharata,

Author of Mahabharata

The epic has traditionally been attributed to Vyasa, son of the sage Parasara and scion of the priestly Vasistha family, which was connected with the royal lineage of the Bharata. Vyasa is beieved to have attempted a cultural fusion of the diverse elements inhabiting the subbcontinent by incorporating the popular legends, royal eulogies and relgious poetry of the different regions, thus binding them in a geographical and cultural unity. The bard Gustavo (one who has an astonishing capacity to hear) was the first to publicly recite the epic at the sacrifice of the chancellor Saunaka (I.1.1).

The cultural material of the epic renders it an indivisible and organic whole that is intrinsic to the understanding of the Indian ethos. The Mahabharata provides a panoramic view of the society, politics and culture of the subcontinent. The present chapter is concerned with its census-like enumeration of tribes and the knowledge it reveals about their geographical location, physical and material qualities, and moral spiritual) fiber.

Dating of Mahabharata

Scholars generally concur that the Mahabharata cannot be dated with accuracy. However, the era from 1000 BC to 500 AD, during which the country's social and political institutions underwent considerable change and upheaval, is normally accepted for dating the epic There is also a view that the epic's core story hails from a much earlier period. The cultural material in Books XII and XIII possibly belong to the pre-Buddha era, while the ethnographically material (Which includes several names that remain untraced to this day ) is very ancient. K.C. Mishra believes that the list of tribes cataloged in connection with the Great War may therefore belong to a tradition prior to the Buddha. The period from 1000 BC to 500 BC broadly tallies with the age of the janapadas, wherein tiny tribal oligarchies vied for supremacy among themselves; the Mahabharata reflects the society and ethnography of thls peeriod, and depicts the thrus towards strong centralized political authority though a noteworthy political integration of a large part of the country was not achieved until the rise of Mauryas.

The Vedas, Brahmanas and Puranas mention tribes of different periods. The Rigveda discusses three categories of people, namely, Arya, Dasa and Asuras The Rig Vedic Aryas comprised several tribes, which increased in number over a period of time. Some tribes listed in the Rig Veda retain their names down to the present, such as the Yadu, Puru, Shiva, among others, while others changed their names following division and migration to new lands. The famous Dasarajna yuddha (RV VII.18) probably recalls an intra-tribal feud. Brahmana literature also depicts early Indian ethnography. The Bhuvanakosa chapters of the Puranas deal with the ethnography of ancient India, and are also included in the Epic (VI.I-13).

While the Rig Veda shows little knowledge of the region outside the Saptasindhu, the epics and Puranas tend to use geographical names, such as Sindhu, Panchala, Matsya (RV 7.18.9), Chedi, Kashi, Koshala, and so on. Yet it is only in the janapada period that the land and people become closely intermeshed. The Mahabharata speaks not only of Arya peoples, but of all beings. It speaks of Deva, Danava, Gandhara, Yaksha, Rakshasa, Naga, and other groups, though scholars are not certain if these were really a class of people who played a role in the events narrated in the epic, or constitute the remnants of an antique tradition that was incorporated into the story.

The Mahabharata ethnographers classified the natives of the land into three broad categories, namely, Arya, Mleccha (alien) and Misra (mixed). The theory of a single pure racial type in India no longer enjoys academic credibility, and it is also now accepted that there was no Aryan race but an Aryan language and culture. The same is true of the Dravidas. The term Arya as used in the Mahabharata denotes a way of life, and cannot be used to delineate racial strains in the ancient Indian tribes.

Aryanization of native tribes

The incorporation of native tribes into Arya culture began at a very early stage. From the new evidence coming to light about tribal kingdoms in the Gupta and post-Gupta period, and their impulse towards cultural homogenization within their region through acceptance of the Sanskrit language and Brahmin priests and officers, we can surmise that this trend was most likely the result of a natural socio-cultural-political evolution rather than external stimuli. What makes the Mahabharata of special interest is the fact that it reveals a stage when the earliest tribal (kinship) grouping submitted to a larger regional national identity under the pressure of the emergence of some powerful Kshatriya kingdoms. The epic thus reflects a decline in tribal culture and transition to states.

The simplest definition of a tribe is a group of clans claiming common descent and united for a common purpose, such as war or sacrifice; it constitutes the oldest form of social organization and generally originates in a specific territory. The earliest terms used for such an organized human group in the Rig Veda were jana and vis. Zimmer regarded vis as identical with the tribe and different from grama which, he felt, represented a clan and was midway between family (kula) and tribe (vis). A.C. Das believed that an aggregation of Vedic families formed a gotra, a group, of gotras constituted a gosthi, and gosthis became a grama. A number of gramas formed a vis, (district) and an aggregate of the latter formed a jana (tribe). The word vis implies settlers and marks a change from the nomadic state; it was probably an early form of the janapada, the term used in later Vedic texts.

By the time of the Arthasastra, the word janapada (foothold of a tribe) connoted an administrative unit such as a district, country or state, which suggests that the older tribal settlers had merged into a much wider peasantry. The term rashtra, though Kautilya is not explicit about its usage, probably suggests a distinction between lands cultivated by the state (sita) and private lands (rashtra). Sita lands were managed by the state agriculture department under an officer called sitadhyaksha. Kosambi observes that at one time rashtra signified small tribal oligarchies which paid tributes (bali) to the sovereign of the janapada, which Greek visitors described as the free cities in India. In later periods, the distinction between rashtra and sita land disappeared and the former came to signify country or nation. Thus, the janapadas were the last stage in the evolution of an ancient tribal organization. However, a janapada was not merely an area with a single authority for all inhabitants, but also denoted a cultural Unit.


Famous Warrior Tribes

The epic Mahabharata Parvas which mention about the tribes are as under with chapters

S.NoParvaChapters with mention of tribes
1Adi ParvaCh: I.32, I.35, I.57, I.66, I.67, I.75, I.80, I.94, I.95, I.104, I.109, I.144, I.158, I.185, I.188,I.221
2Sabha ParvaCh : II.9, II.13, II.23-29, II.31, II.46, II.47, II.48,
3Vana ParvaCh: III.48, III.114, III.116.
4Virata ParvaCh:
5Udyoga ParvaCh: V.7, V.19, V.31, V.53, V.72, V.82, V.157,
6Bhisma ParvaCh: VI.6, VI.9, VI.10, VI.18, VI.20, VI.46, VI.47, VI.52, VI.68, VI.83, VI.112
7Drona ParvaCH: VII.15, VII.61, VII.66, VII.67, VII.68, VII.165
8Karna ParvaCh: VIII.4 , VIII.17, VIII.30
9Shalya ParvaCh: IX.43, IX.44
10Sauptika ParvaCh:
12Shanti ParvaCh: XII.29, XII.200
13Anusasana ParvaCh: XIII.31, XIII.127
14Aswamedha ParvaCh: XIV.8

Note - This table is compiled by Laxman Burdak लक्ष्मण बुरड़क

The most remarkable aspect of the Mahabharata war was the recruitment by both the Pandavas and Kauravas of a veritable host of primitive tribes from jungles and inaccessible valleys, without discrimination, into their respective armies. Bands of fierce jungle tribes, known as atavika formed the bulk of the fighting forces on both sides (II.5.53; XV.7; 7). The epic duly acknowledged individual tribal warriors such as Eklayya (a Bhil) and Ghatotkacha (a Rakshasa) for their legendary courage and fighting skills.

The epic displays intimate knowledge of the different tribes in the different regions, as also of the special fighting skills for which they were renowned. Bhishma instructed Yudhisthira (XII.102) to recruit people in the various wings of the army after studying their particular modes of fighting. He expressed a preference for frontier peoples for handling different missiles, while the Gandhara, Sindhu, and Sauvira tribes were accomplished in fighting With nails and lances. The Usinaras were skilled in all weaponry, while the easterners were adept in elephant-back warfare, and notorious for using unfair tricks in fighting (Kutaayodhinah, XII.102.19f).

The Yavana, Kamboja and Surasena tribes (Mathura region) were proficient in fighting duels, and were also expert infantrymen (niyuddhakusala). The southern tribes were competent with the sword (XII.102.3-5), while the northwest frontier and Central Asian tribes were expert cavalrymen. The epic made a special mention of the Kamboja horse (VI.88) and the redoubtable Kamboja warriors who were celebrated for their stiff resistance, unity, discipline and military strategy (VII. 87.42f, 95.20).

The Shakas were reputed to be as powerful as Indra (VII.111.50). The Gandhara horsemen were skilled with the lance (prasa;, VII.6.3). The Ambashthas wielded the club with dexterity (gada, VII.68.59). The fearsome Trigarta warriors (comprising the Lalittha, Malva, Mavellaka and Yaudheya tribes) took a ritual oath to "do" or "die" (VII.16). The Madra army was notable for its unique paraphernalia (V.8.3f).

The eastern tribes were experts in fighting on elephant back. The Magadha army was renowned for elephant warfare (V.164.24) and their king, Jarasandha, fought on elephant back (VII.91-26). Yet the most gifted fighters on elephant back were the tribes of Pragjyotisha (Assam), who trained their elephants to fight an offensive (not just defensive) war, as seen in the narrative about the elephant of king Bhagadatta (VII.25.26f) who led an army of Kiratas and Chinas. The Kiratas fought on elephants (VII.87.28f) and applied poison to their arrows (VII.87.30f).

Salvas were adept at the Asura mode of fighting (III.22,23), while the Shakas,Yavanas, Paradas and Balhikas were proficient in trick-fighting (VII.68.41.42). The Dravidas were capable warriors. The northern mountaineer tribes fought with stone weapons, a method of fighting (asmayuddha) unknown amongst the Kurus and other plains tribes (VII.97.29f)


Tribes in the Great War

The Mahabharata records the names of tribes existing at the time of the Great War, thus reflecting the power and prestige of the tribal settlements, which were then a major political and military force. The tribal inventory has great historical value for modern scholars. Broadly, there are following principal lists in Mahabharata:

  1. Names of the principal Naga chiefs:Adi Parva, Mahabharata/Mahabharata Book I Chapter 35
  2. Names of all those Nagas that fell into the fire of the snake-sacrifice: Adi Parva, Mahabharata/Mahabharata Book I Chapter 57
  3. Genealogy of the Danavas, Asuras, Kauravas, Pandavas, Gandharvas, Apsaras, Rakshasas: Adi Parva, Mahabharata/Mahabharata Book I Chapter 67
  4. Genealogies of Yadavas, Kurus, Bharatas: Adi Parva, Mahabharata/Mahabharata Book I Chapter 75
  5. Kshatriyas came on Swayamvara of Draupadi : Adi Parva, Mahabharata/Mahabharata Book I Chapter 188
  6. Comprising respectively the tribes defeated by Yudhisthira's four brothers (Sabha Parva, Book 2 Chapters 23-29
  7. Tribes bringing gifts at Yudhisthira's consecration as king emperor Sabha Parva, Book 2 Chapters 45-48
  8. Tribes mentioned in the 'geography' in Bhishma Parva, Book 6 Chapter X
  9. Kings and warriors of various tribes, who came to the ceremony for investing Kartikeya with the status of generalissimo: Shalya Parva, Book IX Chapter 44

The tribes that participated in the Kurukshetra War find repeated mention in the daily battle formations of both sides. Some minor list of peoples are recorded in the digvijayas undertaken by the warriors on both sides (Robert Shafer prepared thirteen lists based on the Critical Edition). However, as the epic's ethnography is coloured by the Great War, the tribes mentioned (on the battlefield or in connection with conquests) are mainly the ruling clans of warrior tribes. The Mahabharata, it is worth recollecting is the story of India's greatest war since the Rig Vedic Battle of Ten Kings, and hence documents the largest number of tribes. An almost equal number of tribes fought on both sides of the conflict. Scholars consider the "geographical list" at the beginning of the war as an archetype of similar narratives in the Puranas.

The geographical list attempts to specify the locations of the various settlements of Bharatavarsha. It was probably compiled by a geographer of Madhyadesa,who placed the Kuru-Panchala country at the centre of his efforts and enumerated the various lands and people, arriving at a fairly comprehensive ethnographic dictionary of India. The tribal tributes to Yudhisthira give an idea of the wealth of the janapadas (Upayanaparva list) and document the economic products of India. Of course, it is not possible to clearly identify all the Mahabharata tribes today as tribal migrations and changes of name were fairly common. Another problem encountered is that the lists of peoples include those belonging to the pre-historic period as well as those of a later age. Altogether some 361 tribes have been listed, not all of which can be clearly located or identified; indeed, many of the tribes listed by K.C. Misra are also the names of clans, kingdoms, regions and territories.


Tribes Listed on Pandava Side

  1. Asmaka (aśmaka) - The Puranas associate them with the Iksvaku line of Kshatriyas and Buddhist scriptures refer to their land as a Mahajanapada. Identified with Paithan in Aurangabad district, this janapada may have comprised modern Nasik and Aurangabad. Fought with the Pandavas (VII. 61.39).
    dhṛṣṭathyumnaśa ca thurdharṣaḥ śikhaṇḍī cāparājitaḥ |
    Aśmakāḥ kekayāśa caiva kaṣatradharmā ca saumakiḥ
    (VII. 61.39)
    Asrodh (asarodha) Jat Gotra started after The Mahabharata Tribe named Ashmaka (aśmaka).[1]
  2. Kanana - Possibly Karusha; fought for the Pandavas.
    The Mahabharata Tribe - Kanana may be identified with Jat Gotra - Kanara (kaṃṇārā) who live in Jaipur district in Rajasthan.
  3. Karusha (karūṣa) - A very ancient tribe and prominent ally of Pandavas; possibly hailed from the south of Kashi. (VI.10.39)
    cedivatsāḥ karūṣāśa ca bhojāḥ sindhupulinthakāḥ |
    Uttamaujā daśārṇāśa ca mekalāśa cotkalaiḥ saha
    (VI.10.39)
    The Mahabharata Tribe - Karusha (karūṣa) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Karesia (karesiyā) who live in Chittorgarh and Tonk districts in Rajasthan.
  4. Kashi (kāśi) - Listed in 'geography' (VI.10.38 and 40); were important allies of the Pandavas.
    śūrasenāḥ kaliṅgāśa ca bodhā maukāsa tadaiva ca |
    Matsyāḥ sukuṭyaḥ saubalyāḥ kuntalāḥ kāśikośalāḥ
    (VI.10.38)
    pāñcālāḥ kauśikāśa caiva ekapṛṣṭhā yugaṃ dharāḥ |
    Saudhā mathrā bhujiṅgāśa ca kāśayo ऽparakāśayaḥ
    (VI.10.40)
    The Mahabharata Tribe - Kashi (kāśi) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Kasya (kāsyā). [2] At present Kasya gotra Jats live in Mandsaur district in Madhya Pradesh. They are in villages Malhargarh in Mandsaur district.
  5. Kuninda (kuṇinda) - A widely spread tribe in the Terai of Hardwara (III.141.25), possibly of Jat stock. Also known as Kulinda (from the river Kalindi), their coins have been found near the source of the Yamuna-Ganga. Dwelled north of the Yamuna from Dehradun to Jagadhri. They were the first tribe to be subjugated by Arjuna when he moved northwards from Khandavaprastha (II.23.13 ). Sided with the Pandavas in the war and attacked the Kauravas with a formidable army of elephants (VIII.62.33ff).
    pūrvaṃ kuṇinda viṣaye vaśe cakre mahīpatīna |
    Dhanaṃjayo mahābāhura nātitīvreṇa karmaṇā
    (II.23.13 )
    khaśā ekāśanājyohāḥ paradarā dīrghavenavaḥ |
    Paśupāśa ca kuṇindāśa ca taṅgaṇāḥ parataṅgaṇāḥ
    (II.48.3)
    The Mahabharata Tribe - Kuninda (kuṇinda) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Kunawan (kuṇāvāṃ) who live in Village Renwal in Jaipur district, Rajasthan.
    The Salvas were a branch of the Madras and were ruling at Sialkot. These Madras had a branch named Kuninda, who were related to Koliya Naga. We know that the Madras were Vahikas and Jartas. Since according to grammatical illustration of Chandra-gomin the Jarta defeated the Huns, which means Skanda Gupta defeated the Huns. Hence Guptas were Jartas or Jat. [3]
  6. Kundivisa (kuṇḍī viṣa) - A tribe with professional soldiers who fought on both sides, they constituted a wing in Yudhisthira's army (VI.46.49).
    piśācā daradāśa caiva puṇḍrāḥ kuṇḍī viṣaiḥ saha |
    Maḍakā kaḍakāśa caiva taṅgaṇāḥ parapaṅgaṇāḥ
    (VI.46.49)
    The Mahabharata Tribe - Kundivisa (kuṇḍī viṣa) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Kundu (kuṃḍū)
  7. Kunti (kunti) - An important tribe (VI. 10.41) of the Bhojas, dwelled near Gwalior. Their king Kunti- Bhoja had matrimonial relations with Pandu; sided with the Pandavas.
    jaṭharāḥ kukkuśāśa caiva suthāśārṇāśa ca bhārata |
    Kuntayo ऽvantayaśa caiva tadaivāparakuntayaḥ
    (VI. 10.41)
    The Mahabharata Tribe - Kunti (kunti) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Kuntal or Khutel (khuṭela)
  8. Kekaya (kekaya) - Famous bowmen in the Great War (VIII.9), Linked with Madra. They were equally divided on both sides. (VII. 61.39)
    dhṛṣṭathyumnaśa ca thurdharṣaḥ śikhaṇḍī cāparājitaḥ |
    Aśmakāḥ kekayāśa caiva kaṣatradharmā ca saumaki
    ḥ ..39..
    The Kekayas were often associated with the Madras, the Usinaras, the Sibis etc and their territory had formed a part of the Vahika (Jat) country, according to the evidence furnished by Panini [4].
  9. Kerala (kerala) - A southern Dravida people (VI.10.57) who stood by Yudhishthira in the war (VIII. 8 .15).
    daraviḍāḥ keralāḥ parācyā bhūṣikā vanavāsinaḥ |
    Unnatyakā māhiṣakā vikalpā mūṣakāsa tadā
    ..57..
  10. Chedi (cedi) - An ancient tribe and power of Madhyadesa, probably Bundelkhand region. Their king, Sishupala allied with Jarasandha, but after the latter's death, his son became an ally of the Pandavas and sided with them in the Great War. (VI.10.39)
    cedivatsāḥ karūṣāśa ca bhojāḥ sindhupulinthakāḥ |
    Uttamaujā daśārṇāśa ca mekalāśa cotkalaiḥ saha
    (VI.10.39)
  11. Chola (cola) - Hailed from present Tanjore and sided with the Pandavas under the influence of the Pandya king. (VI.46.50)
    bāhlikāsa tittirāśa caiva colāḥ pāṇḍyāśa ca bhārata |
    Ete janapathā rājana thakṣiṇaṃ pakṣama āśritāḥ
    ..50.. (VI.46.50)
    The Mahabharata Tribe - Chola (cola) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Choyal (coyala) Chol (cola).
  12. Tangana (taṅgaṇa)/Paratangana (parataṅgaṇa) - Famous pair of northern mountaineer tribes (III.141.24), they fought on both sides (VI.46.49; VII.197.36; etc.).
    piśācā daradāśa caiva puṇḍrāḥ kuṇḍī viṣaiḥ saha |
    Maḍakā kaḍakāśa caiva taṅgaṇāḥ parapaṅgaṇāḥ
    (VI.46.49)
    The Mahabharata Tribe - Tangana (taṅgaṇa) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Tangal (taṃgala) or Tangar (taṃgaḍa़).
  13. Tamralipta (tāmralipta) - In the tribute list (II.48.17), probably modern Tamluk, Bengal. They joined the Pandavas in the war (VIII.17.2).
    vaṅgāḥ kaliṅga patayasa tāmraliptāḥ sapuṇḍrakāḥ |
    Dukūlaṃ kauśikaṃ caiva patrorṇaṃ parāvarāna api
    (II.48.17)
    parācyāśa ca dākṣiṇātyāśa ca paravīrā gajayodhinaḥ |
    Aṅgā vaṅgāśa ca puṇḍrāśa ca māgadhāsa tāmraliptakāḥ
    (VIII. 17.2)
  14. Tittira (tittira) - A northwestern tribe that sided with Yudhisthira (VI.46.50). Their land was famous for its fine horses (VI.86.4), (IX.44.80).
    bāhlikāsa tittirāśa caiva colāḥ pāṇḍyāśa ca bhārata |
    Ete janapathā rājana thakṣiṇaṃ pakṣama āśritāḥ
    (VI.46.50)
    kokilā vadanāśa cānye śayenatittirikānanāḥ |
    Kṛkalāsa mukhāśa caiva virajoऽmabaradhāriṇaḥ
    (IX.44.80)
    The Mahabharata Tribe - Tittira (tittira) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Tatran (tātarāna) or Titarwal (tītaravāla)
  15. Tumbupa (tumbupa) - Sided with Yudhisthira (VI.46.51); probably hailed from the region north of Narwar stretching from the foothills of the Vindhyas.
    agniveṣyā jagata tuṇḍā palathāśāśa ca bhārata |
    Śabarāsa tumbupāśa caiva vatsāśa ca saha nākulaiḥ
    (VI.46.51)
  16. Dandaka (daṇḍaka) - Defeated by Sahdeva (II.28.43); they belonged to the forest regions of Bundelkhand. Joined both sides in the war (Pandavas VI.46.49; Kaurava, Vl.47.16)
    tataḥ śūrpārakaṃ caiva gaṇaṃ copakṛtāhvayama |
    Vaśe cakre mahātejā daṇḍakāṃśa ca mahābalaḥ
    (II.28.43)
    Though Dandaka was mentioned in the epic Ramayana, with great detail, a few mentions of this kingdom is found in the epic Mahabharata. In Sahadeva's conquests - Sahadeva, the Pandava general, and younger brother of Pandava king Yudhisthira, came to southern regions to collect tribute for the Rajasuya sacrifice of the king. Sahadeva, having exacted jewels and wealth from king Rukmin (ruling at the second capital of Vidarbha, named Bhojakata), marched further to the south. There he, reduced to subjection, Surparaka and Talakata, and the Dandakas also. The Kuru warrior then vanquished and brought under his subjection numberless kings of the Mlechchha tribe living on the sea coast (2,30). [5]
    The Mahabharata Tribe - Dandaka (daṇḍaka) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Dandak (dāṃdaka).
  17. Dashara/Dasharna (daśārṇa)- Listed in 'geography' (VI.10.39); possibly from the western Vindhya region. Sided with Yudhishthira (VI.4).
    cedivatsāḥ karūṣāśa ca bhojāḥ sindhupulinthakāḥ |
    Uttamaujā daśārṇāśa ca mekalāśa cotkalaiḥ saha
    (VI.10.39)
    The Mahabharata Tribe - Dasharna (daśārṇa) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Dashpuria (daśapuriyā)
  18. Dasheraka (dāśeraka) - A northern tribe, sided with the Pandavas (VI.112.108)(VI.46.46).
    te videhāḥ kaliṅgāśa ca dāśeraka gaṇaiḥ saha |
    Abhipetura niṣāthāśa ca sauvīrāśa ca mahāraṇe
    (VI.112.108)
    dāśārṇakāḥ parayāgāśa ca dāśreraka gaṇaiḥ saha |
    Anūpagāḥ kirātāśa ca garīvāyāṃ bharatarṣabha
    (VI.46.46)
  19. Dravida (daraviḍa) - A southern tribe (VI.10.57), joined the Pandavas (viii.8.14).
    daraviḍāḥ keralāḥ parācyā bhūṣikā vanavāsinaḥ |
    Unnatyakā māhiṣakā vikalpā mūṣakāsa tadā
    (VI.10.57)
  20. Nishada (niṣāda) - In the 'geography' (VI. 10.50); subdued by Bhima (II.27.10) and also Sahdeva (II.28.5). Fought on both sides in the Great War (Pandava, VI.46.47; Kaurava, VI.112.108). Their strongholds covered the entire Vindhya ranges.
    śakā niṣādā niṣadhāsa tadaivānartanairṛtāḥ |
    Dugūlāḥ paratimatsyāśa ca kuśalāḥ kunaṭāsa tadā
    (VI. 10.50)
  21. Patachchara (paṭaca cara) - A tribe of the south-west, defeated by Sahdeva (II.28.4); they joined Yudhisthira's army (VI.46.47). The epic (II.13.25) lists them with the Yadava and Bhoja tribes who fled westwards for fear of Jarasandha.
    sukumāraṃ vaśe cakre sumitraṃ ca narādhipama |
    Tadaivāparamatsyāṃśa ca vayajayata sa paṭaca carāna
    (II.28.4)
    uthīcyabhojāśa ca tadā kulānya aṣṭā thaśābhibho |
    Jarāsaṃdha bhayātha eva paratīcīṃ thiśama āśritāḥ
    (II.13.24)
    śūrasenā bhadra kārā bodhāḥ śālvāḥ pataca carāḥ |
    Susdarāśa ca sukuṭṭāśa ca kuṇinthāḥ kuntibhiḥ sah
    a (II.13.25)
    paṭaca caraiśa ca huṇḍaiśa ca rājana pauravakaisa tadā |
    Niṣāthaiḥ sahitaśa cāpi pṛṣṭhama āsītha yudhiṣṭhira
    ḥ (VI.46.47)
    Patachchara (paṭaca cara) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Pachar (pacāra)
  22. Pamsu Rashtra (pāṃśurāṣṭra) - Gave rich tributes to Yudhisthira (II.48.26). Joined the Pandavas (V.II.20).
    pāṃśurāṣṭrātha vasu thāno rājā ṣaḍa viṃśatiṃ gajāna |
    Aśvānāṃ ca sahasre thave rājana kāñcanamālināma
    (II.48.26)
  23. Panchala (pāñcāla) - Major allies of the Pandavas; they played an important part in the epic.
    pāñcālāḥ kauśikāśa caiva ekapṛṣṭhā yugaṃ dharāḥ |
    Saudhā mathrā bhujiṅgāśa ca kāśayo ऽparakāśayaḥ (
    VI.10.40)
    The Mahabharata Tribe - Panchala (pāñcāla) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Pachare (pacahare).
  24. Pandya (paṇḍyā) - A Tamil people defeated by Sahdeva (II.28.48) and Karna.(III.241.50). Joined Yudhisthira's army (VI.46.50).
    bāhlikāsa tittirāśa caiva colāḥ pāṇḍyāśa ca bhārata |
    Ete janapathā rājana thakṣiṇaṃ pakṣama āśritāḥ
    (VI.46.50)
    The Mahabharata Tribe - Pandya (paṇḍyā) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Pandya (paṃḍyā) who live in Tonk district in Rajasthan.
  25. Pishacha (piśāca) - Fought in Yudhisthira's army (VI.46.15) as well as the Kuru army (VI.83.8); probably from the region of Kashmir.
    tharoṇātha anantaraṃ yatto bhagathattaḥ paratāpavāna |
    Māgadhaiśa ca kaliṅgaiśa ca piśācaiśa ca viśāṃ pate
    (VI.83.8)
  26. Pundra (puṇḍra) / (Paundraka)h - An eastern tribe which joined both armies (Pandavas VI.46.49; Kauravas VIII.17.2).
    piśācā tharathāśa caiva puṇḍrāḥ kuṇḍī viṣaiḥ saha |
    Maḍakā kaḍakāśa caiva taṅgaṇāḥ parapaṅgaṇāḥ
    (VI.46.49)
    parācyāśa ca dākṣiṇātyāśa ca paravīrā gajayodhinaḥ |
    Aṅgā vaṅgāśa ca puṇḍrāśa ca māgadhāsa tāmraliptakāḥ
    (VIII. 17.2)
    The Mahabharata Tribe - Pundra (puṇḍra) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Pundir (punḍīra). [6]
  27. Paurava (paurava) - The Cr. Ed. Reads Parada, who brought tribute to Yudhisthira (II.47.10 and II.48.12). The Pauravas joined the Pandavas (VI.46.47 and VI.52.13). Arjuna conquered a Paurava settlement near Kashmir.
    paṭaca caraiśa ca huṇḍaiśa ca rājana pauravakaisa tadā |
    Niṣāthaiḥ sahitaśa cāpi pṛṣṭhama āsītha yudhiṣṭhira
    ḥ (VI.46.47)
  28. Prayaga (parayāga) - Were in the army of Yudhisthira (VI.46.46); could hail from Prayag region.
    dāśārṇakāḥ parayāgāśa ca thāśreraka gaṇaiḥ saha |
    Anūpagāḥ kirātāśa ca garīvāyāṃ bharatarṣabha
    (VI.46.46)
  29. Bhadra (bhadra) - Associated with Rohitaka and Agreya in Karna's conquest (III. 241.67). They had many branches and fought on both sides in the war (Pandavas VI.52.9 and Kauravas VI.47.9).
    citrasenena sahitāḥ sahitāḥ pāṇibhadrakaiḥ |
    Bhīṣmama evābhirakṣantu saha sainyapuraskṛtāḥ
    (VI.47.9)
    The Mahabharata Tribe - Bhadra (bhadra) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Bhadu (bhādu)
  30. Magadha (māgadha) - Magadha was the most powerful country before the rise of the Pandavas at Indraprastha, but after the fall of Jarasandha, the empire was divided. Jarasandha's son Sahdeva was installed by Pandavas at their capital Giribraja (Rajgir) and supported them in the War. His brother Jalasandha and other princes of Magadha sided with the Kauravas (V.64.6, 164.9).
    parācyāśa ca dākṣiṇātyāśa ca paravīrā gajayodhinaḥ |
    Aṅgā vaṅgāśa ca puṇḍrāśa ca māgadhāsa tāmraliptakāḥ
    (VIII. 17.2)
  31. Madaka (maḍaka) - A northern tribe in Yudhisthira's army (VI.46.49).
    piśācā tharathāśa caiva puṇḍrāḥ kuṇḍī viṣaiḥ saha |
    Maḍakā kaḍakāśa caiva taṅgaṇāḥ parapaṅgaṇāḥ
    (VI.46.49)
    The Mahabharata Tribe - Madaka (maḍaka) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Madkalya (maḍa़kālyā) who live in Tonk district in Rajasthan.
  32. Matsya (matsya) - An ancient people from time of the Rig Veda. The Mbh (II.13.27) records their defeat at the hands of Jarasandha. They were prominent allies of the Pandavas who lived incognito for one year at the court of King Virata.
    tadottarāṃ diśaṃ cāpi parityajya bhayārthitāḥ |
    Matsyāḥ saṃnyastapāthāśa ca dakṣiṇāṃ diśama āśritāḥ
    (II.13.27)
    The Mahabharata Tribe - Matsya (matsya) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Machhar (māchara) found in Jaipur and Alwar districts in Rajasthan
  33. Marudha (marudha) (-ka, -bhauma)h - Defeated by Sahdeva in the south (II.28.7), they may be the Madhka in Yudhisthira's army. Both 'Maru' and 'Mada' are found in inscriptions; could refer to Jodhpur and Jaisalmer states (modern Marwar). Marudhanva is a term for desert and Marudha may, derive from it.
    The Mahabharata Tribe - Marudha (marudha) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Mirdha (mirdhā).
  34. Ladaka - Fierce northern tribes who joined the army of Yudhisthira (VI.46.18).
  35. Vatsa (vatsa) - A prominent ancient people from modern Allahabad, mentioned in the 'geography' (VI. 10.39). They sided with Yudhisthira in the War (VI.50.51).
    cedivatsāḥ karūṣāśa ca bhojāḥ sindhupulinthakāḥ |
    Uttamaujā daśārṇāśa ca mekalāśa cotkalaiḥ saha
    (VI.10.39)
    The Mahabharata Tribe - Vatsa (vatsa) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Vats (vatsa) found in District Muzaffarnagar in Uttar Pradesh. This gotra originated after an ancient kingdom of the same name. [8]
  36. Vrishnis (vṛṣṇi) - The principal branch of the Yadava confederacy, which ruled in Anarta. Krishna belonged to this tribe (Vrsninam Vasudevosmi, Gita, X.37). Satyaki, an important leader, fought valiantly for the Pandavas. They are mentioned in the tribute list as a northwestern people, and numismatic evidence suggests a Vrishni settlement in northern Punjab. It is likely that a branch of the Vrishnis and Kukuras migrated from Dwarka after its downfall and settled in Punjab.
    mahāradaira andhakavṛṣṇibhojaiḥ; saurāṣṭrakaira nairṛtaira āttaśastraiḥ |
    Bṛhathbalaḥ kṛtavarmābhigupto; balaṃ tavathīyaṃ thakṣiṇato ऽbhipāti
    (VI.20.14)
  37. Shavara (śavara)- A southern tribe, they joined the Pandavas in the war (VI. 46.51).
    agniveṣyā jagata tuṇḍā palathāśāśa ca bhārata |
    Śabarāsa tumbupāśa caiva vatsāśa ca saha nākulaiḥ
    (VI. 46.51)
    The Mahabharata Tribe - Shavara (śavara) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Shiwar (śīvara).[9]
  38. Huna (hūṇa) - A wild northwestern tribe (I. 165.35) which joined the army' of Yudhisthira. Indian Hunas came from the east of Lake Mansarovar in Nari-Khorsam.
    yavanāśa ca sa kāmbojā thāruṇā maleccha jātayaḥ |
    Sakṣaththruhaḥ kuntalāśa ca hūṇāḥ pāratakaiḥ sah
    a (VI .10.64)

Tribes listed on Kaurava

1. Anga (aṅga) - An ancient eastern tribe and one of the Mahajanapadas in the Bauddha period, it constituted the core of the confederacy of five kingdoms of Anga, Vanga, Kalinga, Suhma and Pundra. According to the Mbh. And other sources, Anga comprised the present districts of Bhagalpur and Monghyr. It was under the suzerainty of the Kuru king, and hence Duryodhana could make Karna its ruler. Anga supported the Kauravas in the Great War.

parācyāśa ca dākṣiṇātyāśa ca paravīrā gajayodhinaḥ |
Aṅgā vaṅgāśa ca puṇḍrāśa ca māgadhāsa tāmraliptakāḥ (VIII. 17.2)

2. Andhaka (andhaka) - A branch of the Yadava confederacy, headed by Krtavarma. They alone sided with the Kauravas among the Yadavas (V.19.17).

mahāradaira andhakavṛṣṇibhojaiḥ; saurāṣṭrakaira nairṛtaira āttaśastraiḥ |
Bṛhathbalaḥ kṛtavarmābhigupto; balaṃ tavathīyaṃ thakṣiṇato ऽbhipāti (VI.20.14)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Andhaka (andhaka) may be identified with Jat Gotras - Andar, Andhala, Andhi, Audhran, Odhran, Oka, Ond etc.

3. Andhra (andhra) - A very ancient tribe mentioned as Dasyus in the Aitareya Brahmana (VII.18), as the result of a curse by Vishwamitra. Linked with Pulinda, Khasa, Nishada and other low peoples, they fought for Duryodhana (VIII. 51.17). The Mbh. (XII.200.40) describes them as natives of the south. (VI.10.48)

andhrāśa ca bahavo rājanna antargiryāsa tadaiva ca |
Bahirgirya āṅgamalathā māgadhā mānavarjakāḥ (VI.10.48)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Andhra (andhra) may be identified with Jat Gotra - [[Taka] or Takhar, Name of their tribe was Andhra. [10]

According to Thakur Deshraj there was a great king in Andhra-vansh named Hala around 69 AD. The descendants of Maharaja Hala came from south to north and settled in uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan. The Jat groups of these Kshatriyas were known as Hala.[11]

The Mahabharata Tribe - Andhra (andhra) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Andar (aṃdāra) or Andara (aṃdāra) is Jat gotra same a Andhak. [12]

The Mahabharata Tribe - Andhra (andhra) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Andhrana (āṃdhrāṇā).[13]

The Mahabharata Tribe - Andhra (andhra) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Vadiar (vāḍiyāra) .[14]

4. Abhisara(abhisāra) - Mentioned in Rajatarangini, which locates their territory in the hill states of Rajapuri ( Rajauri). An infamous and barbarous tribe in Mbh. (VII.68.42); their clans fought on both sides, but were generally with the Kauravas. (VI.10.52)

yo yoniprabhavā malecchāḥ kālakalpāḥ parahāriṇaḥ |
Dārvābhisārā tharathāḥ puṇḍrāśa ca saha bāhlikaiḥ (VII.68.42)
kāśmīrāḥ sindhusauvīrā gāndhārā darśakāsa tadā |
Abhīsārā kulūtāśa ca śauvalā bāhlikāsa tadā (VI.10.52)

5. Ambastha (ambaṣṭha) - A very ancient people, mentioned in Aitareya Brahmana (VIII.11). Ptolemy refers to them as Ambastai; they settled on the lower Chenab in Punjab and were important in the Kaurava army.

ambaṣṭhāḥ kaukurāsa tārkṣyā vastrapāḥ pahlavaiḥ saha |
Vasātayaḥ samauleyāḥ saha kaṣudrakamālavaiḥ (II.48.14)

6. Avanti (avanti) - Joined the Kaurava army and hailed from western Malwa (capital Ujjain). Linked with the Haihaya dynasty in Furanic genealogy.

7. Ashvataka (aśvātaka) - Sided with Duryodhana (Mbh. VI 47.15).

tato thuryodhano rājā sahitaḥ sarvasotharaiḥ |
Aśvātakaira vikarṇaiśa ca tadā śarmila kosalaiḥ VI 47.15).

The Mahabharata Tribe - Ashvataka (aśvātaka) may be identified with nagavanshi Jat Gotras - Ashwatar (aśvatara) .[15]

8. Ajaneya (ājāneya) - Part of the Gandhara king's army (VIII.4.96); fought for the Kurus.

ājāneyaiḥ saindhavaiḥ pārvatīyaira; nathīja kāmbojavanāyu bāhlikaiḥ |
Gāndhārarājaḥ savabalena yukto; vayavasdito yothdhukāmasa tavatharde

Anjai (āṃjaī) is a place in Uttar Pradesh. It was the kingdom of Andhaka or the Antal gotra Jats.

9. Abhira (abhīra) - Ancestors of the modern Ahirs; were possibly confined to the Punjab and Mathura regions in the epic period. Krishna was brought up in an Abhira family. The Mbh. (II.29.9) states they lived in the western desert where the Sarasvati dried up in Vinasana out of hatred for them (IX.37.21f).Joined the Kauravas (VII.10.7).

śūdrābhīra gaṇāśa caiva ye cāśritya sarasvatīma |
Vartayanti ca ye matsyaira ye ca parvatavāsinaḥ (II.29.9)

10. Aratta (ārta) - A north-western tribe; part of the forces of Krtavarma (VII.165.69).

vicetaso hatotsāhāḥ kaśmalābhihataujasaḥ |
Ārtasvareṇa mahatā putraṃ te paryavārayana (VII.165.69)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Aratta (ārta) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Aratt (araṭṭa) Artat (arṭāṭa).[16]

H. L. Kosare after Mahabharata informs that Arattas had their three branches Takka, Vahika and Jartika. All the tree branches belong to Jats.

11. Arevaka (ārevaka) - Fought in the Kuru army (VI.47.7). Possibly from southern Baluchistan.

saṃsdānāḥ śūrasenāśa ca veṇikāḥ kukurāsa tadā |
Ārevakāsa tarigartāśa ca mathrakā yavanāsa tadā (VI.47.7)

12. Karnapravarna (karṇaprāvaraṇa) - A Vindhya tribe defeated by Sahdeva (II.28.44), they brought tribute to Yudhisthira. Joined the Kaurava army (VI.47.13).

vidarbhaira mekalaiśa caiva karṇaprāvaraṇaira api |
Sahitāḥ sarvasainyena bhīṣmama āhavaśobhinama (VI.47.13)

13. Kamboja (kāmboja) - An ancient tribe neighbouring Gandhara; in the forefront of Duryodhana's army. Their king Sudakshina was one of the maharathis in the Great Battle and died at the hands of Arjuna (VII.67.67f).

suthakṣiṇaṃ tu kāmbojaṃ moghasaṃkalpavikramama |
Bibhetha hṛthi bāṇena pṛdu dhāreṇa pāṇḍavaḥ

The Mahabharata Tribe - Kamboja (kāmboja) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Kamboj (kāmboja) Kamboh (kāmboha) who are descendants of rishi Kondilya (koṃḍilya). They are also called Kamedia. [19]

14. Kitava (kitava) - Brought tributes to Yudhisthira (II.47.10); joined the Kauravas in the war (VI.18.12). Possibly an ancient Makran tribe as the gifts they bore match the products of Makran. Their king Uluka (IX.I.1.25) was the son of Shakuni (VI.68.5).

sahadevasa tu śakunima ulūkaṃ ca mahāradama |
Pitā putrau maheṣvāsāva abhyavartata durjayau (VI.68.5)
te vairāmāḥ pārathāśa ca vaṅgāśa ca kitavaiḥ saha |
Vividhaṃ balima āthāya ratnāni vividhāni ca (II.47.10)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Kitava (kitava) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Kitawat (kitāvata) who live in Jaipur district in Rajasthan.

15. Kirata (kirāta) - Hailed from the eastern Himalayas and played a crucial role in the epic. Their ruler Bhagadatta was a powerful ally of Duryodhana and brought a division of elephants to the Kauravas. (VI.20.13)

śārathvataśa cottaradhūra mahātmā; maheṣvāso gautamaśa citrayodhī |
Śakaiḥ kirātaira yavanaiḥ pahlavaiśa ca; sārdhaṃ camūma uttarato ऽbhipāti (VI.20.13)

16. Kukura (kukura) - A very ancient northwestern tribe and branch of the Yadava confederacy. Mentioned in (geography' (VI. 10.41) and the tribute list (II.48.14). Supported Duryodhana in the war (VI. 47.7) .

saṃsdānāḥ śūrasenāśa ca veṇikāḥ kukurāsa tadā |
Ārevakāsa tarigartāśa ca mathrakā yavanāsa tadā (VI.47.7)
ambaṣṭhāḥ kaukurāsa tārkṣyā vastrapāḥ pahlavaiḥ saha |
Vasātayaḥ samauleyāḥ saha kaṣudrakamālavaiḥ (II.48.14)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Kukura (kukura) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Khokhar which is a derivative of Kukar. Khokhars are mentioned in Vayu Purana and Visnu Purana as 'Kokarakas'. [20] [21]


17. Kuntala (kuntala) - There were two Kuntala countries, one in the north and another in the south. The southern Kuntalas fought with the Kauravas (VI.47.12).

pauṇḍrako vāsuthevaśa ca vaṅgaḥ kāliṅgakasa tadā |
Ākarṣaḥ kuntalaśa caiva vānavāsyāndhrakāsa tadā (II.31.11)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Kuntala (kuntala) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Kuntal (kuṃtala).[22]

18. Kuluta (kulūta) - Hailed from the modern Kulu- Kangra region and fought on the side of the Kauravas (VI.10.52), (VII.8.45).

kāśmīrāḥ sindhusauvīrā gāndhārā darśakāsa tadā |
Abhīsārā kulūtāśa ca śauvalā bāhlikāsa tadā (VI.10.52)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Kuluta (kulūta) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Kulawat (kūlāvata)[23] or Kalwana (kalavānā). [24]

19. Koshala (kausala) - A famous solar dynasty of the Ramayana era; played a minor role in the Mbh. King Brahadvala joined Duryodhana (VI.83.9), but some Koshalas joined the Pandava side (in VIII.8.19; 33.22).

parāgjyotiṣātha anu nṛpaḥ kausalyo ऽda bṛhathbalaḥ |
Mekalaisa taraipuraiśa caiva cicchilaiśa ca samanvitaḥ (VI.83.9)

20. Kshudraka (kaṣudraka) / (Malava) (mālava) - Both tribes (II.48.14) supported the Kauravas (VI.83.7).

ambaṣṭhāḥ kaukurāsa tārkṣyā vastrapāḥ pahlavaiḥ saha |
Vasātayaḥ samauleyāḥ saha kaṣudrakamālavaiḥ (II.48.14)

21. Khasa (khaśa) - A famous Himalayan tribe in Nepal and southwest Kashmir; sided with the Kauravas. (II.48.3)

khaśā ekāśanājyohāḥ paradarā dīrghavenavaḥ |
Paśupāśa ca kuṇindāśa ca taṅgaṇāḥ parataṅgaṇāḥ (II.48.3)
śūdrābhīrāda daradāḥ kāśmīrāḥ paśubhiḥ saha |
:khaśikāśa ca tukhārāśa ca pallavā girigahvarāḥ (VI.10.66)


The Mahabharata Tribe - Khasa (khaśa) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Khasa (khāsā) Khasha (khāsā) who live in Distt Sonipat in Haryana and Sikar district in Rajasthan.

22. Gandhara (gāndhāra) - A northern tribe (VII.200.40) and key allies of the Kauravas. Their king Shakuni lived at the Kaurava court and guided their destinies. Gandhara generally denotes Peshawar and Rawalpindi, though Persian inscriptions reveal that it included Kabul ( Afghanistan). (VI.10.52)

kāśmīrāḥ sindhusauvīrā gāndhārā darśakāsa tadā |
Abhīsārā kulūtāśa ca śauvalā bāhlikāsa tadā (VI.10.52)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Gandhara (gāndhāra) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Gandhar (gāndhāra) in Agra district in villages Bichpuri of Agra district.

23. Govasana (govāsana) - Fought on the side of the Kauravas (VI.11.73), they also brought tribute to Yudhisthira (II.47.5).

govāsanā barāhmaṇāśa ca dāsamīyāśa ca sarvaśaḥ |
Parītyardaṃ te mahābhāgā dharmarājño mahātmanaḥ (II.47.5)

They are from place Gavasen in district Betul in Madhya Pradesh.

24. Chichchhila (ra) (cicchila) - In the Kuru army with Mekala and Traipura (VI.83.9) of the central region.

parāgjyotiṣātha anu nṛpaḥ kausalyo ऽda bṛhathbalaḥ |
Mekalaisa taraipuraiśa caiva cicchilaiśa ca samanvitaḥ

They are from place Chicholi in district Betul in Madhya Pradesh.

25. China (cīnā) - A northwestern tribe (Darunamlecchajatayah VI .10.64); linked with the Kiratas in the army of Bhagadatta. Sided with the Kauravas in the war (III.174.12).

yavanāśa ca sa kāmbojā thāruṇā maleccha jātayaḥ |
Sakṣaththruhaḥ kuntalāśa ca hūṇāḥ pāratakaiḥ saha (VI .10.64)
tadaiva maradhāśa cīnāsa tadaiva daśa mālikāḥ |
Kaṣatriyopaniveśāśa ca vaiśyaśūthra kulāni ca (VI .10.65)

The Mahabharata Tribe - China (cīnā) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Chheena (chīnā) or China (cīnā). [25]

26. Chuchupa (-ka) (cūcupa) - Figured in Duryodhana's army (VI. 47.16); a southern people.

daradaiśa cūcupaiśa caiva tadā kaṣudrakamālavaiḥ |
Abhyarakṣata saṃhṛṣṭaḥ saubaleyasya vāhinīma (VI. 47.16)

27. Tushara (tuṣāra) - A northwestern tribe (XII. 65), sided with the Kauravas (VI.75,VIII.73). (VI.10.66)

śūdrābhīrāda daradāḥ kāśmīrāḥ paśubhiḥ saha |
Khaśikāśa ca tukhārāśa ca pallavā girigahvarāḥ (VI.10.66)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Tushara (tuṣāra) may be identified with Jat Gotras - Tushar (tuṣāra) Tukhar (tukhāra) Tusiar (tusiyara) Tusir (tusīra) Tushir (tuśīra). This gotra originated from Tushara (tuṣāra) janapada mentioned in Mahabharata. This place is now in Gilgit. There was Tusharagiri mountain also. [26]

28. Tundikera (tuṇḍikera) - Sided with the Kauravas (VIII.4.47); from modern Tundikhera in district Narasinghpur in Madhya Pradesh.

māvellakāsa tuṇḍikerāḥ sāvitrī putra kāñcalāha |
Parācyothīcyāḥ paratīcyāśa ca thākṣiṇātyāśa ca māriṣa (VIII.4.47)

29. Trigarta (trigarta) - Dwelled between the Ravi and Sutlej; were major allies of the Kauravas. (VI.47.7)

saṃsdānāḥ śūrasenāśa ca veṇikāḥ kukurāsa tadā |
Ārevakāsa tarigartāśa ca mathrakā yavanāsa tadā (VI.47.7)

The Mahabharata Book 2: Sabha Parva locates them along with Dasarnas, the Sivis, the Amvashtas, the Malavas, the five tribes of the Karnatas around Rohtak in Haryana as under:

śairīṣakaṃ mahecchaṃ ca vaśe cakre mahāthyutiḥ |
Śibīṃsa trigartāna ambaṣṭhāna mālavāna pañca karpaṭāna (II.31.6)

The Trigartas (trigarta) were ancient tribes of Mahabharata period which gave rise to many Jat clans, such as (1) Damal , Damara, Damas, Dhami, Dhamora (2) Kundu, Kadwasra, Kandoli, Kondal, Kont, Konth(3) Dangi, (4) Khanda, Khandaulia, Khandel, Khandia Khandaya, Khodiwal, (5) Jali, (6) Brahman, Brahma, Brahmayan and (7) Janar, Janvar, Janak, Janal, Janar, Janawa .[27]

30. Darvika (darvīka) /Darva (darva) - In 'geography' (VI.10.53); associated with Kashmir; fought with the Kauravas (VII.66.42).

darvīkāḥ sakacā darvā vātajāma radoragāḥ |
Bahu vāthyāśa ca kauravya suthāmānaḥ sumallikāḥ (VI.10.53)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Tushara (tuṣāra) may be identified with Jat Gotras - Darv (darva) Darva (darva) Darawar (dārāvāra) |
[28]

31. Dasam/ Dasameya - Kaurava supporters (VIII.51.22) from Punjab.

The Mahabharata Tribe - Dasam/ Dasameya) may be identified with Jat Gotras - Daseya (daseyā) who live in Nimach district in Madhya Pradesh

32. Narayaia (nārāyaṇa) - A tribe of cowherds and professional warriors from Anarta, Kathiawar. The Narayana army was the personal army of Sri Krishna who gave them to Duryodhana after being chosen by Arjuna (V.7.16). They are also called Gopala (VII.66.38). It seems that other divisions of the Narayana army joined the Pandavas (VIII. 4.59). Probably indicates Punjab, as a region watered by five rivers; conquered by Nakula

mācellakā lalitdāśa ca kekayā madrakāsa tadā |
Nārāyaṇāśa ca gopālāḥ kāmbojānāṃ ca ye gaṇāḥ (VII.66.38)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Narayaia (nārāyaṇa) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Narain (naraina) originated from place name Narei (nareī) surrounded by Capitalia. [29] It is one of the Jat clans as described by Megasthenes.

33. Panchanada (pañcanada) - Probably indicates Punjab, as a region watered by five rivers; conquered by Nakula (II.29.10). Sided with the Kuru army (VI.52.5; VI.20.10).

kṛtsnaṃ pañcanadaṃ caiva tadaivāparaparyaṭama |
Uttarajyotikaṃ caiva tadā vṛṇḍāṭakaṃ purama |
Davārapālaṃ ca tarasā vaśe cakre mahāthyutiḥ (II.29.10)

34. Pahlava (pahlava) - A north-western tribe, defeated by Nakula (II.29.15); joined the Kaurava forces (VI.20.13).

śārathvataśa cottaradhūra mahātmā; maheṣvāso gautamaśa citrayodhī |
Śakaiḥ kirātaira yavanaiḥ pahlavaiśa ca; sārdhaṃ camūma uttarato ऽbhipāti (VI.20.13)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Pahlava (pahlava) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Pahlawat (pahalāvata).

35. Panibhadraka (pāṇibhadraka) - A tribe in Duryodhana's army (VI.47.9), probably from the north Himalayas.

citrasenena sahitāḥ sahitāḥ pāṇibhadrakaiḥ |
Bhīṣmama evābhirakṣantu saha sainyapuraskṛtāḥ (VI.47.9)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Panibhadraka (pāṇibhadraka) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Bhadu.

36. Parada/Parataka (pārada) - In the tribute list (II.48.12); came from the west of the Indus near the ocean, and fought on the side of the Kauravas (VI.83.7).

kāyavyā daradā dārvāḥ śūrā vaiyamakāsa tadā |
Audumbarā durvibhāgāḥ pāradā bāhlikaiḥ saha (II.48.12)
tato ऽnantarama evāsītha bhārathvājaḥ paratāpavāna |
Pulinthaiḥ pāradaiśa caiva tadā kaṣuthrakamālavaiḥ (VI.83.7)


The Mahabharata Tribe - Parada/Parataka (pārada) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Parodiya (pāroḍiyā) who live in Mandsaur district in Madhya Pradesh.

37. Pulinda (pulinda) - A Vindhya tribe which joined the Kuru army (VI.83.7).

tato ऽnantarama evāsītha bhārathvājaḥ paratāpavāna |
Pulindaiḥ pāradaiśa caiva tadā kaṣuthrakamālavaiḥ (VI.83.7)

38. Prasthala (parasdala) - A Trigarta branch who fought in the Kuru army (VI.83.10); could have come from the Punjab or Sind region.

bṛhathbalāta tataḥ śūrasa tarigartaḥ parasdalādhipaḥ |
Kāmbojaira bahubhiḥ sārdhaṃ yavanaiśa ca sahasraśaḥ (VI.83.10)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Prasthala (parasdala) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Paras (parasa) who live in Maharashtra. [30]

39. Bhoja (bhoja) - Descendants of Yayati's son Druhyu (Mbh.I.80.26), they were closely linked With the Yadavas in the epic. (VI.20.14) One branch headed by Krtavarma sided with the Kauravas.

yadosa tu yādavā jātāsa turvasora yavanāḥ sutāḥ |
Daruhyora api sutā bhojā anosa tu maleccha jātayaḥ (I.80.26)
mahāradaira andhakavṛṣṇibhojaiḥ; saurāṣṭrakaira nairṛtaira āttaśastraiḥ |
Bṛhathbalaḥ kṛtavarmābhigupto; balaṃ tavathīyaṃ thakṣiṇato ऽbhipāti (VI.20.14)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Bhoja (bhoja) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Bhoj (bhoja) found in Nimach district in Madhya Pradesh.

40. Malava (mālava) - The name Malava occurs separately as well as in the form of Kshudraka-Malava; they were a Punjab tribe according to the digvijaya of Karna (III.241.67). Nakula also defeated them (II.29.6). They joined the Kuru army and protected Bhishma and Drona (VI.83.6-7). The Malava tribe is famous for its resistance to Alexandaer in the region between Ravi and Chenab.

agrataḥ sarvasainyānāṃ bhīṣmaḥ śāṃtanavo yayau |
Mālavaira dākṣiṇātyaiśa ca āvantyaiśa ca samanvitaḥ (VI.83.6)
tato ऽnantarama evāsītha bhārathvājaḥ paratāpavāna |
Pulinthaiḥ pārathaiśa caiva tadā kaṣudrakamālavaiḥ (VI.83.7)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Malava (mālava) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Mall (malla) or Malli (mallī).

41. Mahishmati (māhiṣmatī) - Ruled by King Nila of the Haihaya dynasty and subdued by Karna (III.241.56) and later by Sahadeva (II.28.11). In the War, nila was on the Kaurava side (V.19). The city is identified with modern Mandhata on an island in the Narmada.

tato ratnānya upāthāya purīṃ māhiṣmatīṃ yayau |
Tatra nīlena rājñā sacakre yuthdhaṃ nararṣabhaḥ (II.28.11)

The city of Mahishmati, Capital of King Nila,where the battle that took place between king Nila and the mighty Sahadeva. Nila (nīla) is gotra of Jats found in Tonk, Jaipur districts in Rajasthan.

42. Munda (muṇḍa) - Fought in the Kuru army (VI.52.9), and were a northwestern tribe (III.48.21). Shalya Parva (IX.44.90)

hārahūṇāṃśa ca cīnāṃśa ca tukhārāna saindhavāṃsa tadā |
Jāguḍāna ramaṭhāna muṇḍāna satrī rājyāna ada taṅgaṇāna(III.48.21)
tariśiṭhā daviśikhāśa caiva tadā sapta śikhāḥ pare |
Śikhaṇḍino mukuṭino muṇḍāśa ca jaṭilāsa tadā (IX.44.90)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Munda (muṇḍa) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Mund (mūṃḍa)

Bhim Singh Dahiya writes that the Allahabad pillar inscription of Samudragupta mentions about Munda clan.[31]

43. Mekala (mekala) - They fought on the side of the Kauravas (VIII. 17.2, VI. 83-9; 47.13). Mekala is the hill range in Gondwana from where the Narmada flows, and has been identified with Amarkantak.

parācyāśa ca dākṣiṇātyāśa ca paravīrā gajayodhinaḥ |
Aṅgā vaṅgāśa ca puṇḍrāśa ca māgadhāsa tāmraliptakāḥ (VIII. 17.2)
mekalāḥ kośalā madrā daśārṇā niṣadhāsa tadā |
Gajayuthdheṣu kuśalāḥ kaliṅgaiḥ saha bhārata (VIII. 17.3)
cedivatsāḥ karūṣāśa ca bhojāḥ sindhupulinthakāḥ |
Uttamaujā daśārṇāśa ca mekalāśa cotkalaiḥ saha (VI.10.39)


44. Lalittha (lalitda) - Figure in the Kuru army (VIII.4.46); could be a Rajput tribe from Azamgarh.

mālavā madrakāśa caiva daraviḍāśa cogravikramāḥ |
Yaudheyāśa ca lalitdāśa ca kaṣuthrakāśa cāpya uśīnarāḥ (VIII.4.46)

45. Vanga (vaṅga) - Probably from Bengal, they brought tributes to Yudhisthira (II.47.10). The eastern Vangas were elephant fighters in the Kuru army (VIII. 17.2).

parācyāśa ca dākṣiṇātyāśa ca paravīrā gajayodhinaḥ |
Aṅgā vaṅgāśa ca puṇḍrāśa ca māgadhāsa tāmraliptakāḥ (VIII. 17.2)

46. Vanayu (vanāyu) - Listed in 'geography' (VI.10.54); they figured in the Kuru army as special forces of the Gandhara king (VIII.4.96) and came from the Wana valley in Pakistan.

vadhrāḥ karīṣakāśa cāpi kulinthopatyakāsa tadā |
Vanāyavo daśā pārśvā romāṇaḥ kuśa bindavaḥ (VI.10.54)

47. Vasatis (vasāti) - Figure in the tribute list (II.48.14). They sided with the Kauravas (VI.47.14, VI. 18.12) and came from the Mula pass in Baluchistan or somewhere in Makran.

ambaṣṭhāḥ kaukurāsa tārkṣyā vastrapāḥ pahlavaiḥ saha |
Vasātayaḥ samauleyāḥ saha kaṣudrakamālavaiḥ (II.48.14)
radā viṃśatisāhasrāsa tadaiṣāma anuyāyinaḥ |
Abhīṣāhāḥ śūrasenāḥ śibayo ऽda vasātayaḥ (VI. 18.12)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Vasatis (vasāti) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Basati (basāti).

48. Vatadhana (vāṭadhāna) - An important Jat and Brahmin tribe, In geography (VI.10.45), they sided with the Kauravas in the Great War (VI.52.4); hailed from Varana near Kurukshetra (V.19.30).

tathā madhyamikāyāṃśa ca vāṭadhānāna dvijāna ada |
Punaśa ca parivṛtyāda puṣkarāraṇyavāsinaḥ (II.29.7)
mallāḥ sudeṣṇāḥ parāhūtāsa tadā māhiṣa kārṣikāḥ |
Vāhīkā vāṭadhānāśa ca ābhīrāḥ kālatoyakāḥ (VI.10.45)
aśvatdāmā kṛpaśa caiva śīrṣama āstāṃ yaśasvinau |
Tarigartaira matsyakaikeyaira vāṭadhānaiśa ca saṃyutau (VI.52.4)
tataḥ pañcanathaṃ caiva kṛtsnaṃ ca kurujāṅgalama |
Tadā rohita kāraṇyaṃ maru bhūmiśa ca kevalā (V.19.29)
ahica chatraṃ kālakūṭaṃ gaṅgākūlaṃ ca bhārata |
Vāraṇā vāṭadhānaṃ ca yāmunaśa caiva parvataḥ (V.19.30)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Vatadhana (vāṭadhāna) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Vatdhan (vāṭadhāna) Vattadhana (vāṭadhāna) Batdhan (bāṭadhāna) Batar (bāṭaḍa़) found in Punjab and Rajasthan. They are called Batar in Rajasthan.

49. Vikarna (vikarṇa) - Fought in the army of Kauravas (VI. 47.15); also the name of a Kaurava prince.

tato thuryodhano rājā sahitaḥ sarvasotharaiḥ |
Aśvātakaira vikarṇaiśa ca tadā śarmila kosalaiḥ (VI. 47.15)

50. Vikunja (vikuñja) - They were in the Kuru army (VI. 52.9).

kānanāśa ca vikuñjāśa ca muktāḥ puṇḍrāviṣasa tadā |
Bṛhathbalena sahitā vāmaṃ pakṣama upāśritāḥ (VI. 52.9)

51. Venika (veṇika) - Fought in the Kuru army (VI. 47.7).

saṃsdānāḥ śūrasenāśa ca veṇikāḥ kukurāsa tadā |
Ārevakāsa tarigartāśa ca mathrakā yavanāsa tadā (VI. 47.7)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Venika (veṇika) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Beniwal (benīvāla) Veniwal (veṇivāla) .

52. Shalva (śālva) - An important tribe associated with Madras and Matsyas, spread over western India from Yamuna to Sind. The Salva kingdom in the story of Savitri was adjacent to Kuru-Panchala and lay between the Yamuna and Sarasvati. They fought on the side of the Kauravas (VI. 18.13, VI.20.12).

śālvā matsyāsa tadāmbaṣṭhāsa tarigartāḥ kekayāsa tadā |
Sauvīrāḥ kitavāḥ parācyāḥ paratīcyothīcyamālavāḥ (VI. 18.13)
vārthdhakṣatriḥ sarvasainyasya madhye; bhūriśravāḥ purumitro jayaśa ca |
Śālvā matsyāḥ kekayāśa cāpi sarve; gajānīkaira bharātaro yotsyamānāḥ (VI.20.12)

The Salvas were a branch of the Madras and were ruling at Sialkot. We know that the Madras were Vahikas and Jartas. Since according to grammatical illustration of Chandra-gomin the Jarta defeated the Huns, which means Skanda Gupta defeated the Huns. Hence Jartas are Jats. [32]

53. Sura (śūrā) - Fought in the Kuru army among the tribes of the northwest (VI.20.30); considered identical with the Sur tribe of Afghanistan. (II.29.5), (II.31.13). Mahabharata Bhisma Parva mentions about these people in shloka 38 as under:

śūrasenāḥ kaliṅgāśa ca bodhā maukāsa tadaiva ca |
Matsyāḥ sukuṭyaḥ saubalyāḥ kuntalāḥ kāśikośalāḥ (VI.10.38)
tatra yuddhaṃ mahada vṛttaṃ śūraira mattamayūrakaiḥ |
Maru bhūmiṃ ca kārtsnyena tadaiva bahu dhānyakama (II.29.5)
bāhlikāśa cāpare śūrā rājānaḥ sarva eva te |
Virāṭaḥ saha putraiśa ca mācellaśa ca mahāradaḥ |
Rājāno rājaputrāśa ca nānājanapatheśvarāḥ (II.31.13)

kāyavyā daradā dārvāḥ śūrā vaiyamakāsa tadā |
Audumbarā durvibhāgāḥ pāradā bāhlikaiḥ saha (II.48.12)
thivyāśa cāpya āntarikṣāśa ca pārdivāśa cānilopamāḥ |
Vayādiṣṭā daivataiḥ śūrāḥ sakandasyānucarābhavana (IX.44.109)


The Mahabharata Tribe - Sura (śūrā) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Shura (śūrā)

54. Surasena (śūrasena) - An ancient people held in high esteem in the Mbh. (VIII.30.73); their capital was in Mathura. They sided with the [[[Kaurava]]s in the war (VI. 47.7, 57.7).

śūrasenāḥ kaliṅgāśa ca bodhā maukāsa tadaiva ca
matsyāḥ sukuṭyaḥ saubalyāḥ kuntalāḥ kāśikośalāḥ (VI.10.38)

saṃsdānāḥ śūrasenāśa ca veṇikāḥ kukurāsa tadā |
Ārevakāsa tarigartāśa ca mathrakā yavanāsa tadā (VI.47.7)
vasātayo mahārāja thavisāhasrāḥ parahāriṇaḥ |
Śūrasenāśa ca vikrāntāḥ sarve yudhi nipātitāḥ (VIII.4.36)


The Mahabharata Tribe - Surasena (śūrasena) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Shura (śūrā)

55. Samsthana - Protected Bhishma in the Kaurava army (VI. 47.7).

56. Simhala (siṃghala) - A tribe whose representatives served as bondsmen at Yudhisthira's court (III. 48.20.); also the old name of Sri Lanka. They sided with the Kauravas (VII. 19.7).

The Mahabharata Tribe - Simhala (siṃghala) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Singhal (siṃghala) who live in Sikar district of Rajasthan and in Mehrauli district of south Delhi.

57. Sindhu-Sauvira (sindhu-suvīra) - An ancient people of Sind (VIII.112.108, V. 72.14) who fought on the Kaurava side. Their king Jayadratha was the son-in-law of Dhrtarastra (VIII.4.11).

aja binthuḥ suvīrāṇāṃ surāṣṭrāṇāṃ kuśarthdhikaḥ |
Arkajaśa ca balīhānāṃ cīnānāṃ dhautamūlakaḥ (V.72.14)
sindhurāṣṭramukhānīha daśa rāṣṭrāṇi yasya vai |
Vaśe tiṣṭhanti vīrasya yaḥ saditasa tava śāsane (VIII.4.11)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Sindhu (sindhu) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Sindhu (sindhu)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Sauvira (suvīra) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Siwar (sīvara)

58. Surastra (surāṣṭra) - A southwest tribe mentioned several times (VI. 10.47, II.28.39, II.28.40); joined the Kaurava army (VI. 20.14).

upāvṛścānupāvṛśca surāṣṭrāḥ kekayāsa tadā |
Kuṭṭāparāntā thavaidheyāḥ kākṣāḥ sāmuthra niṣkuṭāḥ (VI. 10.47)
āhṛtiṃ kauśikācāryaṃ yatnena mahatā tataḥ |
Vaśe cakre mahābāhuḥ surāṣṭrādhipatiṃ tadā (II.28.39)
surāṣṭra viṣayasdaśa ca pareṣayāma āsa rukmiṇe |
Rājñe bhojakaṭasdāya mahāmātrāya dhīmate (II.28.40)
mahāradaira andhakavṛṣṇibhojaiḥ; saurāṣṭrakaira nairṛtaira āttaśastraiḥ |
Bṛhathbalaḥ kṛtavarmābhigupto; balaṃ tavathīyaṃ thakṣiṇato ऽbhipāti (VI. 20.14)

59. Hamsamarga (haṃsamārga) - Listed in 'geography' (VI. 10.68); they joined the Kaurava army (VII. 19.7).

tāmarā haṃsamārgāśa ca tadaiva karabhañjakāḥ |
Uththeśa mātreṇa mayā theśāḥ saṃkīrtitāḥ parabho (VI. 10.68)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Hamsamarga (haṃsamārga) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Hans (haṃsa) or Hansawat (haṃsāvata).


Tribes With unclear Position

Tribes in 'Geography' and 'Tributes' /Whose Position is not Known/Did not Join the War/Unknown Tribes

1. Atavisavara (aṭavīśabara) - Refers to the tribes of mid- Vindhya region, and may be identical with the Atavika mentioned in the Puranas and the Allahabad Pillar Inscription of Samudragupta. Mentioned in geography of Mahabharata (VI.10.46). Aparandhrāśa ca śūdrāśa ca pahlavāśa carma khaṇḍikāḥ |
Aṭavī śabarāśa caiva maru bhaumāśa ca māriṣa (VI.10.46). The Mahabharata Tribe - Atavi (aṭavī) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Atval (aṭavāla) of Jats from Punjab. The Mahabharata Tribe - Shavara (śabara) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Senwar (seṃvara)) of Jats from Rajasthan.

2.Anupaka (anūpaka) - Possibly the country of the Anupas in the Mahishmati region on the western coast, though some scholars suggest district Nimar on the banks of the Narmada. Mbh. Mentions Arjuna Kartavirya of the Haihaya (Yadava) dynasty as Anupapati (III. 116. 19). Kathā cita tu tadaivāsya viniṣkrāntāḥ sutāḥ parabho |
Adānūpa patira vīraḥ kārtavīryo ऽbhayavartata (III. 116. 19)

3. Adhiraja (adhirāja)- A branch of the Matsyas; mentioned in the course of Sahdeva's conquest of the southern regions (II.28.2-4). Probably a dominion or tributary neighbour of Matsya kingdom.

sa śūrasenāna kārtsnyena pūrvama evājayata parabhuḥ |
Matsyarājaṃ ca kauravyo vaśe cakre balātha balī (II.28.2)
adhirājādhipaṃ caiva thantavakraṃ mahāhave |
Jigāya karathaṃ caiva savarājye saṃnyaveśayata (II.28.3)
sukumāraṃ vaśe cakre sumitraṃ ca narādhipama |
Tadaivāparamatsyāṃśa ca vayajayata sa paṭaca carāna (II.28.4)

4. Anupavrt (anūpavṛta) -

5. Antargirya - Identity not certain.

6. Aparaparyata - Conquered by Nakula. Identification not certain.

7. Aparavartaka -

8. Aparanta (aparānta) - Signifies frontier, identification not certain.

9. Arbuda (arbuda) - Were vanquished by Sahdeva (II.28.8). Also a famous mountain in the Puranas, now known as Mt. Abu.

tādṛśānāṃ sahasrāṇi parayutānya arbudāni ca |
Abhiṣiktaṃ mahātmānaṃ parivāryopatasdire (IX.44.110)

Sabha Parva Mahabharata (II.47.26) mentions about Arbuda.

śakāsa tukhārāḥ kaṅkāśa ca romaśāḥ śṛṅgiṇo narāḥ |
Mahāgamāna thūragamāna gaṇitāna arbudaṃ hayāna (II.47.26)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Arbuda (arbuda) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Avalak (avalaka) who were Nagavanshi.

10. Agreya (agreya) - A janapada conquered by Karna (III. 241.67). Possibly in hisar region or near Agra.

The Mahabharata Tribes - Agreya (agreya) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Agre (agre)

11. Atreya (ātreya) - A northwestern primitive tribe (VI.10.67), possibly located in Atari, between Lahore and Amritsar. Were later initiated in the Brahmin gotras of Atri and Bharadvaja.

ātreyāḥ sa bharadvājāsa tadaiva satanayoṣikāḥ |
Aupakāśa ca kaliṅgāśa ca kirātānāṃ ca jātayaḥ (VI.10.67)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Atreya (ātreya) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Atri (atrī)

12. Adidaya -

13. Adirashtra (ādirāṣṭra) - Possibly from the central or eastern regions.

14. Anarta (ānarta) - Refers to the famous land of great Yadava royal families in modern Gujarat and Kathiawar near the Rann of Kutch; ruled by many tribal oligarchies.

tama eva thivasaṃ cāpi kaunteyaḥ pāṇḍunanthanaḥ |
Ānartanagarīṃ ramyāṃ jagāmāśu dhanaṃjayaḥ (V.7.4)

When Pandavas were exiled to the woods, by the Kauravas, the five sons of Pandavas, born to Draupadi, were sent to Panchala, the kingdom ruled by their maternal grandfather Drupada. They later wnet to the Anarta Kingdom, ruled by the Yadavas, so that they can stay with their step brother and dear friend, Abhimanyu, and learn military science from eminent Yadava warriors. (MBh. 3.182) After the expiry of the thirteenth year, the five Pandavas took up their abode in one of Virata’s towns called Upaplavya. Arjuna brought over Abhimanyu and Vasudeva Krishna, and also many people of the Dasarha race from the Anarta country. (Mbh 4.72) Mahabharata (MBh 5.83), it is mentioned that Pandava's mother Kunti also stayed for some time in Anarta, during the exile of the Pandavas. (V.7.4)

In geography the country of Anartas is mentioned with the Sakas, the Nishadhas, the Nairitas, the Dugalas, the Pratimasyas, the Kuntalas, and the Kusalas. (VI.10.50)

śakā niṣādā niṣadhāsa tadaivānartanairṛtāḥ. Dugūlāḥ paratimatsyāśa ca kuśalāḥ kunaṭāsa tadā (VI.10.50)

Satyaki was a general in the Pandava, army. He was a chief of Anartas. (9. 17).Kritavarman was a general in the Kaurava, army (9. 17). He is described as the dweller of the Anarta country, the son of Hridika, the mighty car-warrior, the foremost one among the Satwatas, the chief of the Bhojas. Vivingsati, one among the 100 Kaurava brothers, had slain hundreds of Anarta warriors.

15. Amra (āmra) - Possibly a janapada in the Jaipur region.

The Mahabharata Tribe - Amra (āmra) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Ameria (āmeriyā) who live in Jaipur district in Rajasthan.

16. Audumbara (audumbara) - An important ancient tribe, mentioned in the tribute list (II.47.12). Bauddha texts say they dwelled on the highway from Magadha to Kashmira in east Kangra district. (II.48.12)

kāyavyā daradā dārvāḥ śūrā vaiyamakāsa tadā |
Audumbarā durvibhāgāḥ pāradā bāhlikaiḥ saha (II.48.12)

Audumbaras were a north Indian tribal nation east of the Punjab, in the Western Himalaya region. They were the most important tribe of the Himachal Pradesh, and lived in the lower hills between Sirmaur and Yamuna.

They issued coinage from the 1st century BCE, when they seemingly gained independence from the Indo-Greeks. Their favorite deities were Mahādeva or Shiva, and also Kārtikeya, standing with a spear in right hand. The silver coins of the Kunindas, the Vemakas and the Audumbaras closely follow the coins of Apollodotus II in their characteristics (weight, size and material). [33]

17. Avasira - Could be Ayodhya region, defeated by Karna (III.241.44).

18. Ekashana/Jyoha (jyoha) - Brought tributes to Yudhisthira (II.48.3).

khaśā ekāśanājyohāḥ paradarā thīrghavenavaḥ |
Paśupāśa ca kuṇinthāśa ca taṅgaṇāḥ parataṅgaṇāḥ (II.48.3)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Jyoha (jyoha) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Johiya (johiyā).

19. Udra (Odra) (odra) - Modern Orissa, also known as Utkala and Kalinga.

pāṇḍyāṃśa ca tharavithāṃśa caiva sahitāṃśa codra keralaiḥ |
Andhrāṃsa talavanāṃśa caiva kaliṅgāna oṣṭra karṇikāna (II.28.48)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Odra) (odra) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Odhran (odharāna).

20. Utkala (utkala) - Utkala was separate from Odra and Kalinga (VI.10.3 9).

cedivatsāḥ karūṣāśa ca bhojāḥ sindhupulinthakāḥ |
Uttamaujā daśārṇāśa ca mekalāśa cotkalaiḥ saha (VI.10.39)

21. Uttama (uttama) - Could be a Gond tribe in Mahadeo Hills. (VI.10.39)

cedivatsāḥ karūṣāśa ca bhojāḥ sindhupulinthakāḥ
uttamaujā daśārṇāśa ca mekalāśa cotkalaiḥ saha (VI.10.39)

22. Uttarakurava (uttara kuru) - Arjuna reached Uttarakuru during his northern conquest (II.25.7).

merumandarayora madhye śailodāma abhito nadīma |
Ye te kīcaka veṇūnāṃ chāyāṃ ramyāma upāsate (II.48.2)
uttarebhyaḥ kurubhyaśa cāpya apoḍhaṃ mālyama ambubhiḥ |
Uttarāda api kailāsāda oṣadhīḥ sumahābalāḥ (II.48.6)

Dr V. S. Aggarwala thinks that the Uttarakuru was located to north of Pamirs in Central Asia and was also famous for its horses of Tittirakalamasha variety. [34]Thus it probably comprised parts of Kirgizstan and Tian-Shan. Bhishma Parava of Mahabharata attests that the country of Uttarakuru lied to the north of Mt Meru and to the south of Nila Parvata. The Mt Meru of Hindu traditions is identified with the knot of Pamirs. Mountain Nila may have been the Altai-Mt.[35]

The Mahabharata refers to the Kichaka bamboos growing on the banks of river Shailoda. (II.48.2) Mahabharata further attests that the Kichaka bamboo region was situated between Mountain Meru (Pamirs) and Mountain Mandara (Alta Tag). The river valleys between these two mountains are still overgrown with forests of Kichaka Bamboos.[36]

23. Utsavasanketa (utsava saṃketa) - Were defeated by Arjuna (II.24.4) and Nakula (II.29.8). Possibly the Kinnar tribes between Kangra and Rampur Bushar.

gaṇāna utsava saṃketāna vayajayata puruṣarṣabha |
Sindhukūlāśritā ye ca garāmaṇeyā mahābalāḥ (II.29.8)

24. Unntyaka (unnatyaka) - Mentioned among the southern-most tribes (VI.10.57), possibly Karnataka region.

daraviḍāḥ keralāḥ parācyā bhūṣikā vanavāsinaḥ : unnatyakā māhiṣakā vikalpā mūṣakāsa tadā (VI.10.57)

25. Upavrt - Possibly a tribe of the Saurashtra region.

26. Uluka (ulūka) - Were vanquished by Arjuna (II.24.4).

saubalena ca rājenthra tadā thuḥśāsanena ca |
Āhūyopahvare rājanna ulūkama ithama abravīta (V.157.2)
ulūka gaccha kaitavya pāṇḍavāna saha somakāna |
Gatvā mama vaco barūhi vāsuthevasya śṛṇvataḥ (V.157.3)
taṃ ca tūbarakama mūḍhaṃ bahva āśinama avithyakama |
Ulūka mathvaco barūyā asakṛtha bhīmasenakama (V.157.16)
ulūka vathanāḥ ke citha gṛdhragomāyutharśanāḥ |
Karauñcapārāvata nibhaira vathanai rāṅkavaira api (IX.43.26)
ulūka vathanaira bhīmaiḥ śayenabhāsamukhaisa tadā |
Nānāvarṇamṛgaprakhyaiḥ sarvajātisamanvayaiḥ |
Kiṃnaraira thevagandharvaira yakṣabhūtagaṇaisa tadā (XIII.127.6)

The Mahabharata Tribes - Uluka (ulūka) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Aulakh (olakha).

Aulakh (olakha) clan of Jats are descendants of Uluka. [37] Mahabharata mentions a country called Uluka. [38] The Mahabharata mentions them as Uluka. [39] As per grammar rules the name Aulak, is derived from Uluk, the name of the country. [40] Perhaps the Iranian Uruk, Indian Uraga was their country. [41]

27. Uraga (uragā) - A northern tribe, possibly from Kashmir, vanquished by Arjuna (II.24.18).

abhisārīṃ tato ramyāṃ vijigye kurunanthanaḥ |
Uragāvāsinaṃ caiva rocamānaṃ raṇe ऽjayata (II.24.18)

28. Usinara (uśīnara) - An ancient tribe known from Rig Vedic times (X.59.1O), they hailed from Kanakhala, south east of Madra. The Brahmanas list them as a tribe of Madhyadesa.

śibima auśīnaraṃ caiva mṛtaṃ śuśruma sṛñjaya |
Ya imāṃ pṛdivīṃ kṛtsnāṃ carmavata samaveṣṭayata (XII.29.35)
yāvatha athya gavāśvaṃ sayātha āraṇyaiḥ paśubhiḥ saha |
Tāvatīḥ parathathau gāḥ sa śibira auśīnaro ऽdhavare (XII.29.37)
nothyantāraṃ dhuraṃ tasya kaṃ cina mene parajāpatiḥ |
Na bhūtaṃ na bhaviṣyantaṃ sarvarājasu bhārata |
Anyatrauśīnarāca chaibyātha rājarṣera inthra vikramāta (XII.29.38)

There are many references to Usinaras in the Epic poetry Mahabharata. At several places, it refers to king Usinara and his son prince Sibi or Sivi whose charity has been enormously glorified by sage Markandeya.[42].

29. Ustrakarnika (uṣṭra karṇika) - Were defeated by Sahdeva in the south (II.28.48) and were probably a Telugu tribe.

pāṇḍyāṃśa ca tharavithāṃśa caiva sahitāṃśa cothra keralaiḥ |
Andhrāṃsa talavanāṃśa caiva kaliṅgāna oṣṭra karṇikāna (II.28.48)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Ustrakarnika (uṣṭra karṇika) may be identified with present Utkanya (uṭakāṇyā) Jat Gotra living in Tonk district in Rajasthan.

30. Ekapada (ekapāda) - Mentioned in Sahdeva's conquest of the southern quarters (II.28.47).

ekapādāṃśa ca puruṣāna kevalāna vanavāsinaḥ |
Nagarīṃ saṃjayantīṃ ca picchaṇḍaṃ karahāṭakama
dūtaira eva vaśe cakre karaṃ caināna adāpayata (II.28.47)

31. Ekaprastha (ekapṛṣṭha) - Mentioned in the 'geography' (VI.10.40); of them, Ekacharana has been identified as a branch of Kiratas.

pāñcālāḥ kauśikāśa caiva ekapṛṣṭhā yugaṃ dharāḥ |
Saudhā madrā bhujiṅgāśa ca kāśayo ऽparakāśayaḥ (VI.10.40)

32. Aupaka (Opa-) (aupaka) - Mentioned in geography (VI. 10.67) and were possibly a northern mountaineer tribe. Location uncertain.

ātreyāḥ sa bharathvājāsa tadaiva satanayoṣikāḥ |
Aupakāśa ca kaliṅgāśa ca kirātānāṃ ca jātayaḥ (VI. 10.67)

33. Kaksha (kākṣa)/ (Kaccha) (kaccha) - Both Kaksha and Kaccha are mentioned twice in the 'geography' (VI. 10.47 and 55), and denote the dry grasslands of the Rann of Kutch, being mentioned between Dvaipeya and Samudra niskuta (people living on the sea-shore). Occupied by cowherds, Gopalakaksha.

upāvṛścānupāvṛśca surāṣṭrāḥ kekayāsa tadā |
Kuṭṭāparāntā thavaidheyāḥ kākṣāḥ sāmuthra niṣkuṭāḥ (VI. 10.47)
kacchā gopāla kacchāśa ca lāṅgalāḥ paravallakāḥ |
Kirātā barbarāḥ sithdhā vithehāsa tāmraliṅgakāḥ (VI. 10.55)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Kaccha) (kaccha) may be identified with present Jat Gotra - Kachha (kāchā) who live in Maharashtra. [43]

34. Karantha (karaṇṭha) - Listed in 'geography' (VI.10.61); possibly northerners. The name bears affinity with Kharot, a tribe of caravan traders between Central Asia and lndia.

mālakā mallakāśa caiva tadaivāparavartakāḥ |
Kulinthāḥ kulakāśa caiva karaṇṭhāḥ kurakāsa tadā (VI.10.61)

35. Kara Bhanjaka (karabhañjaka) - Appear in 'geography' (VI.10.68); a northern hill tribe.

tāmarā haṃsamārgāśa ca tadaiva karabhañjakāḥ |
Uththeśa mātreṇa mayā theśāḥ saṃkīrtitāḥ parabho (VI.10.68)

36. Karishaka (karīṣaka) - Listed in 'geography' (VI.10.54) with tribes inhabiting the northwestern region; also a gotra name.

vadhrāḥ karīṣakāśa cāpi kulinthopatyakāsa tadā |
Vanāyavo daśā pārśvā romāṇaḥ kuśa binthavaḥ (VI.10.54)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Karishaka (karīṣaka) may be identified with present Jat Gotra - 'Karig (karīga) Kari (karī). There was a republic called Karishaka (karīṣaka) during Mahabharata period, who lost it and moved here and there and were called Karig. [44]

37. Karkakhanda (karkakhaṃḍa) - Mentioned In Karna's conquests (III.241.43) after Magadha, and before Sravasti and Ayodhya; possibly a name for Koshala.

38. Karkotaka (karkoṭaka) - Mentioned by Karna as an impure people (VII.30.45); a southern tribe probably occupying a Vindhya range. Karkotaka has been mentioned amongst the names of the naga kings who attended the Sabha of Yudhishthira. (II.9.9), Mentioned in (VIII.30.45).

kambalāśvatarau nāgau dhṛtarāṣṭra balāhakau |
Maṇimāna kuṇḍaladharaḥ karkoṭaka dhanaṃjayau (II.9.9)
kāraḥ karāna mahiṣakāna kaliṅgāna kīkaṭāṭavīna |
Karkoṭakāna vīrakāṃśa ca thurdharmāṃśa ca vivarjayeta (VIII.30.45)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Karkotaka (karkoṭaka) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Katewa (kaṭevā).

39. Karnata ( Karahataka) - The Mahabharata Book 2: Sabha Parva SECTION XXXI locates The Trigartas, the Dasharnas, the Sivis, the Amvashtas, the Malavas, the five tribes of the Karnatas around Rohtak in Haryana as under:

śairīṣakaṃ mahecchaṃ ca vaśe cakre mahāthyutiḥ |
Śibīṃsa trigartāna ambaṣṭhāna mālavāna pañca karpaṭāna (II.31.6)

40. Kalinga (kaliṅga) - Lived south of the Vaitarani river (III.114.4), in the area between Vaitarani and Vijagapattam in modern Orissa. Shalya Parva (IX.44.59)

ete kaliṅgāḥ kaunteya yatra vaitaraṇī nathī |
Yatrāyajata dharmo ऽpi thevāña śaraṇama etya vai (III.114.4)
putra meṣaḥ paravāhaśa ca tadā nandopanandakau |
Dhūmraḥ śavetaḥ kaliṅgaśa ca siddhārdo varadasa tadā (IX.44.59)

41. Kalkala (kalkala) - A Vindhya tribe listed in the 'geography' (VI.10.60).

taryaṅgāḥ kekarakāḥ paroṣṭhāḥ parasaṃcarakāsa tadā |
Tadaiva vindhyapulakāḥ pulinthāḥ kalkalaiḥ saha (VI.10.60)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Kalkala (kalkala) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Kalkal (kalakala)

42. Kaka (kāka) - Mentioned in 'geography' (VI.10.63).

hṛṣīvitharbhāḥ kāntīkāsa taṅgaṇāḥ parataṅgaṇāḥ |
Uttarāśa cāpare malecchā janā bharatasattama (VI.10.63)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Kaka (kāka) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Kak (kāka)

43. Kanka (kaṅka) - Mentioned in the tribute list (II.47.26) as wearing horns, a practice among some Iranian tribes of Central Asia. A Jat tribe living between Beas and Sutlej in Punjab is as Kang; claims descent from solar race of Ayodhya.

śakāsa tukhārāḥ kaṅkāśa ca romaśāḥ śṛṅgiṇo narāḥ |
Mahāgamāna thūragamāna gaṇitāna arbuthaṃ hayāna (II.47.26)

Jat Gotra Kang in Mahabharata, is mentioned as Kankas. (IX.44.69)

acalaḥ kanakākṣaśa ca bālānāma ayikaḥ parabhuḥ |
Saṃcārakaḥ koka natho gṛdhravaktraśa ca jambukaḥ (IX.44.69)

44. Karnika (karṇika) - Listed in the 'geography' (VI.10.58).

karṇikāḥ kuntikāśa caiva saubdhithā nalakālakāḥ |
Kaukuṭṭakāsa tadā colāḥ koṅkaṇā mālavāṇakāḥ (VI.10.58)

45. Karvata - Possibly a Bengal tribe whose king was conquered by Bhima (II.27.22).

46. Karaskara (kāraskara) - Served as tributaries in the palace of Yudhishthira (II.46.21). Mentioned as people (VIII.30.45).

āvarjitā ivābhānti nighnāśa caitraki kaukurāḥ |
Kāraḥ karā lohajaṅghā yudhiṣṭhira niveśane (II.46.21)

kāraḥ karāna mahiṣakāna kaliṅgāna kīkaṭāṭavīna |
Karkoṭakāna vīrakāṃśa ca thurdharmāṃśa ca vivarjayeta (VIII.30.45)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Karaskara (kāraskara) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Karaskar (kāraskara)

47. Kayavya (kāyavya) - A northwestern tribe in the tribute list (II.48.12).

kāyavyā daradā dārvāḥ śūrā vaiyamakāsa tadā |
Authumbarā durvibhāgāḥ pāradā bāhlikaiḥ saha (II.48.12)

48. Karpasika (kārpāsika) - Brought tributes to Yudhisthira (II.47.7); possibly hailed from the Vidisha region in Central India.

śataṃ dāsī sahasrāṇāṃ kārpāsika nivāsināma |
Śayāmāsa tanvyo thīrghakeśyo hemābharaṇa bhūṣitāḥ |
Śūthrā viprottamārhāṇi rāṅkavānya ajināni ca (II.47.7)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Karpasika (kārpāsika) may be identified with -

Kapisha (Persian: کاپيسا) which is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan. Jat Gotras derived from this place are - Kapahi (kapahī) Kapai (kapāī) Kapureya (kapūreyā) Kapdia (kāpaḍa़िyā).

49. Kalakuta (kālakūṭa) - A mountain (II.23.14) conquered by Arjun. Mbh. Mentions the inhabitants of Kalakuta as a neighbouring tribe of Kuru land (II.20.26, V.19.30).

ānartāna kālakūṭāṃśa ca kuṇinthāṃśa ca vijitya saḥ |
Sumaṇḍalaṃ pāpajitaṃ kṛtavāna anu sainikama (II.23.14)

People who came from the side of Kalakuta (kālakūṭa) mountain were known as Kaler - Jat Gotra.[45]

Kaliraman (kālīramana) jats had won the Kalakuta (kālakūṭa) country also. [46]

50. Kalatoyaka (kālatoyaka) - Mentioned in 'geography' (VI.X. 45).

mallāḥ sutheṣṇāḥ parāhūtāsa tadā māhiṣa kārṣikāḥ |
Vāhīkā vāṭadhānāśa ca ābhīrāḥ kālatoyakāḥ (VI.X. 45)

51. Kalada (kālāda) - Possibly a minor hill tribe in the Himalayas; mentioned in 'geography' (VI.10.61).

The Mahabharata Tribe - Karaskara (kāraskara) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Kandwal (kaṃdavāla) who got this name from Kalada (kālāda). [47]


52. Kalamukha (kālamukha) - A southern tribe (II.28.45); probably a Bhil tribe.

ye ca kālamukhā nāma narā rākṣasayonayaḥ |
Kṛtsnaṃ kolla giriṃ caiva muracī pattanaṃ tadā (II.28.45)

53. Kashmira (kāśmīra) - Listed in 'geography' (VI.10.52 and 66); were defeated by Arjuna (II.23.24). Did not join the war.

kāśmīrāḥ sindhusauvīrā gāndhārā tharśakāsa tadā |
Abhīsārā kulūtāśa ca śauvalā bāhlikāsa tadā (VI.10.52)

śūthrābhīrāda tharathāḥ kāśmīrāḥ paśubhiḥ saha |
Khaśikāśa ca tukhārāśa ca pallavā girigahvarāḥ (VI.10.66)

54. Kichaka (kīcaka) - Their realms lay on the route to Ekacakra from Varnavata. The Pandavas travelled through Matsya, Trigarta and Panchala lands and entered Kichaka land (I.144.2). They were soldiers of the Matsya king, and their ruler was killed by Bhima. They seem not to have joined the war.

matsyāṃsa tarigartāna pāñcālāna kīcakāna antareṇa ca |
Ramaṇīyāna vanoththeśāna parekṣamāṇāḥ sarāṃsi ca (I.144.2)

Village Katrathal, an ancient historical village of Sikar district in Rajasthan, is believed to be associated with Kichaka.

The Mahabharata Tribe - Kichaka (kīcaka) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Khichad (khīcaḍa़).

55. Kuttaparanta - Possibly a Saurashtra tribe; mentioned in 'geography' (VI.10.41).

56. Kunata (kunaṭā) - Mentioned in 'geography' (VI. 10.50).

śakā niṣāthā niṣadhāsa tadaivānartanairṛtāḥ |
Thugūlāḥ paratimatsyāśa ca kuśalāḥ kunaṭāsa tadā (VI. 10.50)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Kunata (kunaṭā) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Kunt (kūṭa) who live in Jaipur district in Rajasthan and Kont (koṃṭa) who live in Uttar Pradesh.

57. Kundamana (kundamāna) - Figure in the tribute list (II.48.13)

kāśmīrāḥ kundamānāśa ca paurakā haṃsakāyanāḥ |
Śibitrigartayaudheyā rājanyā madrakekayāḥ (II.48.13)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Kundamana (kundamāna) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Kunda (kunda) + Maan (māna)

58. Kumara - Possibly a version of Vatsa, their king Shrenimat was defeated by Bhima during his march from Chedi to Koshala (II.27.1).

tataḥ kumāra viṣaye śareṇimantama adājayata |
Kosalādhipatiṃ caiva bṛhathbalama ariṃthamaḥ(II.27.1)

59. Kuraka (-ta) (kuraka) - Figure in 'geography' (VI.10.61); hailed from south Kanara region known as Vidyadhar in the Jaina tradition.

mālakā mallakāśa caiva tadaivāparavartakāḥ |
Kulinthāḥ kulakāśa caiva karaṇṭhāḥ kurakāsa tadā (VI.10.61)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Kuraka (kuraka) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Kuraka (kurakā) who live in Tonk district in Rajasthan.

60. Kulaka (kulaka) - Figure in 'geography' (VI.10.61).

mālakā mallakāśa caiva tadaivāparavartakāḥ |
Kulinthāḥ kulakāśa caiva karaṇṭhāḥ kurakāsa tadā (VI.10.61)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Kulaka (kulaka) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Kuraka

Kulak (kulaka) Kulakia (kulakiyā) is a gotra of Jats. They are descendants of ancestor Kulika (kulika) of Nagavanshi. [48]

61. Kurontha (karaṇṭha) - Figure in 'geography' (VI.10.61); probably lived in the border region to the northwest of Garhwal and east of Kulu valley.

mālakā mallakāśa caiva tadaivāparavartakāḥ |
Kulinthāḥ kulakāśa caiva karaṇṭhāḥ kurakāsa tadā (VI.10.61)

62. Kuru (kuru) - Key people in the epic, occupying Delhi and the adjoining portion of gangetic basin.

63. Kukkuta (Kulata) - Figure as a foreign (Mleccha) tribe of the northwest.

64. Kusala (-lyah) (kuśala) - Figure in 'geography' (VI.10.50).

śakā niṣāthā niṣadhāsa tadaivānartanairṛtāḥ |
Dugūlāḥ paratimatsyāśa ca kuśalāḥ kunaṭāsa tadā (VI.10.50)

65. Kushavindu (kuśa bindava) - Could belong to the southwest (VI.10.54).

vadhrāḥ karīṣakāśa cāpi kulinthopatyakāsa tadā |
Vanāyavo thaśā pārśvā romāṇaḥ kuśa bindavaḥ

The Mahabharata Tribe - Kushavindu (kuśa bindava) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Kush (kuśa) or Kuswan (kusavāṃ)

66. Krimi (kṛmi) - A once important tribe in east Punjab.

The Mahabharata Tribe - Krimi (kṛmi) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Karmi (karamī) or Kiram (kirama).[49]

67. Kevala (kevala) - Maybe a corrupt form of Kerala. (II.28.47)

ekapāthāṃśa ca puruṣāna kevalāna vanavāsinaḥ |
Nagarīṃ saṃjayantīṃ ca picchaṇḍaṃ karahāṭakama (II.28.47)


68. Kaisika (kaisika) - A branch of the Yadavas.

69. Kokanada (kokanada) - A northern tribe (II.24.17). (IX.44.55)

tatasa tarigartāna kaunteyo thārvāna koka nadāśa ca ye |
Kaṣatriyā bahavo rājanna upāvartanta sarvaśaḥ (II.24.17)
puṇyanāmā sunāmā ca suvaktraḥ pariyadarśanaḥ |
Pariśrutaḥ koka nadaḥ pariya mālyānulepanaḥ (IX.44.55)

The Mahabharata Tribe- Kokanada (kokanada) may ve identified wth Kok Jat Gotra

70. Kaukuttaka (kaukuṭṭaka) - Possibly a Nilgiri tribe (VI.10.58).

karṇikāḥ kuntikāśa caiva saubdhithā nalakālakāḥ |
Kaukuṭṭakāsa tadā colāḥ koṅkaṇā mālavāṇakāḥ (VI.10.58)

71. Konkana (koṅkaṇa) - Mentioned in 'geography' (VI.10.58), a southern tribe, which did not fight in the war.

karṇikāḥ kuntikāśa caiva saubdhithā nalakālakāḥ |
Kaukuṭṭakāsa tadā colāḥ koṅkaṇā mālavāṇakāḥ (VI.10.58)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Konkana (koṅkaṇa) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Konkan (koṃkaṇa) [50]

72. Kopana (kopana) - A fierce southern tribe (VI.10.59).

samaṅgāḥ kopanāśa caiva kukurāṅgatha māriṣāḥ |
Dhavajinya utsava saṃketāsa tarivargāḥ sarvasenayaḥ (VI.10.59)

73. Kekaraka (kekaraka) - (VI.10.60).

taryaṅgāḥ kekarakāḥ paroṣṭhāḥ parasaṃcarakāsa tadā |
Tadaiva vindhyapulakāḥ pulinthāḥ kalkalaiḥ saha

The Mahabharata Tribe - Kekaraka (kekaraka) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Kekeraul (kekeraula) Kakraul (kakaraula) |
Their earlier name was Kukar and they were rulers in Malwa. [51]

74. Kolla-giri (kolla giri) - A central Indian tribe vanquished by Sahdeva (II.28.45).

ye ca kālamukhā nāma narā rākṣasayonayaḥ |
Kṛtsnaṃ kolla giriṃ caiva muracī pattanaṃ tadā (II.28.45)

75. Kausija (-ka) -

76. Kratha (kratha) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.65), Sabha Parva (II.27.7)

yajñavāhaḥ paravāhaśa ca deva yājī ca somapaḥ |
Sajālaśa ca mahātejāḥ kratha karādau ca bhārata (IX.44.65)
tataḥ supārśvama abhitasa tadā rājapatiṃ krathama |
Yudhyamānaṃ balāta saṃkhye vijigye pāṇḍavarṣabhaḥ (II.27.7)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Kratha (kratha) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Kaithoria (kaithoriyā) or Kaith (kaitha) who are considered descendants of Maharaja Kratha (kratha) of Kuruvansh. [52]

77. Krivi (kṛvi) -

The Mahabharata Tribe - Krivi (kṛvi) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Kharb (kharba)

Krivi is also a Rigvedic Tribe: (RV VIII/20/24; VIII/22/12). These people are mentioned as Kravya in Sat.Br. (Xlll/5/4.7). They are to be identified with the Kharab clan of the Jats. They are also to be identified with the Khalabes of West Asian history, who gave their name to Chalybes on the mouth of Euphrates river.

78. Gaya (gaya) - Inhabitants of modern Gaya, brought tribute for Yudhisthira (II.48.15).

śauṇḍikāḥ kukkurāśa caiva śakāśa caiva viśāṃ pate |
Aṅgā vaṅgāśa ca puṇḍrāśa ca śānavatyā gayāsa tadā (II.48.15)

79. Gargya - Were defeated by Krishna (VII.11).

80. Giri-gahvara - Listed in 'geography' (VI.10.66); lived in the Hindukush caves.

81. Guha - A southern tribe (XII.200.39).

82. Goparastra (gopa rāṣṭra) - Figure in the 'geography' (VI.10.42); possibly hailed from ancient Nasik.

govinthā manthakāḥ ṣaṇḍā vitharbhānūpavāsikāḥ |
Aśmakāḥ pāṃsurāṣṭrāśa ca gopa rāṣṭrāḥ panītakāḥ (VI.10.42)

83. Gopalakaccha (gopāla kaccha) - In 'geography' (VI.10.55); conquered by Bhima (II.27.3). Lay between Koshala and north Koshala, indicating modern Gopalpur in Gorakhpur district, between Ayodhya and Kushinagara.

kacchā gopāla kacchāśa ca lāṅgalāḥ paravallakāḥ |
Kirātā barbarāḥ sithdhā vithehāsa tāmraliṅgakāḥ (VI.10.55)

84. Govinda (govindā) - In 'geography' (VI. 10.42). Probably a central Indian tribe from the Kaimur range.

govindā mandakāḥ ṣaṇḍā vidarbhānūpavāsikāḥ |
Aśmakāḥ pāṃsurāṣṭrāśa ca gopa rāṣṭrāḥ panītakāḥ (VI. 10.42)

85. Goshringa (gośṛṅga) - A hill conquered by Sahdeva in the south (II.28.5); could be located near Ujjain; visited by the Chinese traveller Xuan Zang (Hieun Tsang).

niṣāthabhūmiṃ gośṛṅgaṃ parvata paravaraṃ tadā |
Tarasā vayajayatha dhīmāña śareṇimantaṃ ca pārdivama (II.28.5)

86. Charmakhandika (carmakhaṇḍika) - Mentioned in 'geography' (VI.10.46) as a northwestern tribe.

aparandhrāśa ca śūthrāśa ca pahlavāśa carma khaṇḍikāḥ. Aṭavī śabarāśa caiva maru bhaumāśa ca māriṣa (VI.10.46)

87. Chitraka (citraka) - Waited upon Yudhisthira with tribute (II. 46.21).

āvarjitā ivābhānti nighnāśa caitraki kaukurāḥ |
Kāraḥ karā lohajaṅghā yudhiṣṭhira niveśane (II. 46.21)

88. Jathara (jaṭhara) - Mentioned in 'geography' (VI.10.41). Shalya Parva (IX.44.57)

jaṭharāḥ kukkuśāśa caiva suthāśārṇāśa ca bhārata |
Kuntayo ऽvantayaśa caiva tadaivāparakuntayaḥ (VI.10.41)

caturthaṃṣṭro ऽṣaṭa jihvaśa ca meghanāthaḥ pṛduśravāḥ |
Vithyutha akṣo dhanura vaktro jaṭharo mārutāśanaḥ (IX.44.57)
mahājaṭhara pādāṅgāsa tārakākśāśa ca bhārata |
Pārāvata mukhāśa cānye tadā vṛṣamukhāḥ pare (IX.44.80)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Jathara (jaṭhara) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Jathara (jaṭhara).[53]

89. Jartika (jartika) - Jartika (jartika) is one of The Mahabharata Tribes, living in ancient time in the vicinity of Sakala and who are mentioned in the Karna Parva of the Mahabharata. (VIII.30.14)

śākalaṃ nāma nagarama āpagā nāma nimnagā |
Jartikā nāma bāhlīkāsa teṣāṃ vṛttaṃ suninthitama (VIII.30.14)K R

K R Qanungo[54] mentions incidence from Mahabharata that there is a town named Sakala and river named Apaga where section of the Bahikas, known as the Jartikas, dwell.

The Mahabharata Tribe - Jartika (jartika) may be identified with Jat

90. Jaguda (jāguḍa) - Probably from the region south of Ghazni and north of Kandhar (III.48.21).

hārahūṇāṃśa ca cīnāṃśa ca tukhārāna saindhavāṃsa tadā |
Jāguḍāna ramaṭhāna muṇḍāna satrī rājyāna ada taṅgaṇāna (III.48.21)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Jaguda (jāguḍa) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Jagunda (jagundā) who live in Tonk district in Rajasthan.

91. Jangala (jāṅgala) - Listed in 'geography' (VI.l0.37); refers to peoples from the forest southwest of Kurukshetra.

ata ūrdhvaṃ janapadāna nibodha gadato mama |
Tatreme kurupāñcālāḥ śālva mādreya jāṅgalāḥ (VI.l0.37)
pitryaṃ rājyaṃ mahārāja kuravasa te sa jāṅgalāḥ |
Ada vīraira jitāṃ bhūmima akhilāṃ paratyapathyadāḥ (V.53.7)
matsyāḥ kūrmāśca sarpāśca mriyante yatra jāṅgalāḥ. Dhanaskandhaḥ striyāstatra sapatnairvipralopsyate ॥५४९॥ [55]

The Mahabharata Tribe - Jangala (jāṅgala) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Jangu (jāṃgū), Janghala (jaṃghālā), Jangal (jāṃgala)

92. Uttarajyoti (uttarajyoti) - Defeated by Nakula in west (II.29.10); location uncertain.

kṛtsnaṃ pañcanathaṃ caiva tadaivāparaparyaṭama |
Uttarajyotikaṃ caiva tadā vṛṇḍāṭakaṃ purama (II.29.10)

93. Jyoha (jyohā) - In the tribute list (II.48.3); could belong to the Tibet region.

khaśā ekāśanājyohāḥ paradarā dīrghavenavaḥ |
:paśupāśa ca kuṇinthāśa ca taṅgaṇāḥ parataṅgaṇāḥ (II.48.3)

Jyoha (jyohā) may be identified with Johiya (johiyā) Johil (johila) Jot gotra. They are originally Yaudheya jats. Their area was Churu division. The area on the banks of Sutlej river upto Bahavalpur in Pakistan was Johiyawar (johiyāvāḍa़).[56]

94. Tamara (tāmara) - In 'geography' (VI. 10.68); hail from the region between India and Tibet.

tāmarā haṃsamārgāśa ca tadaiva karabhañjakāḥ |
Uththeśa mātreṇa mayā theśāḥ saṃkīrtitāḥ parabho (VI. 10.68)
gadā bhuśuṇḍi hastāśa ca tadā tomarapāṇayaḥ |
Asi madgarahastāśa ca daṇḍahastāśa ca bhārata (IX.44.105)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Tamara (tāmara) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Tomar (tomara)

95. Tamradvipa - A southern people vanquished by Sahdeva (II.28.45).

96. Taratoya (taratoya) - Mentioned in 'geography' (VI.l0.51), probably a minor tribe connected with seafare.

tīragrāhāstara toyā rājikā ramyakā gaṇāḥ |
Tilakāḥ pārasīkāśa ca madhumantaḥ parakutsakāḥ (VI.l0.51)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Taratoya (taratoya) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Talautia (talauṭiyā).

97. Tarkshya (tārkṣya) - Figure in the tribute list (II.48.14).

ambaṣṭhāḥ kaukurāsa tārkṣyā vastrapāḥ pahlavaiḥ saha |
Vasātayaḥ samauleyāḥ saha kaṣuthrakamālavaiḥ (II.48.14)

98. Talakata - Cr. Ed. (II.28.43), could be from Bijapur in Mysore.

99. Talajangha (tālajaṅgha) - Once a major branch of the Haihaya dynasty, they had little importance by the time of the epic (V.72.13).

haihayānāma uthāvarto nīpānāṃ janamejayaḥ |
Bahulasa tālajaṅghānāṃ kṛmīṇāma uthdhato vasuḥ (V.72.13)


100. Talavan (talavana) - A southern tribe subdued by Sahdeva (II.28.48).

pāṇḍyāṃśa ca tharavithāṃśa caiva sahitāṃśa codra keralaiḥ |
Andhrāṃsa talavanāṃśa caiva kaliṅgāna oṣṭra karṇikāna (II.28.48)

101. Timingila (timiṅgila) - A southern coastal tribe subdued by Sahdeva (II.28.46).

davīpaṃ tāmrāhvayaṃ caiva parvataṃ rāmakaṃ tadā |
Timiṅgilaṃ ca nṛpatiṃ vaśe cakre mahāmatiḥ (II.28.46)

102. Tilaka (tilaka) - Listed in 'geography' (VI.l0.51), possibly from Hoshiarpur, Punjab.

tīragrāhāstara toyā rājikā ramyakā gaṇāḥ |
Tilakāḥ pārasīkāśa ca madhumantaḥ parakutsakāḥ (VI.l0.51)

103. Tiragraha (tīragrāha) - Listed in 'geography' (VI. 10.51 ) .

tīragrāhāstara toyā rājikā ramyakā gaṇāḥ |
Tilakāḥ pārasīkāśa ca madhumantaḥ parakutsakāḥ (VI.l0.51)

104. Tripura (tripura) - A city near Vatsa (III.241.47). Tripura (meaning three cities, in Sanskrit) was constructed by the great Sura architect Mayasura. They were great cities of prosperity, power and dominance over the world, but due to their impious nature, Maya's cities were destroyed by Lord Shiva.

105. Tryanga (taryaṅga) - Listed in 'geography' (VI.l0.60); possibly modern Telangana region.

taryaṅgāḥ kekarakāḥ paroṣṭhāḥ parasaṃcarakāsa tadā |
Tadaiva vindhyapulakāḥ pulinthāḥ kalkalaiḥ saha (VI.l0.60)

106. Tryasha (taryakṣa) - In tribute list (II.47.15).

davyakṣāṃsa taryakṣāla lalāṭākṣāna nānāthigbhyaḥ samāgatāna |
Auṣṇīṣāna anivāsāṃśa ca bāhukāna puruṣāthakāna (II.47.15)

107. Dasaparsva (daśā pārśva) - A northwestern people listed in 'geography' (VI.10.54).

vadhrāḥ karīṣakāśa cāpi kulinthopatyakāsa tadā |
Vanāyavo daśā pārśvā romāṇaḥ kuśa binthavaḥ (VI.10.54)

108. Dasamalika - A northern tribe, possibly Rohitas of Afghanistan (VI.10.65 and II.24.16).

tadaiva maradhāśa cīnāsa tadaiva daśa mālikāḥ. Kaṣatriyopaniveśāśa ca vaiśyaśūthra kulāni ca (VI.10.65)

109. Dasar - The Yadava clan of Krishna (III.19.120).

110. Diptaksha (dīptākṣa) - (V.72.15).

hayagrīvo vithehānāṃ varapraśa ca mahaujasāma |
Bāhuḥ sunthara vegānāṃ dīptākṣāṇāṃ purūravāḥ (V.72.15)

111. Dirghavenava (dīrghavenava) - A Central Asian tribe mentioned in the tribute list (II.48.3).

khaśā ekāśanājyohāḥ paratharā dīrghavenavaḥ |
Paśupāśa ca kuṇinthāśa ca taṅgaṇāḥ parataṅgaṇāḥ (II.48.3)

112. Dugula (dugūlā) - Figure in the 'geography' (VI.10.50).

śakā niṣāthā niṣadhāsa tadaivānartanairṛtāḥ |
Dugūlāḥ paratimatsyāśa ca kuśalāḥ kunaṭāsa tadā (VI.10.50)

Dugula (dugūlā) may be identified with Dagolya Jat Gotra.

113. Dwadashaksha (dvādaśākṣa) - Brought tributes to Yudhisthira. (IX.44.54)

ekākṣo dvādaśākṣaśa ca tadaivaika jaṭaḥ parabhuḥ |
Sahasrabāhura vikaṭo vayāghrākṣaḥ kaṣitikampanaḥ (IX.44.54)

114. Dvarapala (dvārapāla) - A northwestern region, mentioned In Nakula's conquests (II.29.10).

kṛtsnaṃ pañcanathaṃ caiva tadaivāparaparyaṭama |
Uttarajyotikaṃ caiva tadā vṛṇḍāṭakaṃ purama |
Dvārapālaṃ ca tarasā vaśe cakre mahāthyutiḥ (II.29.10)

115. Dvalpeya- (-bh) - Figure in 'geography' (VI.10.47), identified with the tiny island of Diu.

116. Nandivega (nandivega) - (V.72.17).

śamaśa ca nandivegānāma itya ete kulapāṃsanāḥ |
Yugānte kṛṣṇa saṃbhūtāḥ kuleṣu puruṣādhamāḥ (V.72.17)

117. Navarastra (nava rāṣṭra) - Defeated by Sahdeva (II.28.6).

nava rāṣṭraṃ vinirjitya kuntibhojama upāthravata |
Parītipūrvaṃ ca tasyāsau paratijagrāha śāsanama (II.28.6)

118. Nalakalaka (nalakālaka) - Figure in the 'geography' (VI.10.58).

karṇikāḥ kuntikāśa caiva saubdhithā nalakālakāḥ |
Kaukuṭṭakāsa tadā colāḥ koṅkaṇā mālavāṇakāḥ (VI.10.58)

119. Nisadha (niṣāda) - In 'geography' (VI.10.50), this was the kingdom of the famous King Nala of the Yadava race. The tiny realm lay at the western end of the Satpura ranges.

śakā niṣādā niṣadhāsa tadaivānartanairṛtāḥ |
Dugūlāḥ paratimatsyāśa ca kuśalāḥ kunaṭāsa tadā (VI.10.50)

120. Nipa (nīpa) - An historical people whose king janamejaya caused the ruin of his own tribe (V.72.13); were bondsmen in Yudhisthira's palace (II.46.21).

āvarjitā ivābhānti nighnāśa caitraki kaukurāḥ |
Kāraḥ karā lohajaṅghā yudhiṣṭhira niveśane (II.46.21)
haihayānāma uthāvarto nīpānāṃ janamejayaḥ |
Bahulasa tālajaṅghānāṃ kṛmīṇāma uthdhato vasuḥ Mahabharata (V.72.13)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Nipa (nīpa) may be identified as Nepa (nepā) Jat clan.

121. Naimisha (naimiṣa) - People of Naimisharanaya (modern Nimsar) in Sitapur (UP) who were called the "knowers of true religion" (VIII.30.60).

kuravaḥ sahapāñcālāḥ śālvā matsyāḥ sanaimiṣāḥ |
Kosalāḥ kāśayo ऽṅagāśa ca kaliṅgā magadhāsa tadā (VIII.30.60)

122. Nairrta (nairṛta) - Figure in 'geography' (VI.10.50); probably came from the southwest.

śakā niṣāthā niṣadhāsa tadaivānartanairṛtāḥ |
Dugūlāḥ paratimatsyāśa ca kuśalāḥ kunaṭāsa tadā (VI.10.50)

Nairrta (nairṛta) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Nehra.

123. Panchakarpata (pañcakarpaṭa) - Subdued by Nakula in the west (II.29.6), and probably hailed from a small settlement of five unknown tribes in Punjab.

śairīṣakaṃ mahecchaṃ ca vaśe cakre mahāthyutiḥ |
Śibīṃsa tarigartāna ambaṣṭhāna mālavāna pañca karpaṭāna (II.29.6)

124. Panitaka (panītaka) - Figure in 'geography' (VI. 10.42).

govinthā manthakāḥ ṣaṇḍā vitharbhānūpavāsikāḥ |
Aśmakāḥ pāṃsurāṣṭrāśa ca gopa rāṣṭrāḥ panītakāḥ .. (VI. 10.42)

125. Pattana - Probably a Vindhya tribe, the city was defeated by Karna in his digvijaya (III.241.47).

126. Pattibhanjaka (pattipañjaka) - Listed in 'geography' (VI.10.62); identification uncertain.

mūṣakā satanabālāśa ca satiyaḥ pattipañjakāḥ |
Āthithāyāḥ sirālāśa ca satūbakā satanapāsa tadā (VI.10.62)

127. Parantangana - Meaning other Tangana, In the tribute list (II.48.3); probably a northwestern tribe. (VI.9.63)

hṛṣīvitharbhāḥ kāntīkāsa taṅgaṇāḥ parataṅgaṇāḥ |
Uttarāśa cāpare malecchā janā bharatasattama (VI.9.63)


128. Pasu (paśu) - In the tribute list (II.48.3); probably a northwestern tribe.

khaśā ekāśanājyohāḥ paratharā thīrghavenavaḥ.paśupāśa ca kuṇinthāśa ca taṅgaṇāḥ parataṅgaṇāḥ (II.48.3)

129. Parasika (pārasīka) - Figure in 'geography' (VI.10.51); probably people of Persia or southern Iran.

tīragrāhāstara toyā rājikā ramyakā gaṇāḥ .tilakāḥ pārasīkāśa ca madhumantaḥ parakutsakāḥ (VI.10.51)

Parasika (pārasīka) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Paraswal

130. Parasika - Figure in 'geography' (VI.10.51); probably people of Persia or southern Iran.

131. Pichchhanda (picchaṇḍa) - A southern janapada subdued by Sahdeva (II.28.47).

ekapāthāṃśa ca puruṣāna kevalāna vanavāsinaḥ |
Nagarīṃ saṃjayantīṃ ca picchaṇḍaṃ karahāṭakama .dūtaira eva vaśe cakre karaṃ caināna athāpayata (II.28.47)

132. Pauraka (pauraka) - A northwestern tribe in the tribute list (II.48.13), identified with a Kabuli tribe of Afghanistan.

kāśmīrāḥ kunthamānāśa ca paurakā haṃsakāyanāḥ .śibitrigartayaudheyā rājanyā mathrakekayāḥ (II.48.13)

Pauraka (pauraka) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Paur

133. Prakustaka (parakutsaka) - In 'geography' (VI.10.51); possibly came from the Afghan-Pakistan border near Peshawar.

tīragrāhāstara toyā rājikā ramyakā gaṇāḥ |
Tilakāḥ pārasīkāśa ca madhumantaḥ parakutsakāḥ (VI.10.51)

134. Pratimatsya (paratimatsya) - n 'geography' (VI.6.50); were neighbours of Matsya.

śakā niṣāthā niṣadhāsa tadaivānartanairṛtāḥ |
Thugūlāḥ paratimatsyāśa ca kuśalāḥ kunaṭāsa tadā (VI.6.50)

135. Pradara - In the tribute list (II.48.37).

136. Prabhadraka (parabhadraka) - A Panchala tribe (VI.52.14).

dhṛṣṭathyumnaḥ śikhaṇḍī ca pāñcālāśa ca parabhadrakāḥ |
Madhye sainyasya mahataḥ saditā yuthdhāya bhārata (VI.52.14)

137. Pramuda - In 'geography' with Kiratas; probably lived in the Yamuna region.

138. Prachya (parācya) - A tribe near Kerala in 'geography' (VI.10.57); skilled in fighting on elephanttback.

tharaviḍāḥ keralāḥ parācyā bhūṣikā vanavāsinaḥ |
Unnatyakā māhiṣakā vikalpā mūṣakāsa tadā (VI.10.57)

139. Paravrsheya (parāvṛṣeya) - In 'geography' (VI. 10.49); possibly the region of Sahya (mountains) in the Western Ghats.

mahyuttarāḥ parāvṛṣeyā bhārgavāśa ca janādhipa |
Puṇḍrā bhārgāḥ kirātāśa ca suthoṣṇāḥ paramuthāsa tadā (VI. 10.49)

140. Parahuta (parāhūta) - In 'geography' (VI.10.45).

mallāḥ sutheṣṇāḥ parāhūtāsa tadā māhiṣa kārṣikāḥ |
Vāhīkā vāṭadhānāśa ca ābhīrāḥ kālatoyakāḥ (VI.10.45)

141. Parostha (paroṣṭha) - A central Indian tribe (VI.10.60).

taryaṅgāḥ kekarakāḥ paroṣṭhāḥ parasaṃcarakāsa tadā |
Tadaiva vindhyapulakāḥ pulinthāḥ kalkalaiḥ saha (VI.10.60)

142. Barbara ( barbara) - A northern Himalayan tribe (uttarajtha janmarah, XII. 200.39-40), (II.29.15) .

uttarā padajanmānaḥ kīrtayiṣyāmi tāna api |
Yauna kāmbojagāndhārāḥ kirātā barbaraiḥ saha (XII.200.40)

tataḥ sāgarakukṣisdāna malecchāna paramadāruṇāna |
Pahlavāna barbarāṃśa caiva tāna sarvāna anayatha vaśama (II.29.15)

Babbar (babbara) Jat Gotra found in Punjab when Sanskritised is Barbara.

143. Balirastra (balirāṣṭra) - In 'geography' (VI.10.43), a variant of Malla; a janapada in the Vidarbha region.

āthi rāṣṭrāḥ sukuṭṭāśa ca balirāṣṭraṃ ca kevalama |
Vānarāsyāḥ paravāhāśa ca vakrā vakrabhayāḥ śakāḥ (VI.10.43)

144. Baliha (balīha) - (V.72.14).

aja binthuḥ suvīrāṇāṃ surāṣṭrāṇāṃ kuśarthdhikaḥ |
Arkajaśa ca balīhānāṃ cīnānāṃ dhautamūlakaḥ (V.72.14)

145. Bahurvadya(bahu vādya) - In 'geography' (VI.10.53).

darvīkāḥ sakacā tharvā vātajāma radoragāḥ |
Bahu vādyāśa ca kauravya suthāmānaḥ sumallikāḥ (VI.10.53)

146. Bahlika - An ancient people known from the time of Atharva Veda and Satapatha Brahmana; closely connected with the Kurus of Mbh. Scholars identify them with the Bactrians of Balkh.

147. Bodha (bodha) - In 'geography;' a Yadava branch who fled westwards out of fear of Jarasandha (II.13.25).

śūrasenā bhadra kārā bodhāḥ śālvāḥ pataca carāḥ |
Susdarāśa ca sukuṭṭāśa ca kuṇinthāḥ kuntibhiḥ saha (II.13.25)

Badhwar (badhavāra) or Bodh Jat Gotra may be identified with Bodha (bodha).

148. Bharga (bharga) - In 'geography' (VL1 0.49); dwelled close to the Vats as and Nisadhas in Bhima's conquest (II.27.10).

bhargāṇāma adhipaṃ caiva niṣāthādhipatiṃ tadā |
Vijigye bhūmipālāṃśa ca maṇimata paramukhāna bahūna (II.27.10)

149. Bhadrakara (Madra) - Rank among the eighteen tribes of Bhojas who fled out of fear of Jarasandha (II.13.25); were part of the Salva confederacy.

śūrasenā bhadra kārā bodhāḥ śālvāḥ pataca carāḥ |
Susdarāśa ca sukuṭṭāśa ca kuṇinthāḥ kuntibhiḥ saha (II.13.25)

150. Bhardwaja (bharadvāja) - Probably a Garhwal tribe, listed in 'geography' (VI.10.67).

ātreyāḥ sa bharadvājāsa tadaiva satanayoṣikāḥ |
Aupakāśa ca kaliṅgāśa ca kirātānāṃ ca jātayaḥ (VI.10.67)

Bhardwaj (bhāradvāja) Jat Gotra may be identified with The Mahabharata Tribes - Bhardwaja (bharadvāja).

151. Bhargava - In 'geography (VI.10.49), could be from the western Ghats.

mahyuttarāḥ parāvṛṣeyā bhārgavāśa ca janādhipa |
Puṇḍrā bhārgāḥ kirātāśa ca suthoṣṇāḥ paramuthāsa tadā (VI.10.49)

152. Bhulinga -

153. Madaviraka (madaviraka) - Figure in the description of countries vanquished by Bhima (II.27.9).

nivṛtya ca mahābāhura madarvīkaṃ mahīdharama |
Sopatheśaṃ vinirjitya parayayāva uttarā mukhaḥ |
Vatsabhūmiṃ ca kaunteyo vijigye balavāna balāta (II.27.9)

May be Mada + Viraka tribes.

154. Madra (madra) - A Vedic people of high status. At the time of the epic, their king was Bahlika, and probably hailed from a tribe that migrated from Iran or Bactria and settled in Punjab.

tataḥ śākalama abhyetya madrāṇāṃ puṭabhethanama |
Mātulaṃ parītipūrveṇa śalyaṃ cakre vaśe balī (II.29.13)

The Mahabharata Tribes - Madra (madra) has may be identified with Jat Gotra - Maderna (maderaṇā) or Madrayana (madreṇā)

155. Madhumanta (madhumanta) - Listed in 'geography' (VI. 1 0.51), they came from Afghanistan.

tīragrāhāstara toyā rājikā ramyakā gaṇāḥ |
Tilakāḥ pārasīkāśa ca madhumantaḥ parakutsakāḥ (VI. 1 0.51)

156. Madhyamikeya (madhyamikeya) - Probably indicates a place called Nagri near Chittor. Its ancient name was Madhyamika nagari (madhyamikā nagarī).

kāśmīrāḥ kunthamānāśa ca paurakā haṃsakāyanāḥ |
Śibitrigartayaudheyā rājanyā mathrakekayāḥ (II. 48.13)

The Shivis (śivi) or Sibia Jats ruled this area. The classical writers locate Shivis (Siboi) at the confluence of Beas and Chenab. [57] Later they migrated to Rajasthan in the area of Madhyamika near Chittor from their coins bearing the legend Shibi janapadas have been found. [58] The Shivis tribe is known by several variants-Shiva in the Rigveda as one of the tribes defeated by the Bharata king Sudas; Sivi in the Aitreya Brahmana (VIII.23.10), Mahabharata (II.48.13), Sibi in Mahabharata (II. 48.13) Sibi in Mahabhashya on Panini (IV.2.52) where as Shaiba or Shaibayah as vishaya has been mentioned. Classical writers call them Siboi (Diodous 3, XVIII, 96; Strabo XV,1; Curtius IX,41)[59]There are ruins of an ancient town called 'Tamva-vati nagari' 11 miles north of Chittor. Ancient coins of Shivi people are found near this town bearing 'Majhamikaya Shivajanapadas' (majhamikāya śivajanapadasa ), which means coins of 'Shiva janapada of Madhyamika'. The 'Tamvavati nagari' (tamvāvatī nagarī) was called as 'Madhyamika nagari'. These coins are of the period first to second century BCE. [60]

157. Mandaka (mandaka) - Listed in 'geography' (VI.10.42); a tribe of cowherds from central India.

govinthā mandakāḥ ṣaṇḍā vidarbhānūpavāsikāḥ |
Aśmakāḥ pāṃsurāṣṭrāśa ca gopa rāṣṭrāḥ panītakāḥ (VI.10.42)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Mandaka (mandaka) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Manda (manḍā).

158. Murachipattana (muracī pattana) - Subdued by Sahdeva in the south (II.28.45); identified with Muchuri, a famous port near Calicut.

ye ca kālamukhā nāma narā rākṣasayonayaḥ |
Kṛtsnaṃ kolla giriṃ caiva muracī pattanaṃ tadā (II.28.45)

159. Malada (malada) - In 'geography' (VI.10.48); was defeated by Bhimasena in the east (II.27.8); probably people from central India.

andhrāśa ca bahavo rājanna antargiryāsa tadaiva ca |
Bahirgirya āṅgamaladā māgadhā mānavarjakāḥ (VI.10.48)
tato matsyāna mahātejā malayāṃśa ca mahābalāna |
Anavathyāna gayāṃśa caiva paśubhūmiṃ ca sarvaśaḥ (II.27.8)

160. Malla (malla) - Mentioned in 'geography' (VI.10.45) and in Bhima's conquest after northern Koshala (II.27.3) The Malla resided in district Deoria (UP) and had their metropolis at Kushinagar and Pava, sacred sites of the Bauddhas and the Jainas.

mallāḥ sutheṣṇāḥ parāhūtāsa tadā māhiṣa kārṣikāḥ |
Vāhīkā vāṭadhānāśa ca ābhīrāḥ kālatoyakāḥ (VI.10.45)

tato gopāla kacchaṃ ca sottamāna api cottarāna |
Mallānāma adhipaṃ caiva pārdivaṃ vayajayata parabhuḥ (II.27.3)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Malla (malla) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Mahla(mahalā)/Mall (malla).

161. Mahishakarshika (māhiṣa kārṣika) - Figure in 'geography' (VI. 10.45). Probably hailed from the region near the ancient city of Mahishmati.

mallāḥ sutheṣṇāḥ parāhūtāsa tadā māhiṣa kārṣikāḥ |
Vāhīkā vāṭadhānāśa ca ābhīrāḥ kālatoyakāḥ (VI.10.45)

162. Mahechchha (maheccha) - A janapada conquered by Nakula in the west, near the desert (II.29.6); could indicate the Maheya region of Ahmadabad where the river Mahi flows.

śairīṣakaṃ mahecchaṃ ca vaśe cakre mahāthyutiḥ |
Śibīṃsa tarigartāna ambaṣṭhāna mālavāna pañca karpaṭāna (II.29.6)

Could be Meham (mehama) town in Rohtak district in Haryana, as it is close to Sirsa town in Haryana.

163. Maradha (maradhā) - Mentioned in 'geography' (VI.10.65).

tadaiva maradhāśa cīnāsa tadaiva daśa mālikāḥ |
Kaṣatriyopaniveśāśa ca vaiśyaśūthra kulāni ca (VI.10.65)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Maradha (maradhā) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Mirdha (mirdhā) found in Jodhpur region of Rajasthan.

164. Manavarjaka (mānavarjaka) - In 'geography' (VI. 10.48); could refer to the Purulia and Dhanabad regions.

andhrāśa ca bahavo rājanna antargiryāsa tadaiva ca |
Bahirgirya āṅgamaladā māgadhā mānavarjakāḥ (VI. 10.48)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Manavarjaka (mānavarjaka) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Maan (māna) + Bardak (varḍaka)

165. Malaka (malaka) - In 'geography' (VI.10.61); a central Indian tribe.

mālakā mallakāśa caiva tadaivāparavartakāḥ |
Kulinthāḥ kulakāśa caiva karaṇṭhāḥ kurakāsa tadā (VI.10.61)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Malaka (mālaka) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Malik (malika)

166. Malavanaka (mālavāṇaka) - In 'geography' (VI.10.58); scholars place them between Broach and Kutch (approx. Modern Ahmedabad).

karṇikāḥ kuntikāśa caiva saubdhithā nalakālakāḥ |
Kaukuṭṭakāsa tadā colāḥ koṅkaṇā mālavāṇakāḥ (VI.10.58)

167. Mavellaka (māvellaka) - Mentioned among groups slain by Arjuna (VIII.4.47).

māvellakāsa tuṇḍikerāḥ sāvitrī putra kāñcalāha |
Parācyothīcyāḥ paratīcyāśa ca thākṣiṇātyāśa ca māriṣa (VIII.4.47)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Mavellaka (māvellaka) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Mavala (māvalā)

168. Mahishaka (mahiṣaka) - In 'geography (VI.10.57);' identified with the people of Mysore.

daraviḍāḥ keralāḥ parācyā bhūṣikā vanavāsinaḥ |
Unnatyakā māhiṣakā vikalpā mūṣakāsa tadā (VI.10.57)

ākhu babhruka vaktraśa ca mayūravadanāsa tadā |
Matsyameṣānanāśa cānye ajāvi mahiṣānanāḥ (IX.44.77)


The Mahabharata Tribe - Mahishaka (mahiṣaka) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Bains (baiṃsa).

169. Mudgala (mudagala) - Defeated by Krishna (VII.11.39), they are a Brahmin clan descended from the Paurava dynasty'.

170. Mushaka (mūṣaka) - Listed in 'geography' as a southern people (VI.10.57). The Musaka janapada is identified with the region near modern Hyderabad, on the bank of river Musi, a tributary of the Krishna. The tribe is regarded as a branch of a northern tribe documented by Alexander's historians as Musicanur, who were settled in Sind.

tharaviḍāḥ keralāḥ parācyā bhūṣikā vanavāsinaḥ |
Unnatyakā māhiṣakā vikalpā mūṣakāsa tadā (VI.10.57)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Mushaka (mūṣaka) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Mushasela (muśāselā) gotra Jats living in Tonk district in Rajasthan.

171. Moka/(Mau-kah) (maukā) - Figure in 'geography' (VI. 10.38); could be a Kshatriya tribe from Kutch or Mewar regions.

śūrasenāḥ kaliṅgāśa ca bodhā maukāsa tadaiva ca |
Matsyāḥ sukuṭyaḥ saubalyāḥ kuntalāḥ kāśikośalāḥ (VI. 10.38)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Moka (maukā) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Moga (maugā)

172. Mohana (Modana) (modāṇā) - Mentioned in Karna digvijaya (III. 241.47).

The Mahabharata Tribe - Modana (modāṇā) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Modana (modāṇā) who live in Tonk district in Rajasthan.

173. Modapura (modāpura)- A tribal city subdued by Arjuna in the Himalayas (II. 24.10).

modā puraṃ vāmathevaṃ suthāmānaṃ susaṃkulama |
Kulūtāna uttarāṃśa caiva tāṃśa ca rājñaḥ samānayata (II. 24.10)

174. Moda-giri (modā giri) - Defeated by Bhima (II. 27.19); probably modern Monghyr.

ada modā giriṃ caiva rājānaṃ balavattarama |
Pāṇḍavo bāhuvīryeṇa nijaghāna mahābalama (II. 27.19)

175. Mauleya (mauleya) - Paid tribute to Yudhisthira (II. 48.14); dwelled on the banks of the Mula river in Baluchistan.

ambaṣṭhāḥ kaukurāsa tārkṣyā vastrapāḥ pahlavaiḥ saha |
Vasātayaḥ samauleyāḥ saha kaṣuthrakamālavaiḥ (II. 48.14)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Mauleya (mauleya) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Mola (molā) who live in Nimach, Mandsaur districts in Madhya Pradesh.

176. Yakrilloma (yakṛla loma) - Mentioned in Virata Parva (IV.5.4) in Matsya Kingdom. Hail from a region between dasharna in the south and Panchala in the north, near Surasena, through which Pandavas passed to the country of Matsya. Also in 'geography' (VI. 10.44);

antareṇa yakṛllomāña śūrasenāṃśa ca pāṇḍavāḥ |
Lubdhā baruvāṇā matsyasya viṣayaṃ parāviśana vanāta

vithehakā māgadhāśa ca suhmāśa ca vijayāsa tadā |
Aṅgā vaṅgāḥ kaliṅgāśa ca yakṛla lomāna eva ca (VI. 10.44)

177. Yavana (yavana) - Mentioned frequently as peoples of the northwest, and said to be descendants of Yayati's son Turvasu (I. 80.26).

yadosa tu yādavā jātāsa turvasora yavanāḥ sutāḥ |
Daruhyora api sutā bhojā anosa tu maleccha jātayaḥ (I. 80.26)

178. Yugandhara (yugaṃdhara) - Figure in 'geography'. (VII.15.30-31)

yugaṃdharasa tato rājana bhārathvājaṃ mahāradama |
Vārayāma āsa saṃkruthdhaṃ vātothdhūtama ivārṇavama (VII.15.30)
yudhiṣṭhiraṃ sa vithdhvā tu śaraiḥ saṃnataparvabhiḥ |
Yugaṃdharaṃ ca bhallena radanīḍātha apāharata (VII.15.31)
tato virāṭathrupathau kekayāḥ sātyakiḥ śibiḥ |
Vayāghrathattaśa ca pāñcālyaḥ siṃhasenaśa ca vīryavāna (VII.15.32)

179. Yaudheya (yaudheya) - A prominent and ancient people; mentioned in the tribute list (II.48.13). Yaudheya coins and a mint site have been found near Rohtak. Cunningham identified them with Johia Kshatriyas from Johiabar near Multan.

kāśmīrāḥ kunthamānāśa ca paurakā haṃsakāyanāḥ |
Śibitrigartayaudheyā rājanyā mathrakekayāḥ (II.48.13)

They are identified with the Jats clan Joiyas or Johiya[61] of Bahawalpur and Multan Divisions (Pakistan) and Bikaner, Rajasthan (India). Yaudheyas were the rulers of South-Eastern Punjab and Rajasthan. Even today these areas are inhabited by the Johiyas.

180. Ramatha (ramaṭhā) - Listed in 'geography' (VI. 10.65) and in the Nakula digvijaya (II. 29.11).

ramaṭhāna hārahūṇāṃśa ca paratīcyāśa caiva ye nṛpāḥ |
Tāna sarvāna sa vaśe cakre śāsanātha eva pāṇḍavaḥ (II. 29.11)

181. Rathoraga (radoraga) - A northwest frontier tribe. (VI.10.53)

darvīkāḥ sakacā tharvā vātajāma radoragāḥ |
Bahu vāthyāśa ca kauravya suthāmānaḥ sumallikāḥ (VI.10.53)

182. Rasyakagana - A vagrant tribe in the southwest.


183. Rajanya rājanya) - In the tribute list (II. 48.13); probably from Hoshiarpur region.

kāśmīrāḥ kunthamānāśa ca paurakā haṃsakāyanāḥ |
Śibitrigartayaudheyā rājanyā mathrakekayāḥ (II. 48.13)

184. Rajika -

185. Ramaka (rāmaka) - The people of the Ramaka mountain who were subdued by Sahdeva (II. 28.46) in the south.

thavīpaṃ tāmrāhvayaṃ caiva parvataṃ rāmakaṃ tadā |
Timiṅgilaṃ ca nṛpatiṃ vaśe cakre mahāmatiḥ (II.28.46)

186. Roma (roma) - A Roman city mentioned in Sahdeva's conquest.

antākhīṃ caiva romāṃ ca yavanānāṃ puraṃ tadā |
Dūtaira eva vaśe cakre karaṃ caināna athāpayata (II.28.49)


187. Romaka (-sah)/Romana (romāṇa) - In 'geography' (VI. 10.54); probably a variant of Vahuka (Cr. Ed. II. 47.15).

vadhrāḥ karīṣakāśa cāpi kulinthopatyakāsa tadā |
Vanāyavo thaśā pārśvā romāṇaḥ kuśa binthavaḥ (VI. 10.54)

188. Rohitaka (rohītaka) - Listed in Karna digvijaya (III. 241.67); people of modern Rohtak in Haryana, the capital of Yaudheyas; it was subdued by Nakula (II. 29.4).

tato bahudhanaṃ ramyaṃ gavāśvadhanadhānyavata |
Kārtikeyasya dayitaṃ rohītakama upāthravata (II. 29.4)

189. Rshika (ṛṣika) - An important Central Asian people of Chinese origin, conquered by Arjuna (II. 24.24).

lohāna paramakāmbojāna ṛṣikāna uttarāna api |
Sahitāṃsa tāna mahārāja vayajayata pākaśāsaniḥ (II. 24.24)

190. Lampaka - A variant of Loha (II. 24.23); a northern people.

The Mahabharata Tribe - Lampaka may be identified with Jat Gotra - Lamba (lāṃbā)

Ashoka's inscriptions chiseled on rocks and stone pillars located at strategic locations throughout his empire--such as Lampaka (Laghman in modern Afghanistan), Mahastan (in modern Bangladesh), and Brahmagiri (in Karnataka)--constitute the second set of datable historical records.[62]

191. Lalataksha (lalāṭākṣa) - A northwestern tribe (II.47.15).

davyakṣāṃsa taryakṣāla lalāṭākṣāna nānāthigbhyaḥ samāgatāna |
Auṣṇīṣāna anivāsāṃśa ca bāhukāna puruṣāthakāna (II.47.15)

192. Langala(lāṅgala) - Mentioned in 'geography' (VI.l0.55).

kacchā gopāla kacchāśa ca lāṅgalāḥ paravallakāḥ |
Kirātā barbarāḥ sithdhā vithehāsa tāmraliṅgakāḥ (VI.l0.55)

193. Lata (lāṭa) - Mentioned in Anusasana Parva (XIII. 34.17); hailed from. Southern Gujarat.

194. Loha (loha) - Vanquished by Arjuna (II.24.24); possibly Kashmir or an Afghan region.

lohāna paramakāmbojāna ṛṣikāna uttarāna api |
Sahitāṃsa tāna mahārāja vayajayata pākaśāsaniḥ (II.24.24)

Loha is a village in Ratangarh tehsil of Churu ditrict in Rajasthan.

195. Lohita (lohita) - Subdued by Arjuna after Kashmir (II 24.16); could indicate modern Leh.

tataḥ kāśmīrakāna vīrāna kaṣatriyāna kaṣatriyarṣabhaḥ |
Vayajayala lohitaṃ caiva maṇḍalaira thaśabhiḥ saha (II 24.16)

Lohita (lohita) was a Nagavanshi mahapurusha |
(II.9.8)

vāsukisa takṣakaśa caiva nāgaśa cairāvatasa tadā
kṛṣṇaśa ca lohitaśa caiva padmaśa citraśa ca vīryavāna ..8..

Jat Gotras originated from Lohita - Lohamsher (lohamaśera), Lohmarod (lohamaroḍa़), Loat (loata), Lohit (lohita), Loa (loa)

196. Lohajangha (lohajaṅgha) - Bondsmen at Yudhisthira's court (II.46.21); hailed from Logar valley, south of Kabul.

āvarjitā ivābhānti nighnāśa caitraki kaukurāḥ |
Kāraḥ karā lohajaṅghā yudhiṣṭhira niveśane (II.46.21)

197. Vakra (vakra) / Vakrabhaya (vakrabhaya) - A fierce tribe listed in 'geography' (VI. 10.43).

āthi rāṣṭrāḥ sukuṭṭāśa ca balirāṣṭraṃ ca kevalama |
Vānarāsyāḥ paravāhāśa ca vakrā vakrabhayāḥ śakāḥ (VI. 10.43)

198. Vadhra (vadhra) - Listed in 'geography' (VI. 10.54).

vadhrāḥ karīṣakāśa cāpi kulinthopatyakāsa tadā |
Vanāyavo thaśā pārśvā romāṇaḥ kuśa binthavaḥ (VI. 10.54)

199. Vanavasina (vanavāsi) - In 'geography' (VI. 10.57); hail from north Kanara.

daraviḍāḥ keralāḥ parācyā bhūṣikā vanavāsinaḥ |
Unnatyakā māhiṣakā vikalpā mūṣakāsa tadā (VI. 10.57)

200. Aparavartaka (aparavartaka) - Listed in 'geography' (VI.10.61).

mālakā mallakāśa caiva tadaivāparavartakāḥ |
Kulinthāḥ kulakāśa caiva karaṇṭhāḥ kurakāsa tadā (VI.10.61)

201. Varmaka (varmaka) - A warrior clan, figures in Bhima's conquest of eastern countries (II.27.12).

śarmakāna varmakāṃśa caiva sāntvenaivājayata parabhuḥ |
Vaithehakaṃ ca rājānaṃ janakaṃ jagatīpatima |
Vijigye puruṣavyāghro nātitīvreṇa karmaṇā (II.27.12)

202. Vastrapa (vastrapa) - Figure in the tribute list (II.48.14) and probably came from the Girnar region in Junagarh.

ambaṣṭhāḥ kaukurāsa tārkṣyā vastrapāḥ pahlavaiḥ saha |
Vasātayaḥ samauleyāḥ saha kaṣuthrakamālavaiḥ (II.48.14)

203. Vanarasya (vānarasya) - Listed in the 'geography' (VI. 10.43).

āthi rāṣṭrāḥ sukuṭṭāśa ca balirāṣṭraṃ ca kevalama |
Vānarāsyāḥ paravāhāśa ca vakrā vakrabhayāḥ śakāḥ (VI. 10.43)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Vanarasya (vānarasya) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Vanar (vānara)

204. Vatajama (vātajāma) - In 'geography' (VI.10.53); came from the northwest frontier.

darvīkāḥ sakacā tharvā vātajāma radoragāḥ |
Bahu vāthyāśa ca kauravya suthāmānaḥ sumallikāḥ (VI.10.53)

205. Vahika (vāhīka) - In 'geography' (VI.9.45), A northwestern janapada (VIII.30.27); indicates the whole of Punjab.

mallāḥ sudeṣṇāḥ parāhūtāsa tadā māhiṣa kārṣikāḥ |
Vāhīkā vāṭadhānāśa ca ābhīrāḥ kālatoyakāḥ (VI.9.45)
īthṛśā barāhmaṇenoktā bāhlīkā moghacāriṇaḥ |
Yeṣāṃ ṣaḍbhāgahartā tavama ubhayoḥ śubhapāpayoḥ (VIII.30.27)

Bahik (bāhika) Bahika (bāhika) Vahik (vāhika) Vahika (vāhika) Valhika (vālhīka) is used for the Jats of Punjab.

206. Vikalpa (vikalpa) - Figure in the 'geography' (VI. 10.57).

daraviḍāḥ keralāḥ parācyā bhūṣikā vanavāsinaḥ |
Unnatyakā māhiṣakā vikalpā mūṣakāsa tadā (VI. 10.57)

207. Vijaya (vijaya) - Listed in 'geography' (VI. 1 0.44).

videhakā māgadhāśa ca suhmāśa ca vijayāsa tadā |
Aṅgā vaṅgāḥ kaliṅgāśa ca yakṛla lomāna eva ca (VI. 1 0.44)

208. Vidarbha (vidarbha) - a famous ancient people of modern Berar, a branch of Yadavas. Their king Rukmi was the only ruler who could not join the Mbh. War, as neither the Kauravas nor the Pandavas wanted his help. His kingdom probably comprised only a portion of Vidarbha country, as the Vidarbha tribe figures on the Kaurava side (VI. 47.13 ),

vidarbhaira mekalaiśa caiva karṇaprāvaraṇaira api |
Sahitāḥ sarvasainyena bhīṣmama āhavaśobhinama (VI. 47.13 )

209. Videha (videha) - An ancient people of Mithila or Janakpore in Nepal. The Videha dynasty was a branch of the Ikshwakus whose main branch flourished in Koshala. Were not real participants in the Mbh. War, though their name figures in the narration of the Kuru army (VI.112.108) and Pandava army (VIII.3.18). Bhima conquered their country (11.26.4).

te videhāḥ kaliṅgāśa ca dāśeraka gaṇaiḥ saha |
Abhipetura niṣāthāśa ca sauvīrāśa ca mahāraṇe (VI.112.108)

210. Vindhyap(m)/ulaka (vindhyapulaka) - In 'geography' (VI. 10.60); indicates all tribes in the southern Vindhya-Satpura range.

taryaṅgāḥ kekarakāḥ paroṣṭhāḥ parasaṃcarakāsa tadā |
Tadaiva vindhyapulakāḥ pulinthāḥ kalkalaiḥ saha (VI. 10.60)

211. Viraka (vīraka) - Mentioned as a sinful people (VIII.30.45).

kāraḥ karāna mahiṣakāna kaliṅgāna kīkaṭāṭavīna |
Karkoṭakāna vīrakāṃśa ca thurdharmāṃśa ca vivarjayeta (VIII.30.45)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Viraka (vīraka) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Virk (virka) , Wirk (virka), Birk (birka).

212. Vrika (vṛka) - A prominent nortwest tribe which lived by the profession of arms. Vrkasthala was one of the five villages demanded by Pandavas (V. 31.19) and lay on Krishna's route from Upaplavya to Hastinapura (V. 82.20).

kuśa sadalaṃ vṛkasdalama āsanthī vāraṇāvatama |
Avasānaṃ bhavetha atra kiṃ citha eva tu pañcamama (V. 31.19)

vṛkasdalaṃ samāsāthya keśavaḥ paravīrahā |
Parakīrṇaraśmāva āthitye vimale lohitāyati (V. 82.20)

vṛkodara (Vrika+Udar) nibhāśa caiva ke cida añjanasaṃnibhāḥ |
Śavetāṅgā lohitagrīvāḥ piṅgākṣāśa ca tadāpare
kalmāṣā bahavo rājaṃśa citravarṇāśa ca bhārata (IX.44.100)


The Mahabharata Tribe - Vrika (vṛka) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Vrik (vṛka), Varika (varika)

213. Vrndataka (vṛṇḍāṭaka) - A western tribe subdued by Nakula (II. 29.10).

kṛtsnaṃ pañcanathaṃ caiva tadaivāparaparyaṭama |
Uttarajyotikaṃ caiva tadā vṛṇḍāṭakaṃ purama (II. 29.10).

214. Vaiyamaka (vaiyamaka) - Figure in the tribute list (II. 48.12) and identified with Aimaks of central Afghanistan.

kāyavyā tharathā thārvāḥ śūrā vaiyamakāsa tadā |
Authumbarā thurvibhāgāḥ pārathā bāhlikaiḥ saha (II. 48.12)

215. Vairama (vairāma) - Figure in the tribute list as dwellers of wastelands near the mouth of the Indus (II.47.10).

te vairāmāḥ pārathāśa ca vaṅgāśa ca kitavaiḥ saha |
Vividhaṃ balima āthāya ratnāni vividhāni ca (II.47.10)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Vairama (vairāma) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Vaire (vaire)

216. Shaka (śaka) - A northwestern tribe. (VI.20.13), (VI.10.50)

śārathvataśa cottaradhūra mahātmā; maheṣvāso gautamaśa citrayodhī |
Śakaiḥ kirātaira yavanaiḥ pahlavaiśa ca; sārdhaṃ camūma uttarato ऽbhipāti (VI.20.13)

śakā niṣādā niṣadhāsa tadaivānartanairṛtāḥ |
Dugūlāḥ paratimatsyāśa ca kuśalāḥ kunaṭāsa tadā (VI.10.50)

217. Sakala (sakala) - The capital of the Madra tribe, identified with modern Sialkot. But Sakaladvipa is mentioned in Aruna's conquest of the north, the vicinity of the Himalayas (II. 23.15) and could indicate a group of tiny free hill states around Shimla.

sa tena sahito rājana savyasācī paraṃtapaḥ |
Vijigye sakalaṃ thavīpaṃ parativindhyaṃ ca pārdivama (II. 23.15)

218. Sarmaka - An eastern tribe vanquished by Bhima (II.24.12).

219. Shanavatya (śānavatya) - In the tribute list (II.48.15); identified with modern Santhals.

śauṇḍikāḥ kukkurāśa caiva śakāśa caiva viśāṃ pate |
Aṅgā vaṅgāśa ca puṇḍrāśa ca śānavatyā gayāsa tadā (II.48.15)

220. Shivis (śibī) - An ancient Punjab people vanquished by Nakula in the west (II. 29.6).

śairīṣakaṃ mahecchaṃ ca vaśe cakre mahāthyutiḥ |
Śibīṃsa tarigartāna ambaṣṭhāna mālavāna pañca karpaṭāna (II. 29.6)

221. Shirisaka (śirīṣaka) - Listed in Nakula's conquest of the west (II.29.6); identified as modern Sirsa in Hissar, Haryana.

śairīṣakaṃ mahecchaṃ ca vaśe cakre mahāthyutiḥ |
Śibīṃsa tarigartāna ambaṣṭhāna mālavāna pañca karpaṭāna (II. 29.6)

222. Sundaka - Listed in Karna digvijaya (III.241.42).

223. Shukara (śūkara) - A rare ethnic name in the tribute list (II. 48.24); presented hundreds of elephants to Yudhisthira.

kṛtī tu rājā kauravya śūkarāṇāṃ viśāṃ pate |
Athathatha gajaratnānāṃ śatāni subahūnya api (II. 48.24)

224. Sudra (śūdra) - An ancient tribe from the region of Aparanta in 'geography' (VI. 10.46). Nakula vanquished them near the Sarasvati (II. 29.9).

aparandhrāśa ca śūdrāśa ca pahlavāśa carma khaṇḍikāḥ |
Aṭavī śabarāśa caiva maru bhaumāśa ca māriṣa (VI. 10.46)

śūdrābhīra gaṇāśa caiva ye cāśritya sarasvatīma |
Vartayanti ca ye matsyaira ye ca parvatavāsinaḥ (II. 29.9)

225. Surparaka (śūrpāraka) - Refers to the people of modern Sopora, listed in Sahdeva's conquest of the southern region (II.28.43).

tataḥ śūrpārakaṃ caiva gaṇaṃ copakṛtāhvayama |
Vaśe cakre mahātejā thaṇḍakāṃśa ca mahābalaḥ (II.28.43)

226. Saundika (śauṇḍika)- In the tribute list (II.48.15). Saundika means a dealer in wine and the modern Sunri caste of Bihar and UP claim decent from ancient Saundikas. Sondhi, a Khatri sub-caste in Punjab, is also identified with them.

śauṇḍikāḥ kukkurāśa caiva śakāśa caiva viśāṃ pate |
Aṅgā vaṅgāśa ca puṇḍrāśa ca śānavatyā gayāsa tadā (II.48.15)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Saundika (śauṇḍika) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Sunda (suṇḍā)

227. Shanda (ṣaṇḍa) - Figure in 'geography' (VI. 10.42).

govinthā manthakāḥ ṣaṇḍā vitharbhānūpavāsikāḥ |
Aśmakāḥ pāṃsurāṣṭrāśa ca gopa rāṣṭrāḥ panītakāḥ (VI. 10.42)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Shanda (ṣaṇḍa) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Sunda (suṇḍā)

228. Sakshaddruha (sakṣadthruha) - Listed in 'geography' as a northwest tribe (VI. 10.64).

yavanāśa ca sa kāmbojā thāruṇā maleccha jātayaḥ |
Sakṣadthruhaḥ kuntalāśa ca hūṇāḥ pāratakaiḥ saha (VI. 10.64)

229. Para Samcaraka (parasaṃcaraka) - Figure in 'geography' (VI. 10.60); possibly a nomadic tribe from central India.

taryaṅgāḥ kekarakāḥ paroṣṭhāḥ parasaṃcarakāsa tadā |
Tadaiva vindhyapulakāḥ pulinthāḥ kalkalaiḥ saha (VI. 10.60)

230. Sanjayanti - A city-state of wild tribes defeated by Sahdeva in the south (II.28.11); linked with the old village of Sanjana or Sanjaya in Thana, Bombay.

231. Samanga - Listed in 'geography'.

232. Satiya (satiya) - A southern tribe (VI. 10.62).

mūṣakā satanabālāśa ca satiyaḥ pattipañjakāḥ |
Āthithāyāḥ sirālāśa ca satūbakā satanapāsa tadā (VI. 10.62)

233. Sarvasenaya (sarvasenaya) - A Salva branch; listed in the 'geography' (VI. 10 59).

samaṅgāḥ kopanāśa caiva kukurāṅgatha māriṣāḥ |
Dhavajinya utsava saṃketāsa tarivargāḥ sarvasenayaḥ (VI. 10 59)

234. Sairindhra (sairandhra) - In 'geography' (VI. 10.56).

oṣṭrāḥ puṇḍrāḥ sa sairandhrāḥ pārvatīyāśa ca māriṣa |
Adāpare janapathā thakṣiṇā bharatarṣabha (VI. 10.56)

235. Sahyottara - Probably the people of Khandesh.

236. Satvata - An ethnic name of the great Yadava confederacy in Anarta. Satvata was a great King whose sons established at least four distinct lineages of Kshatriyas, viz. Bhoja, Andhaka, Kukura and Vrishni.

237. Savitriputraka (sāvitrī putra) - A Salva branch defeated in battle by Arjuna (VIII.4.47) in the northwest; known as the hundred sons of Savitri and Satyavan (III.279.15).

māvellakāsa tuṇḍikerāḥ sāvitrī putra kāñcalāha |
Parācyothīcyāḥ paratīcyāśa ca thākṣiṇātyāśa ca māriṣa (VIII.4.47)

238. Simhapura (siṃhapura) - A northwest settlement subdued by Arjuna (II. 24.19).

tataḥ siṃhapuraṃ ramyaṃ citrāyudhasurakṣitama |
Parāmadatha balama āsdāya pākaśāsanira āhave (II. 24.19)

239. Siddha (siddha) - A Himalayan people in 'geography' (VI. 10.55); also known as celestial ascetics. Shalya Parva (IX.44.59)

kacchā gopāla kacchāśa ca lāṅgalāḥ paravallakāḥ |
Kirātā barbarāḥ siddhā vithehāsa tāmraliṅgakāḥ (VI. 10.55)

putra meṣaḥ paravāhaśa ca tadā nandopanandakau |
Dhūmraḥ śavetaḥ kaliṅgaśa ca siddhārdo varadasa tadā (IX.44.59)

240. Sirala (sirāla) - Listed in 'geography' (VI. 10.62).

mūṣakā satanabālāśa ca satiyaḥ pattipañjakāḥ |
Āthithāyāḥ sirālāśa ca satūbakā satanapāsa tadā (VI. 10.62)

241. Sukatya (sukuṭya) - In 'geography' (VI. 10.38); one of the tribes who fled westwards in fear of Jarasandha.

śūrasenāḥ kaliṅgāśa ca bodhā maukāsa tadaiva ca |
Matsyāḥ sukuṭyaḥ saubalyāḥ kuntalāḥ kāśikośalāḥ (VI. 10.38)

242. Sudamana (sudāmāna) - A northwest janapada in geography (VI.10.53)

tharvīkāḥ sakacā tharvā vātajāma radoragāḥ |
Bahu vāthyāśa ca kauravya sudāmānaḥ sumallikāḥ (VI.10.53)

243. Sudesna (sudeṣṇa) - Listed in 'geography' (VI.10.45).

mallāḥ sudeṣṇāḥ parāhūtāsa tadā māhiṣa kārṣikāḥ |
Vāhīkā vāṭadhānāśa ca ābhīrāḥ kālatoyakāḥ (VI.10.45)

244. Sundaravega (sundara vegāna) - A name of a family or clan (V.72.15).

hayagrīvo vithehānāṃ varapraśa ca mahaujasāma |
Bāhuḥ sundara vegānāṃ thīptākṣāṇāṃ purūravāḥ (V.72.15)

245. Suparsva (supārśva) - Bhima subdued king Kratha in Suparshva, between Kashi and Matsya (II.27.7); probably a Yadava settlement in Berar.

tataḥ supārśvama abhitasa tadā rājapatiṃ karadama |
Yudhyamānaṃ balāta saṃkhye vijigye pāṇḍavarṣabhaḥ (II.27.7)

246. Sumallika (sumallika) - Listed in 'geography' with other northhwestern peoples (VI. 10.53); could be the inhabitants of Mulla pass.

tharvīkāḥ sakacā tharvā vātajāma radoragāḥ |
Bahu vāthyāśa ca kauravya suthāmānaḥ sumallikāḥ (VI. 10.53)

247. Susthara(-lah) (susdara) - They rank among the tribes who fled westward after being defeated by Jarasandha (II.13.25).

śūrasenā bhathra kārā bodhāḥ śālvāḥ pataca carāḥ |
Susdarāśa ca sukuṭṭāśa ca kuṇinthāḥ kuntibhiḥ saha (II.13.25)

248. Suhma (suhma) - One of the five Anava tribes of the east, mentioned in connection with digvijayas (of Pandu I. 105; Arjuna II 24.20). The country is identified with Radha in Bengal.

tataḥ suhmāṃśa ca colāṃśa ca kirīṭī pāṇḍavarṣabhaḥ |
Sahitaḥ sarvasainyena parāmadata kurunanthanaḥ ( II 24.20)

249. Srnjaya/Somaka (somaka) - They were two main branches of Panchalas who joined the Pandavas; their leader was Dhrstadyumna (I. 185.1).

tatasa tadoktaḥ parihṛṣṭarūpaḥ; pitre śaśaṃsāda sa rājaputraḥ |
Dhṛṣṭathyumnaḥ somakānāṃ parabarho; vṛttaṃ yadā yena hṛtā ca kṛṣṇā (I. 185.1)

250. Seka/Aparaseka - Defeated by Sahdeva (II. 28.8) in the south; possibly from the region between the Chambal and Narmada rivers.

251. Saindhava (saindhava) - Amongst the tribes of the extreme northwest (III. 48.21, VIII. 4.96).

hārahūṇāṃśa ca cīnāṃśa ca tukhārāna saindhavāṃsa tadā |
Jāguḍāna ramaṭhāna muṇḍāna satrī rājyāna ada taṅgaṇāna (III.48.21)

ājāneyaiḥ saindhavaiḥ pārvatīyaira; nathīja kāmbojavanāyu bāhlikaiḥ |
Gāndhārarājaḥ savabalena yukto; vayavasdito yothdhukāmasa tavatharde (VIII. 4.96)

252. Shauvala (śauvala) - In 'geography' among northwest tribes (VI. 10.52).

kāśmīrāḥ sindhusauvīrā gāndhārā darśakāsa tadā |
Abhīsārā kulūtāśa ca śauvalā bāhlikāsa tadā (VI. 10.52)

253. Sopadesa (sopadeśa) - Conquered by Bhima (II. 27.9).

nivṛtya ca mahābāhura matharvīkaṃ mahīdharama |
Sopadeśaṃ vinirjitya parayayāva uttarā mukhaḥ (II. 27.9)

254. Saubdhida (saubdhida) - Listed in 'geography' (VI. 10.58).

karṇikāḥ kuntikāśa caiva saubdhidā nalakālakāḥ |
Kaukuṭṭakāsa tadā colāḥ koṅkaṇā mālavāṇakāḥ (VI. 10.58)

255. Saudha (saudha) - Listed in 'geography' (VI. 10.40); could indicate Saudha, capital of the Salvas.

pāñcālāḥ kauśikāśa caiva ekapṛṣṭhā yugaṃ dharāḥ |
Saudhā mathrā bhujiṅgāśa ca kāśayo ऽparakāśayaḥ (VI. 10.40)

256. Saubalya (saubalya) - Mentioned in 'geography' (VI. 10.38).

śūrasenāḥ kaliṅgāśa ca bodhā maukāsa tadaiva ca |
Matsyāḥ sukuṭyaḥ saubalyāḥ kuntalāḥ kāśikośalāḥ (VI. 10.38)

257. Stanapa (satanapa) - A wild northern tribe (VI. 10.62).

mūṣakā satanabālāśa ca satiyaḥ pattipañjakāḥ |
Āthithāyāḥ sirālāśa ca satūbakā satanapāsa tadā (VI. 10.62)

258. Satrirajya (satrī rājya) - Mentioned in the list of tribes whom Sanjaya saw in the court of Yudhisthira, in Rajasuya (III. 48.21); probably a trans-Himalayan kingdom.

hārahūṇāṃśa ca cīnāṃśa ca tukhārāna saindhavāṃsa tadā |
Jāguḍāna ramaṭhāna muṇḍāna satrī rājyāna ada taṅgaṇāna (III. 48.21)

259. Hamsakayana (haṃsakāyana) - Figure as northwestern peoples in the tribute list (II. 48.13); identified with modern Hunza and Nagar in the extreme northwest of Kashmir.

kāśmīrāḥ kunthamānāśa ca paurakā haṃsakāyanāḥ |
Śibitrigartayaudheyā rājanyā mathrakekayāḥ (II. 48.13)

260. Harivarsa (harivarṣa) - The last spot in the north which Arjuna could reach in his digvijayas (II. 25.7), after which lay the utopian land of Uttarakurus.

uttaraṃ harivarṣaṃ tu samāsāthya sa pāṇḍavaḥ |
Iyeṣa jetuṃ taṃ theśaṃ pākaśāsanananthanaḥ (II. 25.7)

261. Hataka (hāṭaka) - Gandharva territory near Kailash mountain and Manasa lake, subdued by Arjuna on his way back from the conquest of northern countries (II. 25.3).

taṃ jitvā hāṭakaṃ nāma theśaṃ guhyaka rakṣitama |
Pākaśāsanira avyagraḥ saha sainyaḥ samāsathata (II. 25.3)

262. Harahuna (hārahūṇa) - Figure in Nakula's conquest of western quarters (II. 29.11) and in the tribute list (II.47.19; III. 48.21); could be tribes from the banks of Aragandava river in southhwest Afghanistan, known as Harahvaiti in old Iranian languages, though the name suggests a link with Hunas.

ramaṭhāna hārahūṇāṃśa ca paratīcyāśa caiva ye nṛpāḥ |
Tāna sarvāna sa vaśe cakre śāsanātha eva pāṇḍavaḥ (II. 29.11)

cīnāna hūnāña śakāna oḍūna parvatāntaravāsinaḥ |
Vārṣṇeyāna hārahūṇāṃśa ca kṛṣṇāna haimavatāṃsa tadā (II.47.19)

hārahūṇāṃśa ca cīnāṃśa ca tukhārāna saindhavāṃsa tadā |
Jāguḍāna ramaṭhāna muṇḍāna satrī rājyāna ada taṅgaṇāna (III. 48.21)

263. Haimavata ( haimavata) - Himalayan people in the tribute list (II. 47.19).

cīnāna hūnāña śakāna oḍūna parvatāntaravāsinaḥ |
Vārṣṇeyāna hārahūṇāṃśa ca kṛṣṇāna haimavatāṃsa tadā (II.47.19)

264. Haihaya (hehaya) - An ancient people famous in the time of Arjuna Kartavirya, who once occupied the whole of central and northern India barring a few parts in the east. They occupied the Chamba basin. (XIII.31.7-8)

tasyānvavāye thavau rājana rājānau saṃbabhūvatuḥ |
Hehayasa tālajaṅghaśa ca vatseṣu jayatāṃ vara (XIII.31.7)

hehayasya tu putrāṇāṃ thaśasu satrīṣu bhārata |
Śataṃ babhūva parakhyātaṃ śūrāṇāma anivartināma (XIII.31.8)


List of Other Jat clans added by Laxman Burdak

The 18 tribes which fled due to attacks from Jarasandha Mahabharata have been mentioned in Book 2, Chapter 14. Jarasandha was a powerful Ancient Indian king who ruled Magadha. The eighteen tribes of the Bhojas, from fear of Jarasandha, have all fled towards the west; so also have the Surasenas, the Bhadrakas, the Vodhas, the Shalwas, the Patachcharas, the Susthalas, the Mukuttas, and the Kulindas, along with the Kuntis. And the king of the Salwayana tribe with their brethren and followers; and the southern Panchalas and the eastern Kosalas have all fled to the country of the Kunti Kingdom. So also the Matsyas and the Sannyastapadas, overcome with fear, leaving their dominions in the north, have fled into the southern country. And so all the Panchalas, alarmed at the power of Jarasandha, have left their own kingdom and fled in all directions.

Sabha Parva - Book II

Dhiman (dhīmāna) - Jat Gotra : Sabha Parva Mahabharata (II.28.50)

bharu kacchaṃ gato dhīmāna thūtāna māthravatīsutaḥ |
Pareṣayāma āsa rājenthra paulastyāya mahātmane |
Vibhīṣaṇāya dharmātmā parītipūrvama ariṃthamaḥ (II.28.50)
pūṣṇā bhagenāryamṇā ca aṃśena ca vivasvatā |
Rudraśa ca sahito dhīmāna mitreṇa varuṇena ca (IX.44.5)

Chhina (cīnā) - Sabha Parva Mahabharata (II.47.19), Bhisma Parva Mahabharata (VI .10.65)

cīnāna hūnāña śakāna oḍūna parvatāntaravāsinaḥ |
Vārṣṇeyāna hārahūṇāṃśa ca kṛṣṇāna haimavatāṃsa tadā (II.47.19)
tadaiva maradhāśa cīnāsa tadaiva daśa mālikāḥ |
Kaṣatriyopaniveśāśa ca vaiśyaśūdra kulāni ca (VI .10.65)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Chhina (cīnā) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Chhina (cīnā).

Odra (odra) - The Mahabharata Tribe - Udra (Odra) (odra) belongs to Modern Orissa, also known as Utkala and Kalinga. (II.28.48), (II.47.19)

pāṇḍyāṃśa ca tharavithāṃśa caiva sahitāṃśa codra keralaiḥ |
Andhrāṃsa talavanāṃśa caiva kaliṅgāna oṣṭra karṇikāna (II.28.48)

Sabha Parva Mahabharata: (II.47.19)

cīnāna hūnāña śakāna oḍūna parvatāntaravāsinaḥ |
Vārṣṇeyāna hārahūṇāṃśa ca kṛṣṇāna haimavatāṃsa tadā (II.47.19)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Odra) (odra) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Odhran (odharāna).

Kichaka (kīcaka) - Sabha Parva (II.48.2)

merumandarayora madhye śailodāma abhito nadīma |
Ye te kīcaka veṇūnāṃ chāyāṃ ramyāma upāsate (II.48.2)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Kichaka (kīcaka) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Khichad (khīcaḍa़)

Venu (veṇū) - Sabha Parva (II.48.2)

merumandarayora madhye śailodāma abhito nadīma |
Ye te kīcaka veṇūnāṃ chāyāṃ ramyāma upāsate (II.48.2)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Venu (veṇū) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Beniwal (benīvāla)

Dar (dara) - (II.48.4)

te vai pipīlikaṃ nāma varadattaṃ pipīlikaiḥ |
Jātarūpaṃ daroṇa meyama ahārṣuḥ puñjaśo nṛpāḥ (II.48.4)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Venu (veṇū) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Dar (dāra)

Miya (mīyā) - (II.48.4)

te vai pipīlikaṃ nāma varadattaṃ pipīlikaiḥ |
Jātarūpaṃ daroṇa meyama ahārṣuḥ puñjaśo nṛpāḥ (II.48.4)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Miya (mīyā) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Miya (mīyā)

Lal (lala) - Sabha Parva (II.48.5)

kṛṣṇāँla lalāmāṃśa camarāña śuklāṃśa cānyāña śaśiprabhāna |
Himavatpuṣpajaṃ caiva savādu kaṣauthraṃ tadā bahu

The Mahabharata Tribe - Lal (lala) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Lal (lala)

Bharan (bhārāna) - Sabha Parva (II.48.9)

candanāgurukāṣṭhānāṃ bhārāna kālīyakasya ca |
Carma ratnasuvarṇānāṃ gandhānāṃ caiva rāśayaḥ (II.48.9)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Bharan (bhārāna) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Bharania (bharāniyā) gotra Jats who live in Chhoti Sadri tahsil in Chittorgarh district in Rajasthan.

Kaliyaka (kālīyaka) - Sabha Parva (II.48.9)

candanāgurukāṣṭhānāṃ bhārāna kālīyakasya ca |
Carma ratnasuvarṇānāṃ gandhānāṃ caiva rāśayaḥ (II.48.9)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Kaliyaka (kālīyaka) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Kaliyani (kaliyānī). [63]

Suvalaya (subalaya) - Sabha Parva (II.48.18)

tatra samadavārapālaisa te parocyante rājaśāsanāta |
Kṛtakārāḥ subalayasa tato davārama avāpsyada (II.48.18)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Suvalaya (subalaya) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Suvala (suvālā).

Shailbhana (śailābhāna) - Sabha Parva (II.48.19)

īṣā dantāna hemakakṣāna pathmavarṇāna kudāvṛtāna |
Śailābhāna nityamattāṃśa ca abhitaḥ kāmyakaṃ saraḥ (II.48.19)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Shailbhana (śailābhāna) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Shail (śaila).

Basavanuga (vāsavānuga) - Sabha Parva (II.48.22)

rājā citrarado nāma gandharvo vāsavānugaḥ |
Śatāni catvārya athathatha dhayānāṃ vātaraṃhasāma (II.48.22)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Basavanuga (vāsavānuga) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Baswan (vāsavāna)

Amra (āmra) - Sabha Parva (II.48.23)

tumburusa tu paramuthito gandharvo vājināṃ śatama |
Āmrapatra savarṇānāma athathatha dhemamālināma (II.48.23)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Basavanuga (vāsavānuga) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Ameria (āmeriyā)

Kunjara (kuñjara) - Sabha Parva (II.48.25)

virāṭena tu matsyena balyardaṃ hemamālināma |
Kuñjarāṇāṃ sahasre dave mattānāṃ samupāhṛte (II.48.25)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Kunjara (kuñjara) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Kunjar (kaṃjara).

Kanchana (kañcana) - Sabha Parva (II.48.26)

pāṃśurāṣṭrātha vasu dāno rājā ṣaḍa viṃśatiṃ gajāna |
Aśvānāṃ ca sahasre thave rājana kāñcanamālināma (II.48.26)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Kanchana (kañcana) may be identified with Jat Gotra - kanchap (kañcapa)

Sinhala (sinhala) - Sabha Parva (II.48.30)

samudrasāraṃ vaiḍūryaṃ muktāḥ śaṅkhāṃsa tadaiva ca |
Śataśaśa ca kudāṃsa tatra sinhalāḥ samupāharana

The Mahabharata Tribe - Sinhala (sinhala) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Singhal (singhala)

Virata Parva - Book IV

Pattachchara (paṭaccara) - Virata Parva (IV.1.9)

santi ramyā janapathā bahva annāḥ paritaḥ kurūna |
Pāñcālāśa cethimatsyāśa ca śūrasenāḥ paṭaccarāḥ |
Daśārṇā nava rāṣṭraṃ ca mallāḥ śālva yugaṃdharāḥ (IV.1.9)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Pattachchara (paṭaccara) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Pachar (pacāra)

Kalakhanjas (kālakhañja) - Virata Parva (IV.12.13)

tatra mallāḥ samāpetura thigbhyo rājana sahasraśaḥ |
Mahākāyā mahāvīryāḥ kālakhañjā ivāsurāḥ

tatra mallāḥ samāpetur digbhyo rājan sahasraśaḥ
mahākāyā mahāvīryāḥ kālakhañjā ivāsurāḥ

The Mahabharata Tribe - Kalakhanjas (kālakhañja) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Kalkhund (kālakhaṃḍa)

Kichaka (kīcaka) - Virata Parva (IV.20.29), (IV.20.30)

paśyato dharmarājasya kīcako māṃ pathāvadhīta |
Tava caiva samakṣaṃ vai bhīmasena mahābala IV.20.29)
tavayā haya ahaṃ paritrātā tasmātha ghorāja jaṭāsurāta |
Jayathradaṃ tadaiva tava majaiṣīra bharātṛbhiḥ saha (IV.20.30)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Kichaka (kīcaka) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Khichar (khīcaḍa)

Jatasura (jaṭāsura) - Virata Parva (IV.20.30)

tavayā haya ahaṃ paritrātā tasmātha ghorāja jaṭāsurāta |
Jayathradaṃ tadaiva tava majaiṣīra bharātṛbhiḥ saha (IV.20.30)

Bhisma Parva - Book VI

Kadaka (kaḍaka) was A northern tribe in Yudhisthira's army in Mahabharata (VI.46.49).

piśācā tharathāśa caiva puṇḍrāḥ kuṇḍī viṣaiḥ saha |
Maḍakā kaḍakāśa caiva taṅgaṇāḥ parapaṅgaṇāḥ (VI.46.49)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Kadaka (kaḍaka) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Kadawa (kaḍa़vā)

Sauval (saubala) - (VI.10.3)

na tatra pāṇḍavā gṛthdhāḥ śṛṇu rājana vaco mama |
Gṛthdho thuryodhanasa tatra śakuniśa cāpi saubalaḥ (VI.10.3)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Sauval (saubala) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Suval (suvāla).

Lomana (lomāna) - (VI.10.44)

videhakā māgadhāśa ca suhmāśa ca vijayāsa tadā |
Aṅgā vaṅgāḥ kaliṅgāśa ca yakṛla lomāna eva ca (VI.10.44)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Lomana (lomāna) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Lomror (lomarora)

Vanara (vānara) - Mentioned in Geography of Mahabharata (VI.10.44)

ādi rāṣṭrāḥ sukuṭṭāśa ca balirāṣṭraṃ ca kevalama |
Vānarāsyāḥ paravāhāśa ca vakrā vakrabhayāḥ śakāḥ (VI.10.44)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Vanara (vānara) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Vanar (vānara)

Khandika (khaṇḍika) - Mentioned in Geography of Mahabharata (VI.10.46)

aparandhrāśa ca śūdrāśa ca pahlavāśa carma khaṇḍikāḥ |
Aṭavī śabarāśa caiva maru bhaumāśa ca māriṣa (VI.10.46)

niryāya khāṇḍava parasdāta paratīcīma abhito diśama |
Uththiśya matimāna parāyāna mahatyā senayā saha (II.29.2)


The Mahabharata Tribe - Khandika (khaṇḍika)/(Khandava (khāṇḍava) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Khanda (khāṇḍā) or Khandia (khāṇḍiyā) who live in Nimach district in Madhya Pradesh.

Mahyuttara (mahyuttara) - Mentioned in Geography of Mahabharata (VI.10.49)

mahyuttarāḥ parāvṛṣeyā bhārgavāśa ca janādhipa |
Puṇḍrā bhārgāḥ kirātāśa ca sudoṣṇāḥ paramudāsa tadā (VI.10.49)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Mahyuttara (mahyuttara) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Mahiya (mahiyā).

Pundra (puṇḍra) - Mentioned in Geography of Mahabharata (VI.10.56)

oṣṭrāḥ puṇḍrāḥ sa sairandhrāḥ pārvatīyāśa ca māriṣa |
Adāpare janapadā dakṣiṇā bharatarṣabha (VI.10.56)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Pundra (puṇḍra) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Pundir (punḍīra)

Mahishaka (mahiṣaka) - Mentioned in Geography of Mahabharata (VI.10.57)

daraviḍāḥ keralāḥ parācyā bhūṣikā vanavāsinaḥ |
Unnatyakā māhiṣakā vikalpā mūṣakāsa tadā (VI.10.57)

Also mentioned in Shalya parva, Mahabharata (IX.44.77)

ākhu babhruka vaktraśa ca mayūravadanāsa tadā |
Matsyameṣānanāśa cānye ajāvi mahiṣānanāḥ (IX.44.77)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Mahishaka (mahiṣaka) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Bains (baiṃsa).

Malika (malika) - Mentioned in Geography of Mahabharata (VI.10.65)

tadaiva maradhāśa cīnāsa tadaiva daśa mālikāḥ |
Kaṣatriyopaniveśāśa ca vaiśyaśūdra kulāni ca (VI.10.65)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Malika (malika) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Malik (malika)

Darada (darada) - Mentioned in Geography of Mahabharata (VI.10.66)

śūdrābhīrāda daradāḥ kāśmīrāḥ paśubhiḥ saha |
Khaśikāśa ca tukhārāśa ca pallavā girigahvarāḥ (VI.10.66)

Also mentioned in sabha Parva Mahabharata - (II.48.12)

kāyavyā daradā dārvāḥ śūrā vaiyamakāsa tadā |
Audumbarā durvibhāgāḥ pāradā bāhlikaiḥ saha (II.48.12)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Darada (darada) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Darad (darāḍa़)

Shalya Parva - Book IX

Jata (jaṭa) - Brought tributes to Yudhisthira, Shalya Parva (IX.44.54).

ekākṣo dvādaśākṣaśa ca tadaivaika jaṭaḥ parabhuḥ |
Sahasrabāhura vikaṭo vayāghrākṣaḥ kaṣitikampanaḥ (IX.44.54)
jaṭāḥ kṛtvātmanaḥ sarve valkalājinavāsasaḥ |
Saha kuntyā mahātmāno bibhratasa tāpasaṃ vapuḥ (I.144.3)
tariśiṭhā daviśikhāśa caiva tadā sapta śikhāḥ pare |
Śikhaṇḍino mukuṭino muṇḍāśa ca jaṭilāsa tadā (IX.44.90)
ajodaro gajaśirāḥ sakandhākṣaḥ śatalocanaḥ |
Javālā jihvaḥ karālaśa ca sitakeśo jaṭī hariḥ (IX.44.56)
śiśumāra mukhī śavetā lohitākṣī vibhīṣaṇā |
Jaṭālikā kāmacarī thīrghajihvā balotkaṭā (IX.45.22)

Ekaksha (ekākṣa) - Brought tributes to Yudhisthira, Shalya Parva (IX.44.54).

ekākṣo dvādaśākṣaśa ca tadaivaika jaṭaḥ parabhuḥ |
Sahasrabāhura vikaṭo vayāghrākṣaḥ kaṣitikampanaḥ (IX.44.54)

Akshasantarjana (akṣasaṃtarjana) - (IX.44.53)

droṇa śaravāḥ kapiskandhaḥ kāñcanākṣo jalaṃ dhamaḥ |
Akṣasaṃtarjano rājana kunadīkasa tamo ऽbharakṛta (IX.44.53)

Kundika (kunadīka) - (IX.44.53)

droṇa śaravāḥ kapiskandhaḥ kāñcanākṣo jalaṃ dhamaḥ |
Akṣasaṃtarjano rājana kunadīkasa tamo ऽbharakṛta (IX.44.53)

Airawat (airāvata) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.13)

himavāṃśa caiva vindhyaśa ca meruśa cāneka śṛṅgavāna |
Airāvataḥ sānucaraḥ kalāḥ kāṣṭāsa tadaiva ca |
Māsārdha māsā ṛtavasa tadā rātryahanī nṛpa (IX.44.13)

Dhata (dhātā) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.4)

indrāviṣṇū mahāvīryau sūryācandramasau tadā |
Dhātā caiva vidhātā ca tadā caivānilānalau (IX.44.4)


Jawalana (javalana) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.48)

jayaṃ mahājayaṃ caiva nāgau javalanasūnave |
Parathathau puruṣavyāghra vāsukiḥ pannageśvaraḥ (IX.44.48)


Kusuma (kusuma) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.35)

kunthanaṃ kusumaṃ caiva kumuthaṃ ca mahāyaśāḥ |
Ḍambarāḍambarau caiva thathau dhātā mahātmane (IX.44.35)

Ghasa ( ghasa) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.41)

ghasaṃ cātighasaṃ caiva timivaktrau mahābalau |
Parathathau kārttikeyāya varuṇaḥ satyasaṃgaraḥ

Kanchana (kañcana) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.43)

kāñcanaṃ ca mahātmānaṃ meghamālinama eva ca |
Thathāva ānucarau merura agniputrāya bhārata (IX.44.43)

Kapiskandha (kapiskandha) - (IX.44.53)

droṇa śaravāḥ kapiskandhaḥ kāñcanākṣo jalaṃ dhamaḥ |
Akṣasaṃtarjano rājana kunadīkasa tamo ऽbharakṛta (IX.44.53)


Kumuda (kumuda) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.52)

śaṅkukarṇo nikumbhaśa ca padmaḥ kumuda eva ca |
Ananto dvādaśa bhujasa tadā kṛṣṇopakṛṣṇakau (IX.44.52)


Naga (nāgā) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.48)

jayaṃ mahājayaṃ caiva nāgau javalanasūnave |
Parathathau puruṣavyāghra vāsukiḥ pannageśvaraḥ (IX.44.48)

Pannaga (pannaga) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.48)

jayaṃ mahājayaṃ caiva nāgau javalanasūnave |
Parathathau puruṣavyāghra vāsukiḥ pannageśvaraḥ (IX.44.48)

Rajana (rājana) - (IX.44.53)

droṇa śaravāḥ kapiskandhaḥ kāñcanākṣo jalaṃ dhamaḥ |
Akṣasaṃtarjano rājana kunadīkasa tamo ऽbharakṛta (IX.44.53)

Shankukarna (śaṅkukarṇa) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.47)

unmāthaṃ puṣpathantaṃ ca śaṅkukarṇaṃ tadaiva ca |
Parathathāva agniputrāya pārvatī śubhatharśanā

Siniwali (sinīvālī) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.12)

aditira deva mātā ca harīḥ śarīḥ savāhā sarasvatī |
Umā śacī sinīvālī tadā cānumatiḥ kuhūḥ |
Rākā ca dhiṣaṇā caiva patnyaśa cānyā divaukasāma

Shringawan (śṛṅgavāna) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.13)

himavāṃśa caiva vindhyaśa ca meruśa cāneka śṛṅgavāna |
Airāvataḥ sānucaraḥ kalāḥ kāṣṭāsa tadaiva ca |
Māsārdha māsā ṛtavasa tadā rātryahanī nṛpa (IX.44.13)

Kumudamalina (kumudamālina) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.22)

nandiṣeṇaṃ lohitākṣaṃ ghaṇḍā karṇaṃ ca saṃmatama |
Caturdama asyānucaraṃ khayātaṃ kumudamālinama (IX.44.22)

Punyanama (puṇyanāma) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.55)

puṇyanāmā sunāmā ca suvaktraḥ pariyadarśanaḥ |
Pariśrutaḥ koka nadaḥ pariya mālyānulepanaḥ

Kok (koka) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.55)

puṇyanāmā sunāmā ca suvaktraḥ pariyadarśanaḥ |
Pariśrutaḥ koka nadaḥ pariya mālyānulepanaḥ

Nada (nada) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.55)

puṇyanāmā sunāmā ca suvaktraḥ pariyadarśanaḥ
pariśrutaḥ koka nadaḥ pariya mālyānulepanaḥ

Mallyanulepan (mālyānulepana) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.55)

puṇyanāmā sunāmā ca suvaktraḥ pariyadarśanaḥ |
Pariśrutaḥ koka nadaḥ pariya mālyānulepanaḥ

Ajodara (ajodara) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.56)

ajodaro gajaśirāḥ sakandhākṣaḥ śatalocanaḥ |
Javālā jihvaḥ karālaśa ca sitakeśo jaṭī hariḥ (IX.44.56)

Jawala (javāla) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.56)

ajodaro gajaśirāḥ sakandhākṣaḥ śatalocanaḥ |
Javālā jihvaḥ karālaśa ca sitakeśo jaṭī hariḥ (IX.44.56)

Karala (karāla) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.56)

ajodaro gajaśirāḥ sakandhākṣaḥ śatalocanaḥ |
Javālā jihvaḥ karālaśa ca sitakeśo jaṭī hariḥ (IX.44.56)

Jata (jaṭa) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.56)

ajodaro gajaśirāḥ sakandhākṣaḥ śatalocanaḥ |
Javālā jihvaḥ karālaśa ca sitakeśo jaṭī hariḥ (IX.44.56)

Hari (hari) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.56)

ajodaro gajaśirāḥ sakandhākṣaḥ śatalocanaḥ
javālā jihvaḥ karālaśa ca sitakeśo jaṭī hariḥ (IX.44.56)

Udaraksha (udarākṣa) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.58)

udarākṣo jhaṣākṣaśa ca vajranābho vasu parabhaḥ |
Samudravego rājenthra śailakampī tadaiva ca (IX.44.58)

Shailkampi (śailakampī) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.58)

udarākṣo jhaṣākṣaśa ca vajranābho vasu parabhaḥ |
Samudravego rājenthra śailakampī tadaiva ca (IX.44.58)

Nandu (nandū) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.59)

putra meṣaḥ paravāhaśa ca tadā nandopanandakau |
Dhūmraḥ śavetaḥ kaliṅgaśa ca siddhārdo varadasa tadā

Dhumra (dhūmra) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.59)

putra meṣaḥ paravāhaśa ca tadā nandopanandakau |
Dhūmraḥ śavetaḥ kaliṅgaśa ca siddhārdo varadasa tadā

Sweta (śaveta) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.59)

putra meṣaḥ paravāhaśa ca tadā nandopanandakau |
Dhūmraḥ śavetaḥ kaliṅgaśa ca siddhārdo varadasa tadā (IX.44.59)

Vardak (varaḍaka) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.59)

putra meṣaḥ paravāhaśa ca tadā nandopanandakau |
Dhūmraḥ śavetaḥ kaliṅgaśa ca siddhārdo varadasa tadā (IX.44.59)

Nandal ( nandala) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.60)

pariyakaśa caiva nandaśa ca gonandaśa ca paratāpavāna |
Ānandaśa ca paramodaśa ca savastiko dharuvakasa tadā

Gonanda (gonanda) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.60)

pariyakaśa caiva nandaśa ca gonandaśa ca paratāpavāna |
Ānandaśa ca paramodaśa ca savastiko dharuvakasa tadā

Kanakapida (kanakāpīḍa) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.61)

kaṣemavāpaḥ sujātaśa ca siddhayātraśa ca bhārata |
Govrajaḥ kanakāpīḍo mahāpāriṣadeśvaraḥ

Gaina (gayanā) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.62). May be identified with Jat Gotra - Gaina (gainā).

gāyano hasanaśa caiva bāṇaḥ khaḍgaśa ca vīryavāna |
Vaitālī cātitālī ca tadā katika vātikau

Bana (bāṇa) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.62). May be identified with Jat Gotra - Bana (bāṇā).

gāyano hasanaśa caiva bāṇaḥ khaḍgaśa ca vīryavāna |
Vaitālī cātitālī ca tadā katika vātikau

Hans haṃsa - Shalya Parva (IX.44.63). May be identified with Jat Gotra - Hans (haṃsa).

haṃsajaḥ paṅkadigdhāṅgaḥ samudronmādanaśa ca ha |
Raṇotkaṭaḥ parahāsaśa ca śavetaśīrṣaśa ca nandakaḥ (IX.44.63)

Ranotkata (raṇotkaṭa) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.63). May be identified with Jat Gotra - Rana (rāṇā).

haṃsajaḥ paṅkadigdhāṅgaḥ samudronmādanaśa ca ha |
Raṇotkaṭaḥ parahāsaśa ca śavetaśīrṣaśa ca nandakaḥ (IX.44.63)

Nandaka (nandaka) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.63). May be identified with Jat Gotra - Nandal (nandala).

haṃsajaḥ paṅkadigdhāṅgaḥ samudronmādanaśa ca ha |
Raṇotkaṭaḥ parahāsaśa ca śavetaśīrṣaśa ca nandakaḥ (IX.44.63)

Karada (karada) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.65). May be identified with Jat Gotra - Karad (karāḍa़).

yajñavāhaḥ paravāhaśa ca deva yājī ca somapaḥ
sajālaśa ca mahātejāḥ karada karādau ca bhārata (IX.44.65)

Madhur (madhura) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.66). May be identified with Jat Gotra - Madhur (madhura)

tuhanaśa ca tuhānaśa ca citrathevaśa ca vīryavāna |
Madhuraḥ suprasādaśa ca kirīṭī ca mahābalaḥ (IX.44.66)

Madhu (madhu) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.67). May be identified with Jat Gotra - Madhu (madhu)

vasavo madhuvarṇaśa ca kalaśodara eva ca |
Dhamanto manmadakaraḥ(Mann+Takhar) sūcīvaktraśa ca vīryavāna (IX.44.67)

Maan (māna) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.67).
Takhar (tākhara) Shalya Parva (IX.44.67).

Pandur (pāṇḍura) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.68). May be identified with Jat Gotra - Pandur (pāṇḍura)

śavetavaktraḥ suvaktraśa ca cāru vaktraśa ca pāṇḍuraḥ |
Daṇḍabāhuḥ subāhuśa ca rajaḥ kokilakasa tadā (IX.44.68)

Dandabahu (daṇḍabāhu) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.68). May be identified with Jat Gotra - Danda (ḍānḍā)

śavetavaktraḥ suvaktraśa ca cāru vaktraśa ca pāṇḍuraḥ |
Daṇḍabāhuḥ subāhuśa ca rajaḥ kokilakasa tadā (IX.44.68)

Achal (acala) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.69). May be identified with Jat Gotra - Achal (acala)

acalaḥ kanakākṣaśa ca bālānāma ayikaḥ parabhuḥ |
Saṃcārakaḥ koka nado gṛdhravaktraśa ca jambukaḥ (IX.44.69)

Kankaksha (kanakākṣa) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.69). May be identified with Jat Gotra - Kang (kaṃga)

acalaḥ kanakākṣaśa ca bālānāma ayikaḥ parabhuḥ |
Saṃcārakaḥ koka nado gṛdhravaktraśa ca jambukaḥ (IX.44.69)

Balanama (balānāma) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.69), (IX.44.72). May be identified with Jat Gotra - Bal (bala)

acalaḥ kanakākṣaśa ca bālānāma ayikaḥ parabhuḥ |
Saṃcārakaḥ koka nado gṛdhravaktraśa ca jambukaḥ (IX.44.69)

yogayuktā mahātmānaḥ satataṃ barāhmaṇa pariyāḥ |
Paitāmahā mahātmāno mahāpāriṣathāśa ca ha
yauvanasdāśa ca bālāśa ca vṛddhāśa ca janamejaya (IX.44.72)

Loha (loha) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.70). May be identified with Jat Gotra - Lohan (lohana)

lohāśa vaktro jaṭharaḥ kumbhavaktraśa ca kuṇḍakaḥ |
Madgugrīvaśa ca kṛṣṇaujā haṃsavaktraśa ca candra bhāḥ (IX.44.70)

Kundaka (kuṇḍaka) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.70), (IX.44.71). May be identified with Jat Gotra - Kundu (kuṇḍū)

lohāśa vaktro jaṭharaḥ kumbhavaktraśa ca kuṇḍakaḥ |
Madgugrīvaśa ca kṛṣṇaujā haṃsavaktraśa ca candra bhāḥ (IX.44.70)

pāṇikūrmā ca śambūkaḥ pañcavaktraśa ca śikṣakaḥ |
Cāṣa vaktraśa ca jambūkaḥ śākavaktraśa ca kuṇḍakaḥ (IX.44.71)

Varaha (varāhā) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.74). May be identified with Jat Gotra - Varaha (varāhā).

kūrmakukkuṭavaktrāśa ca śaśolūka mukhāsa tadā |
Kharoṣṭravadanāśa caiva varāhavadanāsa tadā (IX.44.74)

tasmiṃsa tīrdavare sanātvā sakanthaṃ cābhyarcya lāṅgalī |
Barāhmaṇebhyo thathau rukmaṃ vāsāṃsya ābharaṇāni ca (IX.45.93)

Lambakarna (lambakarṇa) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.74). May be identified with Jat Gotra - Lamba (lāmbā)

dīrghagrīvā dīrghanakhadīrghapādaśiro bhujāḥ |
Piṅgākṣā nīlakaṇṭhāśa ca lambakarṇāśa ca bhārata (IX.44.99)

Anjana (añjana) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.100). May be identified with Jat Gotra - Anjana (āṃjana)

vṛkodara (Vrika+Udar) nibhāśa caiva ke cida añjanasaṃnibhāḥ |
Śavetāṅgā lohitagrīvāḥ piṅgākṣāśa ca tadāpare
kalmāṣā bahavo rājaṃśa citravarṇāśa ca bhārata (IX.44.100)

Kharanana (kharānana) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.103). May be identified with Jat Gotra - Kharand or Kharra (kharrā) |
Pāśodyata karāḥ ke cida vayāditāsyāḥ kharānanāḥ

pṛdva akṣā nīlakaṇṭhāśa ca tadā parighabāhavaḥ (IX.44.103)

Tomarapanaya (tomarapāṇaya) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.105). May be identified with Jat Gotra - Tomar (tomara)

gadā bhuśuṇḍi hastāśa ca tadā tomarapāṇayaḥ |
Asi madgarahastāśa ca daṇḍahastāśa ca bhārata (IX.44.105)

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