Srimad Bhagavatam 4.2
Srimad Bhagavatam 4.2
Srimad Bhagavatam 4 capter 2 Dakṣa Curses Lord Śiva
Srimad Bhagavatam 4.2.1
भवे शीलवतां श्रेष्ठे दक्षो दुहितृवत्सलः ।
विद्वेषमकरोत्कस्मादनादृत्यात्मजां सतीम् ॥१॥
bhave śīlavatāṁ śreṣṭhe
vidveṣam akarot kasmād
viduraḥ uvāca—Vidura said; bhave—towards Lord Śiva; śīlavatām—among the gentle; śreṣṭhe—the best; dakṣaḥ—Dakṣa; duhitṛ-vatsalaḥ—being affectionate towards his daughter; vidveṣam—enmity; akarot—did exhibit; kasmāt—why; anādṛtya—neglecting; ātmajām—his own daughter; satīm—Satī.
Vidura inquired: Why was Dakṣa, who was so affectionate towards his daughter, envious of Lord Śiva, who is the best among the gentle? Why did he neglect his daughter Satī?
In the Second Chapter of the Fourth Canto, the cause of the dissension between Lord Śiva and Dakṣa, which was due to a great sacrifice arranged by Dakṣa for the pacification of the entire universe, is explained. Lord Śiva is described here as the best of the gentle because he is not envious of anyone, he is equal to all living entities, and all other good qualities are present in his personality. The word śiva means “all auspicious.” No one can be an enemy of Lord Śiva’s, for he is so peaceful and renounced that he does not even construct a house for his residence, but lives underneath a tree, always detached from all worldly things. The personality of Lord Śiva symbolizes the best of gentleness. Why, then, was Dakṣa, who offered his beloved daughter to such a gentle personality, inimical towards Lord Śiva so intensely that Satī, the daughter of Dakṣa and wife of Lord Śiva, gave up her body?
Srimad Bhagavatam 4.2.2
कस्तं चराचरगुरुं निर्वैरं शान्तविग्रहम् ।
आत्मारामं कथं द्वेष्टि जगतो दैवतं महत् ॥२॥
kas taṁ carācara-guruṁ
ātmārāmaṁ kathaṁ dveṣṭi
jagato daivataṁ mahat
kaḥ—who (Dakṣa); tam—him (Lord Śiva); cara-acara—of the whole world (both animate and inanimate); gurum—the spiritual master; nirvairam—without enmity; śānta-vigraham—having a peaceful personality; ātma-ārāmam—satisfied in himself; katham—how; dveṣṭi—hates; jagataḥ—of the universe; daivatam—demigod; mahat—the great.
Lord Śiva, the spiritual master of the entire world, is free from enmity, is a peaceful personality, and is always satisfied in himself. He is the greatest among the demigods. How is it possible that Dakṣa could be inimical towards such an auspicious personality?
Lord Śiva is described here as carācara-guru, the spiritual master of all animate and inanimate objects. He is sometimes known as Bhūtanātha, which means “the worshipable deity of the dull-headed.” Bhūta is also sometimes taken to indicate the ghosts. Lord Śiva takes charge of reforming persons who are ghosts and demons, not to speak of others, who are godly; therefore he is the spiritual master of everyone, both the dull and demoniac and the highly learned Vaiṣṇavas. It is also stated, vaiṣṇavānāṁ yathā śambhuḥ: Śambhu, Lord Śiva, is the greatest of all Vaiṣṇavas. On one hand he is the worshipable object of the dull demons, and on the other he is the best of all Vaiṣṇavas, or devotees, and he has a sampradāya called the Rudra-sampradāya. Even if he is an enemy or is sometimes angry, such a personality cannot be the object of envy, so Vidura, in astonishment, asked why he was taken as such, especially by Dakṣa. Dakṣa is also not an ordinary person. He is a Prajāpati, in charge of fathering population, and all his daughters are highly elevated, especially Sati. The word satī means “the most chaste.” Whenever there is consideration of chastity, Sati, this wife of Lord Śiva and daughter of Dakṣa, is considered first. Vidura, therefore, was astonished. “Dakṣa is such a great man,” he thought, “and is the father of Sati. And Lord Śiva is the spiritual master of everyone. How then could there possibly be so much enmity between them that Sati, the most chaste goddess, could give up her body because of their quarrel?”
Srimad Bhagavatam 4.2.3
एतदाख्याहि मे ब्रह्मन्जामातुः श्वशुरस्य च ।
विद्वेषस्तु यतः प्राणांस्तत्यजे दुस्त्यजान्सती ॥३॥
etad ākhyāhi me brahman
jāmātuḥ śvaśurasya ca
vidveṣas tu yataḥ prāṇāṁs
tatyaje dustyajān satī
etat—thus; ākhyāhi—please tell; me—to me; brahman—O brāhmaṇa; jāmātuḥ—of the son-in-law (Lord Śiva); śvaśurasya—of the father-in-law (Dakṣa); ca—and; vidveṣaḥ—quarrel; tu—as to; yataḥ—from what cause; prāṇān—her life; tatyaje—gave up; dustyajān—which is impossible to give up; satī—Sati.
My dear Maitreya, to part with one’s life is very difficult. Would you kindly explain to me how such a son-in-law and father-in-law could quarrel so bitterly that the great goddess Satī could give up her life?
Srimad Bhagavatam 4.2.4
पुरा विश्वसृजां सत्रे समेताः परमर्षयः ।
तथामरगणाः सर्वे सानुगा मुनयोऽग्नयः ॥४॥ maitreya uvāca
purā viśva-sṛjāṁ satre
sānugā munayo ‘gnayaḥ
maitreyaḥ uvāca—the sage Maitreya said; purā—formerly (at the time of Svāyambhuva Manu); viśva-sṛjām—of the creators of the universe; satre—at a sacrifice; sametāḥ—were assembled; parama-ṛṣayaḥ—the great sages; tathā—and also; amara-gaṇāḥ—the demigods; sarve—all; sa-anugāḥ—along with their followers; munayaḥ—the philosophers; agnayaḥ—the fire-gods.
The sage Maitreya said: In a former time, the leaders of the universal creation performed a great sacrifice in which all the great sages, philosophers, demigods and fire-gods assembled with their followers.
Upon being asked by Vidura, the sage Maitreya began to explain the cause of the misunderstanding between Lord Śiva and Dakṣa, because of which the goddess Satī gave up her body. Thus begins the history of a great sacrifice performed by the leaders of the universal creation, namely Marīci, Dakṣa and Vasiṣṭha. These great personalities arranged for a great sacrifice, for which demigods like Indra and the fire-gods assembled with their followers. Lord Brahmā and Lord Śiva were also present.
Srimad Bhagavatam 4.2.5
तत्र प्रविष्टमृषयो दृष्ट्वार्कमिव रोचिषा ।
भ्राजमानं वितिमिरं कुर्वन्तं तन्महत्सदः ॥५॥
tatra praviṣṭam ṛṣayo
dṛṣṭvārkam iva rociṣā
kurvantaṁ tan mahat sadaḥ
tatra—there; praviṣṭam—having entered; ṛṣayaḥ—the sages; dṛṣṭvā—seeing; arkam—the sun; iva—just like; rociṣā—with luster; bhrājamānam—shining; vitimiram—free from darkness; kurvantam—making; tat—that; mahat—great; sadaḥ—assembly.
When Dakṣa, the leader of the Prajāpatis, entered that assembly, his personal bodily luster as bright as the effulgence of the sun, the entire assembly was illuminated, and all the assembled personalities became insignificant in his presence.
Srimad Bhagavatam 4.2.6
उदतिष्ठन्सदस्यास्ते स्वधिष्ण्येभ्यः सहाग्नयः ।
ऋते विरिञ्चां शर्वं च तद्भासाक्षिप्तचेतसः ॥६॥
udatiṣṭhan sadasyās te
ṛte viriñcāṁ śarvaṁ ca
udatiṣṭhan—stood up; sadasyāḥ—the members of the assembly; te—they; sva-dhiṣṇyebhyaḥ—from their own seats; saha-agnayaḥ—along with the fire-gods; ṛte—except for; viriñcām—Brahmā; śarvam—Śiva; ca—and; tat—his (Dakṣa’s); bhāsa—by the luster; ākṣipta—are influenced; cetasaḥ—those whose minds.
Influenced by his personal bodily luster, all the fire-gods and other participants in that great assembly, with the exceptions of Lord Brahmā and Lord Śiva, gave up their own sitting places and stood in respect for Dakṣa.