Visnu Parva 4 - emergence of emperor pR^ithu
Mahabharata - Adi Parva
Visnu Parva 4 from Harivamsa Mahatmyam
harivamsha parva, ch 4 - pR^ithu upAkhyAnam, emergence of emperor pR^ithu
vaishampAyana uvAca- vaishampAyana said:
abhiShicya adhirAjye tu pR^ithuM vainyaM pitAmahaH |
tataH krameNa rAjyAni vyAdeShTumupacakrame ||1-4-1
On constituting pR^ithu, the son of vena, as the emperor of earth, grandsire brahma then started to constitute - adhiShTAtra / adhiShTitAtrii devatA - numina, tutelar kings, say presiding deities for certain realms with which they are connected.
dvijAnAM vIrudhAM caiva nakShatra grahayoH tathA
yaj~nAnAM tapasAM caiva somaM rAjye.abhyaShecayat ||1-4-2
soma / chandra - so-called moon - is made as tutelary deity for brahamaNa-s, creeping plants, stars, planets, and for ascesis and Vedic rituals...
apAM tu varuNaM rAjye rAj~nAM vaishravaNaM prabhum |
bR^ihaspatiM tu vishveShAM dadAva a~NgirasaM patim |1-4-3
bhR^igUNAm adhipaM chaiva kAvyaM rAjye.abhyaSechayat
AdityAnAM tathA viShNuM vasUnAm atha pAvakam ||1-4-4
varuNa is made incharge of all waters, from raindrops to oceans, while kubera, the son of vaishrvaNa, is the numen of all earthly kings... whereas bR^ihaspati is the numen of gods, while shukrachArya, the descendant of angiirasa gotra, the chieftain for the descendants of brahmaNA-s... then, viShNu is made as the numen of Aditya-s; while Firegod is for vasu-s...
prajApatInAM dakShaM tu marutAm atha vAsavam
daityAnAM dAnavAnAM cha prahrAdam amitaujasam ||1-4-5
daksha for prajApati-s; vAsava, rather indra for marut-gaNA-s; and the highly powerful prahlAda for daityA-s and dAnavA-s...
vaivasvataM cha pitR^INAM yamaM rAjye.abhyaShecayat
mAtR^INAM cha vratAnAM cha mantrANAM cha tathA gavAm ||1-4-6
yakShANAM rAkShasAnAM ca pArthivAnAM tathaiva ca
nArAyaNaM tu sAdhyAnAM rudrANAM vR^iSabha dhvajam ||1-4-7
The son of vaivasvat, namely yama, is the numen for manes; and nArAyaNa is the numen of sixteen matriarchal goddesses [ShoDasha mAtR^ikA-s], for vratA-s [religious observances], for mantrA-s [hymns], cows, yakshA-s, rAkshasA-s, earthly kings, and for deities called sAdhyA-s... and then, he who got bull as his banner - vR^iShabha dhvaja - namely god shiva, is made incharge of rudrA-s...
vipra-chittiM tu rAjAnaM dAnavAnAm atha Adishat
sarva bhUta pishAcAnAM girishaM shUla-pANinam ||1-4-8
And that wielder of trident, namely god shiva, is also made the tutelary god of all demiurgic bhuutA-s and pishAchA-s; while vipra-chiiti is made as the numen of all dAnava-s...
shailAnAM himavantaM ca nadInAm atha sAgaram |
gandhAnAM marutAM chaiva bhUtAnAm asharIriNAm |
shabda AkAshavatAM chaiva vAyuM cha balinAM varam || 1-4-9
himAlayA-s is made as tutelary god for all mountains; ocean for all rivers... and the mightiest of the mighty, vAyu, the airgod, is made as the numen for fragrant materials and their wafters, namely the nineteen marut-s; further, vAyu is the tutelary god for the incorporeal beings existing in thin air, and even for corporeal beings like us...
gandharvANAm adhipatiM cakre citra-rathaM prabhum |
nAgAnAM vAsukiM cakre sarpANAm atha takShakam ||1-4-10
citra-ratha is the numen of gandharvA-s; multihooded serpent vAsuki for all nAgA-s, snakes; many hooded takshaka for all sarpA-s, reptiles [nAgA-s and sarpA-s have some difference something like Viperidae and Ophidia suborders..]
vAraNAnAM cha rAjAnam airAvatam atha Adishat
uccaiH-shravasam ashvAnAM garuDaM caiva pakShiNAm ||1-4-11
airAvata for all the elephants; uccaiHshrava for all horses; and garuDa for all the birds...
mR^igANAm atha shArdUlaM go-vR^iShaM tu gavAM patim |
vanaspatInAM rAjAnaM plakSham eva Adishat prabhum ||1-4-12
And lion is the tutelary animal for wild animals; bull for cows; and the plaksha tree - the waved-leaf fig-tree, Ficus Infectoria [a large and beautiful tree with small white fruit] is the tutelary tree for vanaspati trees - trees yielding without blossoms...
Here shArduula is to be taken as lion, not lexical tiger.
sAgarANAM nadInAM cha meghAnAM varSaNasya cha |
AdityAnAm adhipatiM parjanyam abhiSiktavAn ||1-4-13
parjanya is made as the lord of oceans, rivers, rain-clouds and to the radiant sunbeams...
Here, for the word AdityA-s, the radiant sunbeams are to be taken; iha tu Aditya padena arkasya rashmayoH grAhyAH.
sarveSAM daMSTriNAM sheShaM rAjAnam abhyaSechayat |
sarIsR^IpAnAM sarpANAM rAjAnaM chaiva taxakam ||1-4-14
For all of the fanged reptiles sheSha is the numen, while takshaka is the lord of all the other Reptilia that crawl on their stomach - sariisR^ipa-s...
gandharva apsarasAM chaiva kAma-devaM tathA prabhum |
Lovegod kAma is made as the numen for gandharvA-s and apsarA-s;
R^itUnAm atha mAsAnAM divasAnAM tathaiva cha ||1-4-15
paxANAM cha xapANAM cha muhUrta tithi parvaNAm |
kalA kASThA pramANAnAM gateH ayanayoH tathA ||1-4-16
gaNItasya atha yogasya chakre saMvatsaraM prabhum |
And the year, samvatsara, is the numen of all seasons, months, days, fortnights, nights [kshapa], points in time [muhuurta], days, junctures of time [parva], and for kalA, kASHTA, gati, ayana, gaNita, yoga, karanA-s - roughly for the data to calculate of astronomical data and for the movement of southern and northern solstices, eclipses etc...
evaM vibhajya rAjyAni krameNa sa pitAmahaH ||1-4-17
dishA pAlAn atha tataH sthApayAmAsa bhArata |
On earmarking domains in this way, then the grandsire brahma sequentially started to establish the custodians of directions - dik pAlA-s...
pUrvasyAM dishi putraM tu vairAjasya prajApateH |1-4-18
dishA=pAlaM sudhanvAnaM rAjAnaM chA.abhyaShecayat |
dakShiNasyAM mahAtmAnaM kardamasya prajApateH ||1-4-19
putraM sha~Nkha-padaM nAma rAjAnaM so.abhyaShecayat |
pashchimAyAM dishi tathA rajasaH putram acyutam ||1-4-20
ketu-mantaM mahAtmAnaM rAjAnaM so.abhyaShecayat |
tathA hiraNya-romANaM parjanyasya prajApateH ||1-4-21
udIcyAM dishi durdharShaM rAjAnaM so.abhyaShecayat |
Thus, sudhanva, the son of vairAja prajApati, is assigned for the eastern quarter; sha~Nkhapada, the son of kardama prajApati, for the south; likewise, the son of rajas, namely ketumanta, for the west; and hiraNya-roma, the son of parjanya prajapati, is established as the tutelary custodian of the northern direction...
taiH iyaM pR^ithivI sarvA sapta-dvIpA sa-parvatA ||1-4-22
yathA pradesham adya api dharmeNa pratipAlyate |
And even today, those custodians of directions are dutifully safeguarding all of the earth with seven continents and mountains, together with their neighborhoods...
rAja-sUya abhiShiktaH tu pR^ithuH ebhiH narAdhipaiH |
veda-dR^iShTena vidhinA rAjA rAjye narAdhipa ||1-4-23
And oh, king janamejaya, these regents, from soma to parjanya, have anointed pR^ithu as emperor in a rAjasuuya yAga, as has been enshrined in scriptures like Veda-s etc...
tato manvantare.atIte cAkShuShe.amitatejasi |
vaivasvatAya manave brahmA rAjyam atha Adishat |
tasya vistaram AkhyAsye manoH vaivasvatasya ha ||1-4-24
Later, when the manvantara, era, of highly resplendent cAkshuSha manu, called cAkshuSha-manvantaram, has ended, grandsire brahma has made vaivasvata manu as the sovereign of earth, whereby that era, manvantaram, is called vaivasvata manvantaram...
tava anukUlyAt rAjendra yadi shushrUSase anagha |
mahat hi etat adhiShThAnaM purANaM parikIrtitam
dhanyaM yashasyam AyuSyaM svarga-vAsakaraM shubham || 1-4-25
If you to wish to continue faithful listening to these solemn and auspicious legends that are enshrined in purANA-s, and that enrich one's own renown, and that ensures a place in heaven, I will continue further narration...
adhiShThAnaM= pratiShThA hetu.
janamejaya uvAca- janamejaya asked:
vistareNa pR^ithoH janma vaishampAyana kIrtaya |
yathA mahAtmanA tena dugdhA cha iyaM vasundharA ||1-4-26
"Oh vaishampAyana, please detail about the emergence of emperor pR^ithu, as to how that great man milked the earth...
yathA cha pitR^ibhiH dugdhA yathA devaiH yathA rShibhiH |
yathA daityaiH ca nAgaiH ca yathA yakShaiH yathA drumaiH ||1-4-27
yathA shailaiH pishAcaiH ca gandharvaiH ca dvijottamaiH |
rAkShasaiH ca mahA-sattvaiH yathA dugdhA vasuMdharA ||1-4-28
Please details as to how manes, gods, great sages, daityA-s, nAgA-s, trees, boulders, pishAcA-s, gandharvA-s, brAhmaNA-s, rAkShasA-s, and other great beings have milked the earth...
teShAM pAtra visheShAMsh ca vaishampAyana kIrtaya |
vatsAn kShIra visheShAMsh ca dogdhAraM ca anupUrvashaH ||4.29||
yasmAt ca kAraNAt pANir veNasya mathitaH purA |
kruddhair maharShibhiH tAta kAraNaM tac ca kIrtaya ||4.30||
teShAM pAtra visheShAMshca vaishaMpAyana kIrtaya |
vatsan kShIra visheShAMshca dogdhAraM ca anupUrvashaH ||1-4-29
yasmAt ca kAraNAt pANiH venasya mathitaH purA |
kruddhaiH maharShibhiH tAta kAraNaM tacca kIrtaya ||1-4-30
What type of milking vessels they handled... which kind of calves they used... what is the milk they obtained... who milked what... furthermore, what is the reason for those great sages to become infuriated, whereby they churned the palms of vena, the father of emperor pR^ithu...
vaishampAyana uvAca-vaishampAyana replied:
hanta te kathayiShyAmi pR^ithoH vainyasya vistaram |
ekAgraH prayataH caiva shR^iNuShva janamejaya ||1-4-31
"oh boy, janamejaya, now I will tell about pR^ithu, the son of vena, in detail... but you listen to it alertly and attentively...
na a-shuceH kShudra-manasaH ku-shiShyAya a-vratAya ca |
kIrtanIyam imaM rAjan kR^itaghnAya a-hitAya vA ||1-4-32
This narration, oh, king, is not aimed at one who is impure, malevolent, a depraved student, faithless, and an unworthy...
svargyaM yashasyam AyuShyaM dharmyaM vedena saMmitam |
rahasyam R^iShibhiH proktaM shR^iNu rAjan yathAtatham ||1-4-33
yaH cha enaM kIrtayet nityaM pR^ithoH vainyasya vistaram |
brAhmaNebhyo namaskR^itya na sa shocet kR^ita a-kR^itaiH||1-4-34
Now you may detailedly listen to this episode of pR^ithu, the son of vena, listening which enables a way to heavens, enriches renown and longevity, accords merit, and which is in accordance of Vedic sayings... and he who listens this after revering brAhmaNA-s will not reflect upon the rights and wrongs of his actions... i.e., he neither thinks that he has done some wrongs, nor elevate himself thinking what all he has done is right... but, affirms himself that he has done his duty...
iti shrImahAbhArate khilabhAge harivaMshe harivaMshaparvaNI
pR^ithUpAkhyAne chaturtho.adhyAyaH ||3||
Thus, this is the fourth chapter of first canto called harivamsha-parva, in harivamsha-purANa, the sequel of mahAbhArata, narrating the emergence of emperor pR^ithu.
iti shrImahAbhArate khilabhAge harivaMshe harivaMshaparvaNi marudutpattikathane tR^itIyo.adhyAyaH || 3 ||
Thus, this is the third chapter of first canto called harivamsha-parva, in harivamsha-purANa, the sequel of mahAbhArata, narrating the emergence of marut-gaNA-s, the Wind-gods.