Vivekachudamani

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Vivekachudamani

Viveka chudamani

The Vivekachudamani is a collection of poetical couplets authored by Shankara around the eighth century. The philosophical school this compilation attempts to expose is called ‘Advaita Vedanta’, or non-dualism, one of the classical orthodox philosophies of Hinduism. The book teaches Viveka: discrimination between the real and the unreal. Shankara draws inspiration from various Shrutis (eg. the Upanishads).


Viveka chudamani

सर्ववेदान्तसिद्धान्तगोचरं तमगोचरम् ।
गोविन्दं परमानन्दं सद्गुरुं प्रणतोऽस्म्यहम् ॥ १ ॥

sarvavedāntasiddhāntagocaraṃ tamagocaram |
govindaṃ paramānandaṃ sadguruṃ praṇato'smyaham || 1 ||

1. I bow to Govinda, whose nature is Bliss Supreme, who is the Satguru, who can be known only from the import of all Vedanta, and who is beyond the reach of speech and mind.

जन्तूनां नरजन्म दुर्लभमतः पुंस्त्वं ततो विप्रता
तस्माद्वैदिकधर्ममार्गपरता विद्वत्त्वमस्मात्परम् ।
आत्मानात्मविवेचनं स्वनुभवो ब्रह्मात्मना संस्थितिः
मुक्तिर्नो शतजन्मकोटिसुकृतैः पुण्यैर्विना लभ्यते ॥ २ ॥

jantūnāṃ narajanma durlabhamataḥ puṃstvaṃ tato vipratā
tasmādvaidikadharmamārgaparatā vidvattvamasmātparam |
ātmānātmavivecanaṃ svanubhavo brahmātmanā saṃsthitiḥ
muktirno śatajanmakoṭisukṛtaiḥ puṇyairvinā labhyate || 2 ||

2. For all beings a human birth is difficult to obtain, more so is a male body; rarer than that is Brahmin-hood; rarer still is the attachment to the path of Vedic religion; higher than this is erudition in the scriptures; discrimination between the Self and not-Self, Realisation, and continuing in a state of identity with Brahman – these come next in order. (This kind of) Mukti (Liberation) is not to be attained except through the well-earned merits of a hundred crore of births.

दुर्लभं त्रयमेवैतद्देवानुग्रहहेतुकम् ।
मनुष्यत्वं मुमुक्षुत्वं महापुरुषसंश्रयः ॥ ३ ॥

durlabhaṃ trayamevaitaddevānugrahahetukam |
manuṣyatvaṃ mumukṣutvaṃ mahāpuruṣasaṃśrayaḥ || 3 ||

3. There are three things which are rare indeed and are due to the grace of God –namely, a human birth, the longing for Liberation, and the protecting care of a perfected sage.

लब्ध्वा कथंचिन्नरजन्म दुर्लभं
तत्रापि पुंस्त्वं श्रुतिपारदर्शनम् ।
यस्त्वात्ममुक्तौ न यतेत मूढधीः
स ह्यात्महा स्वं विनिहन्त्यसद्ग्रहात् ॥ ४ ॥

labdhvā kathaṃcinnarajanma durlabhaṃ
tatrāpi puṃstvaṃ śrutipāradarśanam |
yastvātmamuktau na yateta mūḍhadhīḥ
sa hyātmahā svaṃ vinihantyasadgrahāt || 4 ||

4. The man who, having by some means obtained a human birth, with a male body and mastery of the Vedas to boot, is foolish enough not to exert himself for self-liberation, verily commits suicide, for he kills himself by clinging to things unreal.

इतः को न्वस्ति मूढात्मा यस्तु स्वार्थे प्रमाद्यति ।
दुर्लभं मानुषं देहं प्राप्य तत्रापि पौरुषम् ॥ ५ ॥

itaḥ ko nvasti mūḍhātmā yastu svārthe pramādyati |
durlabhaṃ mānuṣaṃ dehaṃ prāpya tatrāpi pauruṣam || 5 ||

5. What greater fool is there than the man who having obtained a rare human body, and a masculine body too, neglects to achieve the real end of this life?

वदन्तु शास्त्राणि यजन्तु देवान्
कुर्वन्तु कर्माणि भजन्तु देवताः ।
आत्मैक्यबोधेन विनापि मुक्तिः
न सिध्यति ब्रह्मशतान्तरेऽपि ॥ ६ ॥

vadantu śāstrāṇi yajantu devān
kurvantu karmāṇi bhajantu devatāḥ |
ātmaikyabodhena vināpi muktiḥ
na sidhyati brahmaśatāntare'pi || 6 ||

6. Let people quote the Scriptures and sacrifice to the gods, let them perform rituals and worship the deities, but there is no Liberation without the realisation of one’s identity with the Ātman, no, not even in the lifetime of a hundred Brahmas put together.

अमृतत्वस्य नाशास्ति वित्तेनेत्येव हि श्रुतिः ।
ब्रवीति कर्मणो मुक्तेरहेतुत्वं स्फुटं यतः ॥ ७ ॥

amṛtatvasya nāśāsti vittenetyeva hi śrutiḥ |
bravīti karmaṇo mukterahetutvaṃ sphuṭaṃ yataḥ || 7 ||

7. There is no hope of immortality by means of riches – such indeed is the declaration of the Vedas. Hence it is clear that works cannot be the cause of Liberation.

अतो विमुक्त्यै प्रयतेत्विद्वान्
संन्यस्तबाह्यार्थसुखस्पृहः सन् ।
सन्तं महान्तं समुपेत्य देशिकं
तेनोपदिष्टार्थसमाहितात्मा ॥ ८ ॥

ato vimuktyai prayatetvidvān
saṃnyastabāhyārthasukhaspṛhaḥ san |
santaṃ mahāntaṃ samupetya deśikaṃ
tenopadiṣṭārthasamāhitātmā || 8 ||

8. Therefore the man of learning should strive his best for Liberation, having renounced his desire for pleasures from external objects, duly approaching a good and generous preceptor, and fixing his mind on the truth inculcated by him.

उद्धरेदात्मनात्मानं मग्नं संसारवारिधौ ।
योगारूढत्वमासाद्य सम्यग्दर्शननिष्ठया ॥ ९ ॥

uddharedātmanātmānaṃ magnaṃ saṃsāravāridhau |
yogārūḍhatvamāsādya samyagdarśananiṣṭhayā || 9 ||

9. Having attained the Yogārūḍha state, one should recover oneself, immersed in the sea of birth and death by means of devotion to right discrimination.

संन्यस्य सर्वकर्माणि भवबन्धविमुक्तये ।
यत्यतां पण्डितैर्धीरैरात्माभ्यास उपस्थितैः ॥ १0 ॥

saṃnyasya sarvakarmāṇi bhavabandhavimuktaye |
yatyatāṃ paṇḍitairdhīrairātmābhyāsa upasthitaiḥ || 10 ||

10. Let the wise and erudite man, having commenced the practice of the realisation of the Ātman give up all works and try to cut loose the bonds of birth and death.

चित्तस्य शुद्धये कर्म न तु वस्तूपलब्धये ।
वस्तुसिद्धिर्विचारेण न किंचित्कर्मकोटिभिः ॥ ११ ॥

cittasya śuddhaye karma na tu vastūpalabdhaye |
vastusiddhirvicāreṇa na kiṃcitkarmakoṭibhiḥ || 11 ||

11. Work leads to purification of the mind, not to perception of the Reality. The realisation of Truth is brought about by discrimination and not in the least by ten million of acts.

सम्यग्विचारतः सिद्धा रज्जुतत्त्वावधारणा ।
भ्रान्तोदितमहासर्पभयदुःखविनाशिनी ॥ १२ ॥

samyagvicārataḥ siddhā rajjutattvāvadhāraṇā |
bhrāntoditamahāsarpabhayaduḥkhavināśinī || 12 ||

12. By adequate reasoning the conviction of the reality about the rope is gained, which puts an end to the great fear and misery caused by the snake worked up in the deluded mind.

अर्थस्य निश्चयो दृष्टो विचारेण हितोक्तितः ।
न स्नानेन न दानेन प्राणायमशतेन वा ॥ १३ ॥

arthasya niścayo dṛṣṭo vicāreṇa hitoktitaḥ |
na snānena na dānena prāṇāyamaśatena vā || 13 ||

13. The conviction of the Truth is seen to proceed from reasoning upon the salutary counsel of the wise, and not by bathing in the sacred waters, nor by gifts, nor by hundreds of Prāṇāyāmas (control of the vital force).

अधिकारिणमाशास्ते फलसिद्धिर्विशेषतः ।
उपाया देशकालाद्याः सन्त्यस्मिन्सहकारिणः ॥ १४ ॥

adhikāriṇamāśāste phalasiddhirviśeṣataḥ |
upāyā deśakālādyāḥ santyasminsahakāriṇaḥ || 14 ||

14. Success depends essentially on a qualified aspirant; time, place and other such means are but auxiliaries in this regard.

अतो विचारः कर्तव्यो जिज्ञासोरात्मवस्तुनः ।
समासाद्य दयासिन्धुं गुरुं ब्रह्मविदुत्तमम् ॥ १५ ॥

ato vicāraḥ kartavyo jijñāsorātmavastunaḥ |
samāsādya dayāsindhuṃ guruṃ brahmaviduttamam || 15 ||

15. Hence the seeker after the Reality of the Ātman should take to reasoning, after duly approaching the Guru – who should be the best of the knowers of Brahman, and an ocean of mercy.

मेधावी पुरुषो विद्वानुहापोहविचक्षणः ।
अधिकार्यात्मविद्यायामुक्तलक्षणलक्षितः ॥ १६ ॥

medhāvī puruṣo vidvānuhāpohavicakṣaṇaḥ |
adhikāryātmavidyāyāmuktalakṣaṇalakṣitaḥ || 16 ||

16. An intelligent and learned man skilled in arguing in favour of the Scriptures and in refuting counter-arguments against them – one who has got the above characteristics is the fit recipient of the knowledge of the Ātman.

विवेकिनो विरक्तस्य शमादिगुणशालिनः ।
मुमुक्षोरेव हि ब्रह्मजिज्ञासायोग्यता मता ॥ १७ ॥

vivekino viraktasya śamādiguṇaśālinaḥ |
mumukṣoreva hi brahmajijñāsāyogyatā matā || 17 ||

17. The man who discriminates between the Real and the unreal, whose mind is turned away from the unreal, who possesses calmness and the allied virtues, and who is longing for Liberation, is alone considered qualified to inquire after Brahman.

साधनान्यत्र चत्वारि कथितानि मनीषिभिः ।
येषु सत्स्वेव सन्निष्ठा यदभावे न सिध्यति ॥ १८ ॥

sādhanānyatra catvāri kathitāni manīṣibhiḥ |
yeṣu satsveva sanniṣṭhā yadabhāve na sidhyati || 18 ||

18. Regarding this, sages have spoken of four means of attainment, which alone being present, the devotion to Brahman succeeds, and in the absence of which, it fails.

आदौ नित्यानित्यवस्तुविवेकः परिगम्यते ।
इहामुत्रफलभोगविरागस्तदनन्तरम्
शमादिषट्कसम्पत्तिर्मुमुक्षुत्वमिति स्फुटम् ॥ १९ ॥

ādau nityānityavastuvivekaḥ parigamyate |
ihāmutraphalabhogavirāgastadanantaram
śamādiṣaṭkasampattirmumukṣutvamiti sphuṭam || 19 ||

19. First is enumerated discrimination between the Real and the unreal; next comes aversion to the enjoyment of fruits (of one’s actions) here and hereafter; (next is) the group of six attributes, viz. calmness and the rest; and (last) is clearly the yearning for Liberation.

ब्रह्म सत्यं जगन्मिथ्येत्येवंरूपो विनिश्चयः ।
सोऽयं नित्यानित्यवस्तुविवेकः समुदाहृतः ॥ २0 ॥

brahma satyaṃ jaganmithyetyevaṃrūpo viniścayaḥ |
so'yaṃ nityānityavastuvivekaḥ samudāhṛtaḥ || 20 ||

20. A firm conviction of the mind to the effect that Brahman is real and the universe unreal, is designated as discrimination (Viveka) between the Real and the unreal.

तद्वैराग्यं जिहासा या दर्शनश्रवणादिभिः ।
देहादिब्रह्मपर्यन्ते ह्यनित्ये भोगवस्तुनि ॥ २१ ॥

tadvairāgyaṃ jihāsā yā darśanaśravaṇādibhiḥ |
dehādibrahmaparyante hyanitye bhogavastuni || 21 ||

21. Vairāgya or renunciation is the desire to give up all transitory enjoyments (ranging) from those of an (animate) body to those of Brahmāhood (having already known their defects) from observation, instruction and so forth.

विरज्य विषयव्राताद्दोषदृष्ट्या मुहुर्मुहुः ।
स्वलक्ष्ये नियतावस्था मनसः शम उच्यते ॥ २२ ॥

virajya viṣayavrātāddoṣadṛṣṭyā muhurmuhuḥ |
svalakṣye niyatāvasthā manasaḥ śama ucyate || 22 ||

22. The resting of the mind steadfastly on its Goal (viz. Brahman) after having detached itself from manifold sense-objects by continually observing their defects, is called Śama or calmness.

विषयेभ्यः परावर्त्य स्थापनं स्वस्वगोलके ।
उभयेषामिन्द्रियाणां स दमः परिकीर्तितः
बाह्यानालम्बनं वृत्तेरेषोपरतिरुत्तमा ॥ २३ ॥

viṣayebhyaḥ parāvartya sthāpanaṃ svasvagolake |
ubhayeṣāmindriyāṇāṃ sa damaḥ parikīrtitaḥ
bāhyānālambanaṃ vṛttereṣoparatiruttamā || 23 ||

23. Turning both kinds of sense-organs away from sense-objects and placing them in their respective centres, is called Dama or self-control. The best Uparati or self-withdrawal consists in the mind-function ceasing to act by means of external objects.

सहनं सर्वदुःखानामप्रतीकारपूर्वकम् ।
चिन्ताविलापरहितं सा तितिक्षा निगद्यते ॥ २४ ॥

sahanaṃ sarvaduḥkhānāmapratīkārapūrvakam |
cintāvilāparahitaṃ sā titikṣā nigadyate || 24 ||

24. The bearing of all afflictions without caring to redress them, being free (at the same time) from anxiety or lament on their score, is called Titikṣā or forbearance.

शास्त्रस्य गुरुवाक्यस्य सत्यबुद्ध्यवधारणम् ।
सा श्रद्धा कथिता सद्भिर्यया वस्तूपलभ्यते ॥ २५ ॥

śāstrasya guruvākyasya satyabuddhyavadhāraṇam |
sā śraddhā kathitā sadbhiryayā vastūpalabhyate || 25 ||

25. Acceptance by firm judgment as true of what the Scriptures and the Guru instruct, is called by sages Śraddhā or faith, by means of which the Reality is perceived.

सर्वदा स्थापनं बुद्धेः शुद्धे ब्रह्मणि सर्वदा ।
तत्समाधानमित्युक्तं न तु चित्तस्य लालनम् ॥ २६ ॥

sarvadā sthāpanaṃ buddheḥ śuddhe brahmaṇi sarvadā |
tatsamādhānamityuktaṃ na tu cittasya lālanam || 26 ||

26. Not the mere indulgence of thought (in curiosity) but the constant concentration of the intellect (or the affirming faculty) on the ever-pure Brahman, is what is called Samādhāna or self-settledness.

अहंकारादिदेहान्तान् बन्धानज्ञानकल्पितान् ।
स्वस्वरूपावबोधेन मोक्तुमिच्छा मुमुक्षुता ॥ २७ ॥

ahaṃkārādidehāntān bandhānajñānakalpitān |
svasvarūpāvabodhena moktumicchā mumukṣutā || 27 ||

27. Mumukṣutā or yearning for Freedom is the desire to free oneself, by realising one’s true nature, from all bondages from that of egoism to that of the body – bondages superimposed by Ignorance.

मन्दमध्यमरूपापि वैराग्येण शमादिना ।
प्रसादेन गुरोः सेयं प्रवृद्धा सूयते फलम् ॥ २८ ॥

mandamadhyamarūpāpi vairāgyeṇa śamādinā |
prasādena guroḥ seyaṃ pravṛddhā sūyate phalam || 28 ||

28. Even though torpid or mediocre, this yearning for Freedom, through the grace of the Guru, may bear fruit (being developed) by means of Vairāgya (renunciation), Śama(calmness), and so on.

वैराग्यं च मुमुक्षुत्वं तीव्रं यस्य तु विद्यते ।
तस्मिन्नेवार्थवन्तः स्युः फलवन्तः शमादयः ॥ २९ ॥

vairāgyaṃ ca mumukṣutvaṃ tīvraṃ yasya tu vidyate |
tasminnevārthavantaḥ syuḥ phalavantaḥ śamādayaḥ || 29 ||

29. In his case, verily, whose renunciation and yearning for Freedom are intense, calmness and the other practices have (really) their meaning and bear fruit.

एतयोर्मन्दता यत्र विरक्तत्वमुमुक्षयोः ।
मरौ सलीलवत्तत्र शमादेर्भानमात्रता ॥ ३0 ॥

etayormandatā yatra viraktatvamumukṣayoḥ |
marau salīlavattatra śamāderbhānamātratā || 30 ||

30. Where (however) this renunciation and yearning for Freedom are torpid, there calmness and the other practices are as mere appearances, like water in a desert.

मोक्षकारणसामग्र्यां भक्तिरेव गरीयसी ।
स्वस्वरूपानुसन्धानं भक्तिरित्यभिधीयते ॥ ३१ ॥

mokṣakāraṇasāmagryāṃ bhaktireva garīyasī |
svasvarūpānusandhānaṃ bhaktirityabhidhīyate || 31 ||

31. Among things conducive to Liberation, devotion (Bhakti) holds the supreme place. The seeking after one’s real nature is designated as devotion.

स्वात्मतत्त्वानुसन्धानं भक्तिरित्यपरे जगुः ।
उक्तसाधनसंपन्नस्तत्त्वजिज्ञासुरात्मनः
उपसीदेद्गुरुं प्राज्ञ्यं यस्माद्बन्धविमोक्षणम् ॥ ३२ ॥

svātmatattvānusandhānaṃ bhaktirityapare jaguḥ |
uktasādhanasaṃpannastattvajijñāsurātmanaḥ
upasīdedguruṃ prājñyaṃ yasmādbandhavimokṣaṇam || 32 ||

32. Others maintain that the inquiry into the truth of one’s own self is devotion. The inquirer about the truth of the Ātman who is possessed of the above-mentioned means of attainment should approach a wise preceptor, who confers emancipation from bondage.

श्रोत्रियोऽवृजिनोऽकामहतो यो ब्रह्मवित्तमः ।
ब्रह्मण्युपरतः शान्तो निरिन्धन इवानलः
अहेतुकदयासिन्धुर्बन्धुरानमतां सताम् ॥ ३३ ॥

śrotriyo'vṛjino'kāmahato yo brahmavittamaḥ |
brahmaṇyuparataḥ śānto nirindhana ivānalaḥ
ahetukadayāsindhurbandhurānamatāṃ satām || 33 ||

33. Who is versed in the Vedas, sinless, unsmitten by desire and a knower of Brahman par excellence, who has withdrawn himself into Brahman; calm, like fire that has consumed its fuel, who is a boundless reservoir of mercy that knows no reason, and a friend of all good people who prostrate themselves before him; -

तमाराध्य गुरुं भक्त्या प्रह्वप्रश्रयसेवनैः ।
प्रसन्नं तमनुप्राप्य पृच्छेज्ज्ञातव्यमात्मनः ॥ ३४ ॥

tamārādhya guruṃ bhaktyā prahvapraśrayasevanaiḥ |
prasannaṃ tamanuprāpya pṛcchejjñātavyamātmanaḥ || 34 ||

34. Worshipping that Guru with devotion, and approaching him, when he is pleased with prostration, humility and service, (he) should ask him what he has got to know:

स्वामिन्नमस्ते नतलोकबन्धो
कारुण्यसिन्धो पतितं भवाब्धौ ।
मामुद्धरात्मीयकटाक्षदृष्ट्या
ऋज्व्यातिकारुण्यसुधाभिवृष्ट्या ॥ ३५ ॥

svāminnamaste natalokabandho
kāruṇyasindho patitaṃ bhavābdhau |
māmuddharātmīyakaṭākṣadṛṣṭyā
ṛjvyātikāruṇyasudhābhivṛṣṭyā || 35 ||

35. O Master, O friend of those that bow to thee, thou ocean of mercy, I bow to thee; save me, fallen as I am into this sea of birth and death, with a straightforward glance of thine eye, which sheds nectar-like grace supreme.

दुर्वारसंसारदवाग्नितप्तं
दोधूयमानं दुरदृष्टवातैः ।
भीतं प्रपन्नं परिपाहि मृत्योः
शरण्यमन्यद्यदहं न जाने ॥ ३६ ॥

durvārasaṃsāradavāgnitaptaṃ
dodhūyamānaṃ duradṛṣṭavātaiḥ |
bhītaṃ prapannaṃ paripāhi mṛtyoḥ
śaraṇyamanyadyadahaṃ na jāne || 36 ||

36. Save me from death, afflicted as I am by the unquenchable fire of this world-forest, and shaken violently by the winds of an untoward lot, terrified and (so) seeking refuge in thee, for I do not know of any other man with whom to seek shelter.

शान्ता महान्तो निवसन्ति सन्तो
वसन्तवल्लोकहितं चरन्तः ।
तीर्णाः स्वयं भीमभवार्णवं जनान्
अहेतुनान् यानपि तारयन्तः ॥ ३७ ॥

śāntā mahānto nivasanti santo
vasantavallokahitaṃ carantaḥ |
tīrṇāḥ svayaṃ bhīmabhavārṇavaṃ janān
ahetunān yānapi tārayantaḥ || 37 ||

37. There are good souls, calm and magnanimous, who do good to others as does the spring, and who, having themselves crossed this dreadful ocean of birth and death, help others also to cross the same, without any motive whatsoever.

अयं स्वभावः स्वत एव यत्पर
श्रमापनोदप्रवणं महात्मनाम् ।
सुधांशुरेष स्वयमर्ककर्कश
प्रभाभितप्तामवति क्षितिं किल ॥ ३८ ॥

ayaṃ svabhāvaḥ svata eva yatpara
śramāpanodapravaṇaṃ mahātmanām |
sudhāṃśureṣa svayamarkakarkaśa
prabhābhitaptāmavati kṣitiṃ kila || 38 ||

38. It is the very nature of the magnanimous to move of their own accord towards removing others’ troubles. Here, for instance, is the moon who, as everybody knows, voluntarily saves the earth parched by the flaming rays of the sun.

ब्रह्मानन्दरसानुभूतिकलितैः पूर्तैः सुशीतैर्युतैः
युष्मद्वाक्कलशोज्झितैः श्रुतिसुखैर्वाक्यामृतैः सेचय ।
संतप्तं भवतापदावदहनज्वालाभिरेनं प्रभो
धन्यास्ते भवदीक्षणक्षणगतेः पात्रीकृताः स्वीकृताः ॥ ३९ ॥

brahmānandarasānubhūtikalitaiḥ pūrtaiḥ suśītairyutaiḥ
yuṣmadvākkalaśojjhitaiḥ śrutisukhairvākyāmṛtaiḥ secaya |
saṃtaptaṃ bhavatāpadāvadahanajvālābhirenaṃ prabho
dhanyāste bhavadīkṣaṇakṣaṇagateḥ pātrīkṛtāḥ svīkṛtāḥ || 39 ||

39. O Lord, with thy nectar-like speech, sweetened by the enjoyment of the elixir-like bliss of Brahman, pure, cooling to a degree, issuing in streams from thy lips as from a pitcher, and delightful to the ear – do thou sprinkle me who am tormented by worldly afflictions as by the tongues of a forest-fire. Blessed are those on whom even a passing glance of thine eye lights, accepting them as thine own.

कथं तरेयं भवसिन्धुमेतं
का वा गतिर्मे कतमोऽस्त्युपायः ।
जाने न किञ्ज्चित्कृपयाव मां प्रभो
संसारदुःखक्षतिमातनुष्व ॥ ४0 ॥

kathaṃ tareyaṃ bhavasindhumetaṃ
kā vā gatirme katamo'styupāyaḥ |
jāne na kiñjcitkṛpayāva māṃ prabho
saṃsāraduḥkhakṣatimātanuṣva || 40 ||

40. How to cross this ocean of phenomenal existence, what is to be my fate, and which of the means should I adopt – as to these I know nothing. Condescend to save me, O Lord, and describe at length how to put an end to the misery of this relative existence.

तथा वदन्तं शरणागतं स्वं
संसारदावानलतापतप्तम् ।
निरीक्ष्य कारुण्यरसार्द्रदृष्ट्या
दद्यादभीतिं सहसा महात्मा ॥ ४१ ॥

tathā vadantaṃ śaraṇāgataṃ svaṃ
saṃsāradāvānalatāpataptam |
nirīkṣya kāruṇyarasārdradṛṣṭyā
dadyādabhītiṃ sahasā mahātmā || 41 ||

41. As he thus speaks, tormented by the afflictions of the world – which is like a forest on fire – and seeking his protection, the saint eyes him with a glance softened with pity and spontaneously bids him give up all fear.

विद्वान् स तस्मा उपसत्तिमीयुषे
मुमुक्षवे साधु यथोक्तकारिणे ।
प्रशान्तचित्ताय शमान्विताय
तत्त्वोपदेशं कृपयैव कुर्यात् ॥ ४२ ॥

vidvān sa tasmā upasattimīyuṣe
mumukṣave sādhu yathoktakāriṇe |
praśāntacittāya śamānvitāya
tattvopadeśaṃ kṛpayaiva kuryāt || 42 ||

42. To him who has sought his protection, thirsting for Liberation, who duly obeys the injunctions of the Scriptures, who is of a serene mind, and endowed with calmness – (to such a one) the sage proceeds to inculcate the truth out of sheer grace.

मा भैष्ट विद्वंस्तव नास्त्यपायः
संसारसिन्धोस्तरणेऽस्त्युपायः ।
येनैव याता यतयोऽस्य पारं
तमेव मार्गं तव निर्दिशामि ॥ ४३ ॥

mā bhaiṣṭa vidvaṃstava nāstyapāyaḥ
saṃsārasindhostaraṇe'styupāyaḥ |
yenaiva yātā yatayo'sya pāraṃ
tameva mārgaṃ tava nirdiśāmi || 43 ||

43. Fear not, O learned one, there is no death for thee; there is a means of crossing this sea of relative existence; that very way by which sages have gone beyond it, I shall inculcate to thee.

अस्त्युपायो महान् कश्चित्संसारभयनाशनः ।
तेन तीर्त्वा भवाम्भोधिं परमानन्दमाप्स्यसि ॥ ४४ ॥

astyupāyo mahān kaścitsaṃsārabhayanāśanaḥ |
tena tīrtvā bhavāmbhodhiṃ paramānandamāpsyasi || 44 ||

44. There is a sovereign means which puts an end to the fear of relative existence; through that thou wilt cross the sea of Samsāra and attain the supreme bliss.

वेदान्तार्थविचारेण जायते ज्ञानमुत्तमम् ।
तेनात्यन्तिकसंसारदुःखनाशो भवत्यनु ॥ ४५ ॥

vedāntārthavicāreṇa jāyate jñānamuttamam |
tenātyantikasaṃsāraduḥkhanāśo bhavatyanu || 45 ||

45. Reasoning on the meaning of the Vedanta leads to efficient knowledge, which is immediately followed by the total annihilation of the misery born of relative existence.

श्रद्धाभक्तिध्यानयोगाम्मुमुक्षोः
मुक्तेर्हेतून्वक्ति साक्षाच्छ्रुतेर्गीः ।
यो वा एतेष्वेव तिष्ठत्यमुष्य
मोक्षोऽविद्याकल्पिताद्देहबन्धात् ॥ ४६ ॥

śraddhābhaktidhyānayogāmmumukṣoḥ
mukterhetūnvakti sākṣācchrutergīḥ |
yo vā eteṣveva tiṣṭhatyamuṣya
mokṣo'vidyākalpitāddehabandhāt || 46 ||

46. Faith (Śraddhā), devotion and the Yoga of meditation – these are mentioned by the Śruti as the immediate factors of Liberation in the case of a seeker; whoever abides in these gets Liberation from the bondage of the body, which is the conjuring of Ignorance.

अज्ञानयोगात्परमात्मनस्तव
ह्यनात्मबन्धस्तत एव संसृतिः ।
तयोर्विवेकोदितबोधवन्हिः
अज्ञानकार्यं प्रदहेत्समूलम् ॥ ४७ ॥

ajñānayogātparamātmanastava
hyanātmabandhastata eva saṃsṛtiḥ |
tayorvivekoditabodhavanhiḥ
ajñānakāryaṃ pradahetsamūlam || 47 ||

47. It is verily through the touch of Ignorance that thou who art the Supreme Self, findest thyself under the bondage of non-Self, whence alone proceeds the round of births and deaths. The fire of knowledge, kindled by the discrimination between these two, burns up the effects of Ignorance together with their root.

शिष्य उवाच
कृपया श्रूयतां स्वामिन् प्रश्नोऽयं क्रियते मया ।
यदुत्तरमहं श्रुत्वा कृतार्थः स्यां भवन्मुखात् ॥ ४८ ॥

śiṣya uvāca
kṛpayā śrūyatāṃ svāmin praśno'yaṃ kriyate mayā |
yaduttaramahaṃ śrutvā kṛtārthaḥ syāṃ bhavanmukhāt || 48 ||

48. The Disciple said: Condescend to listen, O Master, to the question I am putting (to thee); I shall be gratified to hear a reply to the same from thy lips.

को नाम बन्धः कथमेष आगतः
कथं प्रतिष्ठास्य कथं विमोक्षः ।
कोऽसावनात्मा परमः क आत्मा
तयोर्विवेकः कथमेतदुच्यताम् ॥ ४९ ॥

ko nāma bandhaḥ kathameṣa āgataḥ
kathaṃ pratiṣṭhāsya kathaṃ vimokṣaḥ |
ko'sāvanātmā paramaḥ ka ātmā
tayorvivekaḥ kathametaducyatām || 49 ||

49. What is bondage, forsooth? How has it come (upon the Self)? How does it continue to exist? How is one freed from it? What is this non-Self? And who is the Supreme Self? And how can one discriminate between them? -- Do tell me about all these.

श्रीगुरुवाच
धन्योऽसि कृतकृत्योऽसि पावित ते कुलं त्वया ।
यदविद्याबन्धमुक्त्या ब्रह्मीभवितुमिच्छसि ॥ ५0 ॥

śrīguruvāca
dhanyo'si kṛtakṛtyo'si pāvita te kulaṃ tvayā |
yadavidyābandhamuktyā brahmībhavitumicchasi || 50 ||

50. The Guru replied: Blessed art thou! Thou hast achieved thy life’s end and hast sanctified thy family that thou wishest to attain Brahmanhood by getting free from the bondage of Ignorance!

ऋणमोचनकर्तारः पितुः सन्ति सुतादयः ।
बन्धमोचनकर्ता तु स्वस्मादन्यो न कश्चन ॥ ५१ ॥

ṛṇamocanakartāraḥ pituḥ santi sutādayaḥ |
bandhamocanakartā tu svasmādanyo na kaścana || 51 ||

51. A father has got his sons and others to free him from his debts, but he has got none but himself to remove his bondage.

मस्तकन्यस्तभारादेर्दुःखमन्यैर्निवार्यते ।
क्षुधादिकृतदुःखं तु विना स्वेन न केनचित् ॥ ५२ ॥

mastakanyastabhārāderduḥkhamanyairnivāryate |
kṣudhādikṛtaduḥkhaṃ tu vinā svena na kenacit || 52 ||

52. Trouble such as that caused by a load on the head can be removed by others, but none but one’s own self can put a stop to the pain which is caused by hunger and the like.

पथ्यमौषधसेवा च क्रियते येन रोगिणा ।
आरोग्यसिद्धिर्दृष्टास्य नान्यानुष्ठितकर्मणा ॥ ५३ ॥

pathyamauṣadhasevā ca kriyate yena rogiṇā |
ārogyasiddhirdṛṣṭāsya nānyānuṣṭhitakarmaṇā || 53 ||

53. The patient who takes (the proper) diet and medicine is alone seen to recover completely – not through work done by others.

वस्तुस्वरूपं स्फुटबोधचक्षुषा
स्वेनैव वेद्यं न तु पण्डितेन ।
चन्द्रस्वरूपं निजचक्षुषैव
ज्ञातव्यमन्यैरवगम्यते किम् ॥ ५४ ॥

vastusvarūpaṃ sphuṭabodhacakṣuṣā
svenaiva vedyaṃ na tu paṇḍitena |
candrasvarūpaṃ nijacakṣuṣaiva
jñātavyamanyairavagamyate kim || 54 ||

54. The true nature of things is to be known personally, through the eye of clear illumination, and not through a sage: what the moon exactly is, is to be known with one’s own eyes; can others make him know it?

अविद्याकामकर्मादिपाशबन्धं विमोचितुम् ।
कः शक्नुयाद्विनात्मानं कल्पकोटिशतैरपि ॥ ५५ ॥

avidyākāmakarmādipāśabandhaṃ vimocitum |
kaḥ śaknuyādvinātmānaṃ kalpakoṭiśatairapi || 55 ||

55. Who but one’s own self can get rid of the bondage caused by the fetters of Ignorance, desire, action and the like, aye, even in a hundred crore of cycles?

न योगेन न सांख्येन कर्मणा नो न विद्यया ।
ब्रह्मात्मैकत्वबोधेन मोक्षः सिध्यति नान्यथा ॥ ५६ ॥

na yogena na sāṃkhyena karmaṇā no na vidyayā |
brahmātmaikatvabodhena mokṣaḥ sidhyati nānyathā || 56 ||

56. Neither by Yoga, nor by Sānkhya, nor by work, nor by learning, but by the realisation of one's identity with Brahman is Liberation possible, and by no other means.

वीणाया रूपसौन्दर्यं तन्त्रीवादनसौष्ठवम् ।
प्रजारञ्ज्जनमात्रं तन्न साम्राज्याय कल्पते ॥ ५७ ॥

vīṇāyā rūpasaundaryaṃ tantrīvādanasauṣṭhavam |
prajārañjjanamātraṃ tanna sāmrājyāya kalpate || 57 ||

57. The beauty of a guitar’s form and the skill of playing on its chords serve merely to please a few persons; they do not suffice to confer sovereignty.

वाग्वैखरी शब्दझरी शास्त्रव्याख्यानकौशलम् ।
वैदुष्यं विदुषां तद्वद्भुक्तये न तु मुक्तये ॥ ५८ ॥

vāgvaikharī śabdajharī śāstravyākhyānakauśalam |
vaiduṣyaṃ viduṣāṃ tadvadbhuktaye na tu muktaye || 58 ||

58. Loud speech consisting of a shower of words, the skill in expounding the Scriptures, and likewise erudition - these merely bring on a little personal enjoyment to the scholar, but are no good for Liberation.

अविज्ञाते परे तत्त्वे शास्त्राधीतिस्तु निष्फला ।
विज्ञातेऽपि परे तत्त्वे शास्त्राधीतिस्तु निष्फला ॥ ५९ ॥

avijñāte pare tattve śāstrādhītistu niṣphalā |
vijñāte'pi pare tattve śāstrādhītistu niṣphalā || 59 ||

59. The study of the Scriptures is useless so long as the highest Truth is unknown, and it is equally useless when the highest Truth has already been known.

शब्दजालं महारण्यं चित्तभ्रमणकारणम् ।
अतः प्रयत्नाज्ज्ञातव्यं तत्त्वज्ञैस्तत्त्वमात्मनः ॥ ६0 ॥

śabdajālaṃ mahāraṇyaṃ cittabhramaṇakāraṇam |
ataḥ prayatnājjñātavyaṃ tattvajñaistattvamātmanaḥ || 60 ||

60. The Scriptures consisting of many words are a dense forest which merely causes the mind to ramble. Hence men of wisdom should earnestly set about knowing the true nature of the Self.

अज्ञानसर्पदष्टस्य ब्रह्मज्ञानौषधं विना ।
किमु वेदैश्च शास्त्रैश्च किमु मन्त्रैः किमौषधैः ॥ ६१ ॥

ajñānasarpadaṣṭasya brahmajñānauṣadhaṃ vinā |
kimu vedaiśca śāstraiśca kimu mantraiḥ kimauṣadhaiḥ || 61 ||

61. For one who has been bitten by the serpent of Ignorance, the only remedy is the knowledge of Brahman. Of what avail are the Vedas and Scriptures, Mantras and medicines to such a one?

न गच्छति विना पानं व्याधिरौषधशब्दतः ।
विनापरोक्षानुभवं ब्रह्मशब्दैर्न मुच्यते ॥ ६२ ॥

na gacchati vinā pānaṃ vyādhirauṣadhaśabdataḥ |
vināparokṣānubhavaṃ brahmaśabdairna mucyate || 62 ||

62. A disease does not leave off if one simply utter the name of the medicine, without taking it; (similarly) without direct realisation one cannot be liberated by the mere utterance of the word Brahman.

अकृत्वा दृश्यविलयमज्ञात्वा तत्त्वमात्मनः ।
ब्रह्मशब्दैः कुतो मुक्तिरुक्तिमात्रफलैर्नृणाम् ॥ ६३ ॥

akṛtvā dṛśyavilayamajñātvā tattvamātmanaḥ |
brahmaśabdaiḥ kuto muktiruktimātraphalairnṛṇām || 63 ||

63. Without causing the objective universe to vanish and without knowing the truth of the Self, how is one to achieve Liberation by the mere utterance of the word Brahman? -- It would result merely in an effort of speech.

अकृत्वा शत्रुसंहारमगत्वाखिलभूश्रियम् ।
राजाहमिति शब्दान्नो राजा भवितुमर्हति ॥ ६४ ॥

akṛtvā śatrusaṃhāramagatvākhilabhūśriyam |
rājāhamiti śabdānno rājā bhavitumarhati || 64 ||

64. Without killing one’s enemies, and possessing oneself of the splendour of the entire surrounding region, one cannot claim to be an emperor by merely saying, ‘I am an emperor’.

आप्तोक्तिं खननं तथोपरिशिलाद्युत्कर्षणं स्वीकृतिं
निक्षेपः समपेक्षते नहि बहिः शब्दैस्तु निर्गच्छति ।
तद्वद्ब्रह्मविदोपदेशमननध्यानादिभिर्लभ्यते
मायाकार्यतिरोहितं स्वममलं तत्त्वं न दुर्युक्तिभिः ॥ ६५ ॥

āptoktiṃ khananaṃ tathopariśilādyutkarṣaṇaṃ svīkṛtiṃ
nikṣepaḥ samapekṣate nahi bahiḥ śabdaistu nirgacchati |
tadvadbrahmavidopadeśamananadhyānādibhirlabhyate
māyākāryatirohitaṃ svamamalaṃ tattvaṃ na duryuktibhiḥ || 65 ||

65. As a treasure hidden underground requires (for its extraction) competent instruction, excavation, the removal of stones and other such things lying above it and (finally) grasping, but never comes out by being (merely) called out by name, so the transparent Truth of the self, which is hidden by Maya and its effects, is to be attained through the instructions of a knower of Brahman, followed by reflection, meditation and so forth, but not through perverted arguments.

तस्मात्सर्वप्रयत्नेन भवबन्धविमुक्तये ।
स्वैरेव यत्नः कर्तव्यो रोगादाविव पण्डितैः ॥ ६६ ॥

tasmātsarvaprayatnena bhavabandhavimuktaye |
svaireva yatnaḥ kartavyo rogādāviva paṇḍitaiḥ || 66 ||

66. Therefore the wise should, as in the case of disease and the like, personally strive by all the means in their power to be free from the bondage of repeated births and deaths.

यस्त्वयाद्य कृतः प्रश्नो वरीयाञ्ज्छास्त्रविन्मतः ।
सूत्रप्रायो निगूढार्थो ज्ञातव्यश्च मुमुक्षुभिः ॥ ६७ ॥

yastvayādya kṛtaḥ praśno varīyāñjchāstravinmataḥ |
sūtraprāyo nigūḍhārtho jñātavyaśca mumukṣubhiḥ || 67 ||

67. The question that thou hast asked today is excellent, approved by those versed in the Śastras, aphoristic, pregnant with meaning and fit to be known by the seekers after Liberation.

शृणुष्वावहितो विद्वन्यन्मया समुदीर्यते ।
तदेतच्छ्रवणात्सद्यो भवबन्धाद्विमोक्ष्यसे ॥ ६८ ॥

śṛṇuṣvāvahito vidvanyanmayā samudīryate |
tadetacchravaṇātsadyo bhavabandhādvimokṣyase || 68 ||

68. Listen attentively, O learned one, to what I am going to say. By listening to it thou shalt be instantly free from the bondage of Samsāra.

मोक्षस्य हेतुः प्रथमो निगद्यते
वैराग्यमत्यन्तमनित्यवस्तुषु ।
ततः शमश्चापि दमस्तितिक्षा
न्यासः प्रसक्ताखिलकर्मणां भृशम् ॥ ६९ ॥

mokṣasya hetuḥ prathamo nigadyate
vairāgyamatyantamanityavastuṣu |
tataḥ śamaścāpi damastitikṣā
nyāsaḥ prasaktākhilakarmaṇāṃ bhṛśam || 69 ||

69. The first step to Liberation is the extreme aversion to all perishable things, then follow calmness, self-control, forbearance, and the utter relinquishment of all work enjoined in the Scriptures.

ततः श्रुतिस्तन्मननं सतत्त्व
ध्यानं चिरं नित्यनिरन्तरं मुनेः ।
ततोऽविकल्पं परमेत्य विद्वान्
इहैव निर्वाणसुखं समृच्छति ॥ ७0 ॥

tataḥ śrutistanmananaṃ satattva
dhyānaṃ ciraṃ nityanirantaraṃ muneḥ |
tato'vikalpaṃ parametya vidvān
ihaiva nirvāṇasukhaṃ samṛcchati || 70 ||

70. Then come hearing, reflection on that, and long, constant and unbroken meditation on the Truth for the Muni. After that the learned seeker attains the supreme Nirvikalpa state and realises the bliss of Nirvana even in this life.

यद्बोद्धव्यं तवेदानीमात्मानात्मविवेचनम् ।
तदुच्यते मया सम्यक्श्रुत्वात्मन्यवधारय ॥ ७१ ॥

yadboddhavyaṃ tavedānīmātmānātmavivecanam |
taducyate mayā samyakśrutvātmanyavadhāraya || 71 ||

71. Now I am going to tell thee fully about what you ought to know – the discrimination between the Self and the non-Self. Listen to it and decide about it in your mind.

मज्जास्थिमेदःपलरक्तचर्म
त्वगाह्वयैर्धातुभिरेभिरन्वितम् ।
पादोरुवक्षोभुजपृष्ठमस्तकैः
अङ्गैरुपाङ्गैरुपयुक्तमेतत् ॥ ७२ ॥

majjāsthimedaḥpalaraktacarma
tvagāhvayairdhātubhirebhiranvitam |
pādoruvakṣobhujapṛṣṭhamastakaiḥ
aṅgairupāṅgairupayuktametat || 72 ||

72. Composed of the seven ingredients, viz. marrow, bones, fat, flesh, blood, skin and cuticle, and consisting of the following limbs and their parts – legs, thighs, the chest, arms, the back and the head:

अहंममेतिप्रथितं शरीरं
मोहास्पदं स्थूलमितीर्यते बुधैः ।
नभोनभस्वद्दहनाम्बुभूमयः
सूक्ष्माणि भूतानि भवन्ति तानि ॥ ७३ ॥

ahaṃmametiprathitaṃ śarīraṃ
mohāspadaṃ sthūlamitīryate budhaiḥ |
nabhonabhasvaddahanāmbubhūmayaḥ
sūkṣmāṇi bhūtāni bhavanti tāni || 73 ||

73. This body, reputed to be the abode of the delusion of ‘I and mine’, is designated by sages as the gross body. The sky, air, fire, water and earth are subtle elements. They –

परस्परांशैर्मिलितानि भूत्वा
स्थूलानि च स्थूलशरीरहेतवः ।
मात्रास्तदीया विषया भवन्ति
शब्दादयः पञ्च सुखाय भोक्तुः ॥ ७४ ॥

parasparāṃśairmilitāni bhūtvā
sthūlāni ca sthūlaśarīrahetavaḥ |
mātrāstadīyā viṣayā bhavanti
śabdādayaḥ pañca sukhāya bhoktuḥ || 74 ||

74. Being united with parts of one another and becoming gross, (they) form the gross body. And their subtle essences form sense-objects – the group of five such as sound, which conduce to the happiness of the experiencer, the individual soul.

य एषु मूढा विषयेषु बद्धा
रागोरुपाशेन सुदुर्दमेन ।
आयान्ति निर्यान्त्यध ऊर्ध्वमुच्चैः
स्वकर्मदूतेन जवेन नीताः ॥ ७५ ॥

ya eṣu mūḍhā viṣayeṣu baddhā
rāgorupāśena sudurdamena |
āyānti niryāntyadha ūrdhvamuccaiḥ
svakarmadūtena javena nītāḥ || 75 ||

75. Those fools who are tied to these sense-objects by the stout cord of attachment, so very difficult to snap, come and depart, up and down, carried amain by the powerful emissary of their past action.

शब्दादिभिः पञ्चभिरेव पञ्च
पञ्चत्वमापुः स्वगुणेन बद्धाः ।
कुरङ्गमातङ्गपतङ्गमीन
भृङ्गा नरः पञ्चभिरञ्चितः किम् ॥ ७६ ॥

śabdādibhiḥ pañcabhireva pañca
pañcatvamāpuḥ svaguṇena baddhāḥ |
kuraṅgamātaṅgapataṅgamīna
bhṛṅgā naraḥ pañcabhirañcitaḥ kim || 76 ||

76. The deer, the elephant, the moth, the fish and the black-bee – these five have died, being tied to one or other of the five senses, viz. sound etc., through their own attachment. What then is in store for man who is attached to all these five.

दोषेण तीव्रो विषयः कृष्णसर्पविषादपि ।
विषं निहन्ति भोक्तारं द्रष्टारं चक्षुषाप्ययम् ॥ ७७ ॥

doṣeṇa tīvro viṣayaḥ kṛṣṇasarpaviṣādapi |
viṣaṃ nihanti bhoktāraṃ draṣṭāraṃ cakṣuṣāpyayam || 77 ||

77. Sense-objects are even more virulent in their evil effects than the poison of the cobra. Poison kills one who takes it, but those others kill one who even looks at them through the eyes.

विषयाशामहापाशाद्यो विमुक्तः सुदुस्त्यजात् ।
स एव कल्पते मुक्त्यै नान्यः षट्शास्त्रवेद्यपि ॥ ७८ ॥

viṣayāśāmahāpāśādyo vimuktaḥ sudustyajāt |
sa eva kalpate muktyai nānyaḥ ṣaṭśāstravedyapi || 78 ||

78. He who is free from the terrible fetters of the hankering for the sense-objects, so very difficult to get rid of, is alone fit for Liberation, and none else – even though he be versed in all the six Śastras.

आपातवैराग्यवतो मुमुक्षून्
भवाब्धिपारं प्रतियातुमुद्यतान् ।
आशाग्रहो मज्जयतेऽन्तराले
निगृह्य कण्ठे विनिवर्त्य वेगात् ॥ ७९ ॥

āpātavairāgyavato mumukṣūn
bhavābdhipāraṃ pratiyātumudyatān |
āśāgraho majjayate'ntarāle
nigṛhya kaṇṭhe vinivartya vegāt || 79 ||

79. Those seekers after liberation who have got only an apparent dispassion (Vairāgya)  and are trying to cross the ocean of Samsāra (relative existence), the shark of hankering catches by the throat and violently snatching away drowns them half-way.

विषयाख्यग्रहो येन सुविरक्त्यसिना हतः ।
स गच्छति भवाम्भोधेः पारं प्रत्यूहवर्जितः ॥ ८0 ॥

viṣayākhyagraho yena suviraktyasinā hataḥ |
sa gacchati bhavāmbhodheḥ pāraṃ pratyūhavarjitaḥ || 80 ||

80. He who has killed the shark known as sense-object with the sword of mature dispassion, crosses the ocean of Samsara, free from all obstacles.

विषमविषयमार्गैर्गच्छतोऽनच्छबुद्धेः
प्रतिपदमभियातो मृत्युरप्येष विद्धि ।
हितसुजनगुरुक्त्या गच्छतः स्वस्य युक्त्या
प्रभवति फलसिद्धिः सत्यमित्येव विद्धि ॥ ८१ ॥

viṣamaviṣayamārgairgacchato'nacchabuddheḥ
pratipadamabhiyāto mṛtyurapyeṣa viddhi |
hitasujanaguruktyā gacchataḥ svasya yuktyā
prabhavati phalasiddhiḥ satyamityeva viddhi || 81 ||

81. Know that death quickly overtakes the stupid man who walks along the dreadful ways of sense-pleasure; whereas one who walks in accordance with the instructions of a well-wishing and worthy Guru, as also with his own reasoning, achieves his end – know this to be true.

मोक्षस्य कांक्षा यदि वै तवास्ति
त्यजातिदूराद्विषयान्विषं यथा ।
पीयूषवत्तोषदयाक्षमार्जव
प्रशान्तिदान्तीर्भज नित्यमादरात् ॥ ८२ ॥

mokṣasya kāṃkṣā yadi vai tavāsti
tyajātidūrādviṣayānviṣaṃ yathā |
pīyūṣavattoṣadayākṣamārjava
praśāntidāntīrbhaja nityamādarāt || 82 ||

82. If indeed thou hast a craving for Liberation, shun sense-objects from a good distance as thou wouldst do poison, and always cultivate carefully the nectar-like virtues of contentment, compassion, forgiveness, straight-forwardness, calmness and self-control.

अनुक्षणं यत्परिहृत्य कृत्यं
अनाद्यविद्याकृतबन्धमोक्षणम् ।
देहः परार्थोऽयममुष्य पोषणे
यः सज्जते स स्वमनेन हन्ति ॥ ८३ ॥

anukṣaṇaṃ yatparihṛtya kṛtyaṃ
anādyavidyākṛtabandhamokṣaṇam |
dehaḥ parārtho'yamamuṣya poṣaṇe
yaḥ sajjate sa svamanena hanti || 83 ||

83. Whoever leaves aside what should always be attempted, viz. emancipation from the bondage of Ignorance without beginning, and passionately seeks to nourish this body, which is an object for others to enjoy, commits suicide thereby.

शरीरपोषणार्थी सन् य आत्मानं दिदृक्षति ।
ग्राहं दारुधिया धृत्वा नदि तर्तुं स गच्छति ॥ ८४ ॥

śarīrapoṣaṇārthī san ya ātmānaṃ didṛkṣati |
grāhaṃ dārudhiyā dhṛtvā nadi tartuṃ sa gacchati || 84 ||

84. Whoever seeks to realise the Self by devoting himself to the nourishment of the body, proceeds to cross a river by catching hold of a crocodile, mistaking it for a log.

मोह एव महामृत्युर्मुमुक्षोर्वपुरादिषु ।
मोहो विनिर्जितो येन स मुक्तिपदमर्हति ॥ ८५ ॥

moha eva mahāmṛtyurmumukṣorvapurādiṣu |
moho vinirjito yena sa muktipadamarhati || 85 ||

85. So for a seeker after Liberation the infatuation over things like the body is a dire death. He who has thoroughly conquered this deserves the state of Freedom.

मोहं जहि महामृत्युं देहदारसुतादिषु ।
यं जित्वा मुनयो यान्ति तद्विष्णोः परमं पदम् ॥ ८६ ॥

mohaṃ jahi mahāmṛtyuṃ dehadārasutādiṣu |
yaṃ jitvā munayo yānti tadviṣṇoḥ paramaṃ padam || 86 ||

86. Conquer the dire death of infatuation over thy body, wife, children etc., -- conquering which the sages reaches that Supreme State of Vishnu.

त्वङ्मांसरुधिरस्नायुमेदोमज्जास्थिसंकुलम् ।
पूर्णं मूत्रपुरीषाभ्यां स्थूलं निन्द्यमिदं वपुः ॥ ८७ ॥

tvaṅmāṃsarudhirasnāyumedomajjāsthisaṃkulam |
pūrṇaṃ mūtrapurīṣābhyāṃ sthūlaṃ nindyamidaṃ vapuḥ || 87 ||

87. This gross body is to be deprecated, for it consists of the skin, flesh, blood, arteries and veins, fat, marrow and bones, and is full of other offensive things.

पञ्चीकृतेभ्यो भूतेभ्यः स्थूलेभ्यः पूर्वकर्मणा ।
समुत्पन्नमिदं स्थूलं भोगायतनमात्मनः
अवस्था जागरस्तस्य स्थूलार्थानुभवो यतः ॥ ८८ ॥

pañcīkṛtebhyo bhūtebhyaḥ sthūlebhyaḥ pūrvakarmaṇā |
samutpannamidaṃ sthūlaṃ bhogāyatanamātmanaḥ
avasthā jāgarastasya sthūlārthānubhavo yataḥ || 88 ||

88. The gross body is produced by one’s past actions out of the gross elements formed by the union of the subtle elements with each other, and is the medium of experience for the soul. That is its waking state in which it perceives gross objects.

बाह्येन्द्रियैः स्थूलपदार्थसेवां
स्रक्चन्दनस्त्र्यादिविचित्ररूपाम् ।
करोति जीवः स्वयमेतदात्मना
तस्मात्प्रशस्तिर्वपुषोऽस्य जागरे ॥ ८९ ॥

bāhyendriyaiḥ sthūlapadārthasevāṃ
srakcandanastryādivicitrarūpām |
karoti jīvaḥ svayametadātmanā
tasmātpraśastirvapuṣo'sya jāgare || 89 ||

89. Identifying itself with this form, the individual soul, though separate, enjoys gross objects, such as garlands and sandal-paste, by means of the external organs. Hence this body has its fullest play in the waking state.

सर्वापि बाह्यसंसारः पुरुषस्य यदाश्रयः ।
विद्धि देहमिदं स्थूलं गृहवद्गृहमेधिनः ॥ ९0 ॥

sarvāpi bāhyasaṃsāraḥ puruṣasya yadāśrayaḥ |
viddhi dehamidaṃ sthūlaṃ gṛhavadgṛhamedhinaḥ || 90 ||

90. Know this gross body to be like a house to the householder, on which rests man’s entire dealing with the external world. 

स्थूलस्य संभवजरामरणानि धर्माः
स्थौल्यादयो बहुविधाः शिशुताद्यवस्थाः ।
वर्णाश्रमादिनियमा बहुधामयाः स्युः
पूजावमानबहुमानमुखा विशेषाः ॥ ९१ ॥

sthūlasya saṃbhavajarāmaraṇāni dharmāḥ
sthaulyādayo bahuvidhāḥ śiśutādyavasthāḥ |
varṇāśramādiniyamā bahudhāmayāḥ syuḥ
pūjāvamānabahumānamukhā viśeṣāḥ || 91 ||

91. Birth, decay and death are the various characteristics of the gross body, as also stoutness etc., childhood etc., are its different conditions; it has got various restrictions regarding castes and orders of life; it is subject to various diseases, and meets with different kinds of treatment, such as worship, insult and high honours. 

बुद्धीन्द्रियाणि श्रवणं त्वगक्षि
घ्राणं च जिव्हा विषयावबोधनात् ।
वाक्पाणिपादा गुदमप्युपस्थः
कर्मेन्द्रियाणि प्रवणेन कर्मसु ॥ ९२ ॥

buddhīndriyāṇi śravaṇaṃ tvagakṣi
ghrāṇaṃ ca jivhā viṣayāvabodhanāt |
vākpāṇipādā gudamapyupasthaḥ
karmendriyāṇi pravaṇena karmasu || 92 ||

92. The ears, skin, eyes, nose and tongue are organs of knowledge, for they help us to cognise objects; the vocal organs, hands, legs, etc., are organs of action, owing to their tendency to work. 

निगद्यतेऽन्तःकरणं मनोधीः
अहंकृतिश्चित्तमिति स्ववृत्तिभिः ।
मनस्तु संकल्पविकल्पनादिभिः
बुद्धिः पदार्थाध्यवसायधर्मतः ॥ ९३ ॥
अत्राभिमानादहमित्यहंकृतिः ।
स्वार्थानुसन्धानगुणेन चित्तम् ॥ ९४ ॥

nigadyate'ntaḥkaraṇaṃ manodhīḥ
ahaṃkṛtiścittamiti svavṛttibhiḥ |
manastu saṃkalpavikalpanādibhiḥ
buddhiḥ padārthādhyavasāyadharmataḥ || 93 ||
atrābhimānādahamityahaṃkṛtiḥ |
svārthānusandhānaguṇena cittam || 94 ||

93-94. The inner organ (Antahkaraṇa) is called Manas, Buddhi, ego or Chitta, according to their respective functions: Manas, from its considering the pros and cons of a thing; Buddhi, from its property of determining the truth of objects; the ego, from its identification with this body as one’s own self; and Chitta, from its function of seeking for pleasurable objects. 

प्राणापानव्यानोदानसमाना भवत्यसौ प्राणः ।
स्वयमेव वृत्तिभेदाद्विकृतिभेदात्सुवर्णसलिलादिवत् ॥ ९५ ॥

prāṇāpānavyānodānasamānā bhavatyasau prāṇaḥ |
svayameva vṛttibhedādvikṛtibhedātsuvarṇasalilādivat || 95 ||

95. One and the same Prāṇa (vital force) becomes Prāṇa, Apāna, Vyāna, Udāna and Samāna according to their diversity of functions and modifications, like gold and water, etc. 

वागादि पञ्च श्रवणादि पञ्च
प्राणादि पञ्चाभ्रमुखानि पञ्च ।
बुद्ध्याद्यविद्यापि च कामकर्मणी
पुर्यष्टकं सूक्ष्मशरीरमाहुः ॥ ९६ ॥

vāgādi pañca śravaṇādi pañca
prāṇādi pañcābhramukhāni pañca |
buddhyādyavidyāpi ca kāmakarmaṇī
puryaṣṭakaṃ sūkṣmaśarīramāhuḥ || 96 ||

96. The five organs of action such as speech etc., the five organs of knowledge beginning with the ear, the group of five Prāṇas, Buddhi and the rest together with Nescience, desire and action – these eight "cities" make up what is called the subtle body. 

इदं शरीरं शृणु सूक्ष्मसंज्ञितं
लिङ्गं त्वपञ्चीकृतसंभवम् ।
सवासनं कर्मफलानुभावकं
स्वाज्ञानतोऽनादिरुपाधिरात्मनः ॥ ९७ ॥

idaṃ śarīraṃ śṛṇu sūkṣmasaṃjñitaṃ
liṅgaṃ tvapañcīkṛtasaṃbhavam |
savāsanaṃ karmaphalānubhāvakaṃ
svājñānato'nādirupādhirātmanaḥ || 97 ||

97. Listen – this subtle body, called also Liṅga body, is produced out of the elements before their subdividing and combining with each other, is possessed of desires and causes the soul to experience the fruits of its actions. It is a beginningless superimposition on the soul brought on by its own ignorance. 

स्वप्नो भवत्यस्य विभक्त्यवस्था
स्वमात्रशेषेण विभाति यत्र ।
स्वप्ने तु बुद्धिः स्वयमेव जाग्रत्
कालीननानाविधवासनाभिः ॥ ९८ ॥

कर्त्रादिभावं प्रतिपद्य राजते
यत्र स्वयं भाति ह्ययं परात्मा ।
धीमात्रकोपाधिरशेषसाक्षी
न लिप्यते तत्कृतकर्मलेशैः
यस्मादसङ्गस्तत एव कर्मभिः
न लिप्यते किंचिदुपाधिना कृतैः ॥ ९९ ॥

svapno bhavatyasya vibhaktyavasthā
svamātraśeṣeṇa vibhāti yatra |
svapne tu buddhiḥ svayameva jāgrat
kālīnanānāvidhavāsanābhiḥ || 98 ||

kartrādibhāvaṃ pratipadya rājate
yatra svayaṃ bhāti hyayaṃ parātmā |
dhīmātrakopādhiraśeṣasākṣī
na lipyate tatkṛtakarmaleśaiḥ
yasmādasaṅgastata eva karmabhiḥ
na lipyate kiṃcidupādhinā kṛtaiḥ || 99 ||

98-99. Dream is a state of the soul distinct from the waking state, where it shines by itself. In dreams Buddhi, by itself, takes on the role of the agent and the like, owing to various desires of the waking state, while the supreme Ātman shines in Its own glory – with Buddhi as Its only superimposition, the witness of everything, and is not touched by the least work that Buddhi does. As It is wholly unattached, It is not touched by any work that Its superimpositions may perform.  

सर्वव्यापृतिकरणं लिङ्गमिदं स्याच्चिदात्मनः पुंसः ।
वास्यादिकमिव तक्ष्णस्तेनैवात्मा भवत्यसङ्गोऽयम् ॥ १00 ॥

sarvavyāpṛtikaraṇaṃ liṅgamidaṃ syāccidātmanaḥ puṃsaḥ |
vāsyādikamiva takṣṇastenaivātmā bhavatyasaṅgo'yam || 100 ||

100. This subtle body is the instrument for all activities of the Ātman, who is Knowledge Absolute, like the adze and other tools of a carpenter. Therefore this Ātman is perfectly unattached. 

अन्धत्वमन्दत्वपटुत्वधर्माः
सौगुण्यवैगुण्यवशाद्धि चक्षुषः ।
बाधिर्यमूकत्वमुखास्तथैव
श्रोत्रादिधर्मा न तु वेत्तुरात्मनः ॥ १0१ ॥

andhatvamandatvapaṭutvadharmāḥ
sauguṇyavaiguṇyavaśāddhi cakṣuṣaḥ |
bādhiryamūkatvamukhāstathaiva
śrotrādidharmā na tu vetturātmanaḥ || 101 ||

101. Blindness, weakness and sharpness are conditions of the eye, due to its fitness or defectiveness merely; so are deafness, dumbness, etc., of the ear and so forth – but never of the Ātman, the Knower.

उच्छ्वासनिःश्वासविजृम्भणक्षुत्
प्रस्यन्दनाद्युत्क्रमणादिकाः क्रियाः ।
प्राणादिकर्माणि वदन्ति तज्ञाः
प्राणस्य धर्मावशनापिपासे ॥ १0२ ॥

ucchvāsaniḥśvāsavijṛmbhaṇakṣut
prasyandanādyutkramaṇādikāḥ kriyāḥ |
prāṇādikarmāṇi vadanti tajñāḥ
prāṇasya dharmāvaśanāpipāse || 102 ||

102. Inhalation and exhalation, yawning, sneezing, secretion, leaving this body, etc., are called by experts functions of Prāṇa and the rest, while hunger and thirst are characteristics of Prāṇa proper.

अन्तःकरणमेतेषु चक्षुरादिषु वर्ष्मणि ।
अहमित्यभिमानेन तिष्ठत्याभासतेजसा ॥ १0३ ॥

antaḥkaraṇameteṣu cakṣurādiṣu varṣmaṇi |
ahamityabhimānena tiṣṭhatyābhāsatejasā || 103 ||

103. The inner organ (mind) has its seat in the organs such as the eye, as well as in the body, identifying with them and endued with a reflection of the Ātman.

अहंकारः स विज्ञेयः कर्ता भोक्ताभिमान्ययम् ।
सत्त्वादिगुणयोगेन चावस्थात्रयमश्नुते ॥ १0४ ॥

ahaṃkāraḥ sa vijñeyaḥ kartā bhoktābhimānyayam |
sattvādiguṇayogena cāvasthātrayamaśnute || 104 ||

104. Know that it is Egoism which, identifying itself with the body, becomes the doer or experiencer, and in conjunction with the Guṇas such as the Sattva, assumes the three different states.

विषयाणामानुकूल्ये सुखी दुःखी विपर्यये ।
सुखं दुःखं च तद्धर्मः सदानन्दस्य नात्मनः ॥ १0५ ॥

viṣayāṇāmānukūlye sukhī duḥkhī viparyaye |
sukhaṃ duḥkhaṃ ca taddharmaḥ sadānandasya nātmanaḥ || 105 ||

105. When sense-objects are favourable it becomes happy, and it becomes miserable when the case is contrary. So happiness and misery are characteristics of Egoism, and not of the ever-blissful Ātman.

आत्मार्थत्वेन हि प्रेयान्विषयो न स्वतः प्रियः ।
स्वत एव हि सर्वेषामात्मा प्रियतमो यतः
तत आत्मा सदानन्दो नास्य दुःखं कदाचन ॥ १0६ ॥

ātmārthatvena hi preyānviṣayo na svataḥ priyaḥ |
svata eva hi sarveṣāmātmā priyatamo yataḥ
tata ātmā sadānando nāsya duḥkhaṃ kadācana || 106 ||

106. Sense-objects are pleasurable only as dependent on the Ātman manifesting through them, and not independently, because the Ātman is by Its very nature the most beloved of all. Therefore the Ātman is ever blissful, and never suffers misery.

यत्सुषुप्तौ निर्विषय आत्मानन्दोऽनुभूयते ।
श्रुतिः प्रत्यक्षमैतिह्यमनुमानं च जाग्रति ॥ १0७ ॥

yatsuṣuptau nirviṣaya ātmānando'nubhūyate |
śrutiḥ pratyakṣamaitihyamanumānaṃ ca jāgrati || 107 ||

107. That in profound sleep we experience the bliss of the Ātman independent of sense- objects, is clearly attested by the Śruti, direct perception, tradition and inference.

अव्यक्तनाम्नी परमेशशक्तिः
अनाद्यविद्या त्रिगुणात्मिका परा ।
कार्यानुमेया सुधियैव माया
यया जगत्सर्वमिदं प्रसूयते ॥ १0८ ॥

avyaktanāmnī parameśaśaktiḥ
anādyavidyā triguṇātmikā parā |
kāryānumeyā sudhiyaiva māyā
yayā jagatsarvamidaṃ prasūyate || 108 ||

108. Avidya (Nescience) or Māyā, called also the Undifferentiated, is the power of the Lord. She is without beginning, is made up of the three Guṇas and is superior to the effects (as their cause). She is to be inferred by one of clear intellect only from the effects She produces. It is She who brings forth this whole universe.

सन्नाप्यसन्नाप्युभयात्मिका नो
भिन्नाप्यभिन्नाप्युभयात्मिका नो ।
साङ्गाप्यनङ्गा ह्युभयात्मिका नो
महाद्भुतानिर्वचनीयरूपा ॥ १0९ ॥

sannāpyasannāpyubhayātmikā no
bhinnāpyabhinnāpyubhayātmikā no |
sāṅgāpyanaṅgā hyubhayātmikā no
mahādbhutānirvacanīyarūpā || 109 ||

109. She is neither existent nor non-existent nor partaking of both characters; neither same nor different nor both; neither composed of parts nor an indivisible whole nor both. She is most wonderful and cannot be described in words.

शुद्धाद्वयब्रह्मविभोधनाश्या
सर्पभ्रमो रज्जुविवेकतो यथा ।
रजस्तमःसत्त्वमिति प्रसिद्धा
गुणास्तदीयाः प्रथितैः स्वकार्यैः ॥ ११0 ॥

śuddhādvayabrahmavibhodhanāśyā
sarpabhramo rajjuvivekato yathā |
rajastamaḥsattvamiti prasiddhā
guṇāstadīyāḥ prathitaiḥ svakāryaiḥ || 110 ||

110. Māyā can be destroyed by the realisation of the pure Brahman, the one without a second, just as the mistaken idea of a snake is removed by the discrimination of the rope. She has her Guṇas as Rajas, Tamas and Sattva, named after their respective functions.

विक्षेपशक्ती रजसः क्रियात्मिका
यतः प्रवृत्तिः प्रसृता पुराणी ।
रागादयोऽस्याः प्रभवन्ति नित्यं
दुःखादयो ये मनसो विकाराः ॥ १११ ॥

vikṣepaśaktī rajasaḥ kriyātmikā
yataḥ pravṛttiḥ prasṛtā purāṇī |
rāgādayo'syāḥ prabhavanti nityaṃ
duḥkhādayo ye manaso vikārāḥ || 111 ||

111. Rajas has its vikṣepa-Shakti or projecting power, which is of the nature of an activity, and from which this primeval flow of activity has emanated. From this also, mental modifications such as attachment and grief are continually produced.

कामः क्रोधो लोभदम्भाद्यसूया
अहंकारेर्ष्यामत्सराद्यास्तु घोराः ।
धर्मा एते राजसाः पुम्प्रवृत्तिः
यस्मादेषा तद्रजो बन्धहेतुः ॥ ११२ ॥

kāmaḥ krodho lobhadambhādyasūyā
ahaṃkārerṣyāmatsarādyāstu ghorāḥ |
dharmā ete rājasāḥ pumpravṛttiḥ
yasmādeṣā tadrajo bandhahetuḥ || 112 ||

112. Lust, anger, avarice, arrogance, spite, egoism, envy, jealousy, etc., -- these are the dire attributes of Rajas, from which the worldly tendency of man is produced. Therefore Rajas is a cause of bondage.

एषावृतिर्नाम तमोगुणस्य
शक्तिर्मया वस्त्ववभासतेऽन्यथा ।
सैषा निदानं पुरुषस्य संसृतेः
विक्षेपशक्तेः प्रवणस्य हेतुः ॥ ११३ ॥

eṣāvṛtirnāma tamoguṇasya
śaktirmayā vastvavabhāsate'nyathā |
saiṣā nidānaṃ puruṣasya saṃsṛteḥ
vikṣepaśakteḥ pravaṇasya hetuḥ || 113 ||

113. Āvṛti or the veiling power is the power of Tamas, which makes things appear other than what they are. It is this that causes man’s repeated transmigrations, and starts the action of the projecting power (Vikṣepa).

प्रज्ञावानपि पण्डितोऽपि चतुरोऽप्यत्यन्तसूक्ष्मात्मदृग्
व्यालीढस्तमसा न वेत्ति बहुधा संबोधितोऽपि स्फुटम् ।
भ्रान्त्यारोपितमेव साधु कलयत्यालम्बते तद्गुणान्
हन्तासौ प्रबला दुरन्ततमसः शक्तिर्महत्यावृतिः ॥ ११४ ॥

prajñāvānapi paṇḍito'pi caturo'pyatyantasūkṣmātmadṛg
vyālīḍhastamasā na vetti bahudhā saṃbodhito'pi sphuṭam |
bhrāntyāropitameva sādhu kalayatyālambate tadguṇān
hantāsau prabalā durantatamasaḥ śaktirmahatyāvṛtiḥ || 114 ||

114. Even wise and learned men and men who are clever and adepts in the vision of the exceedingly subtle Ātman, are overpowered by Tamas and do not understand the Ātman, even though clearly explained in various ways. What is simply superimposed by delusion, they consider as true, and attach themselves to its effects. Alas! How powerful is the great Āvṛti Shakti of dreadful Tamas!

अभावना वा विपरीतभावना
असंभावना विप्रतिपत्तिरस्याः ।
संसर्गयुक्तं न विमुञ्चति ध्रुवं
विक्षेपशक्तिः क्षपयत्यजस्रम् ॥ ११५ ॥

abhāvanā vā viparītabhāvanā
asaṃbhāvanā vipratipattirasyāḥ |
saṃsargayuktaṃ na vimuñcati dhruvaṃ
vikṣepaśaktiḥ kṣapayatyajasram || 115 ||

115. Absence of the right judgment, or contrary judgment, want of definite belief and doubt – these certainly never desert one who has any connection with this veiling power, and then the projecting power gives ceaseless trouble.

अज्ञानमालस्यजडत्वनिद्रा
प्रमादमूढत्वमुखास्तमोगुणाः ।
एतैः प्रयुक्तो नहि वेत्ति किंचिन्
निद्रालुवत्स्तम्भवदेव तिष्ठति ॥ ११६ ॥

ajñānamālasyajaḍatvanidrā
pramādamūḍhatvamukhāstamoguṇāḥ |
etaiḥ prayukto nahi vetti kiṃcin
nidrāluvatstambhavadeva tiṣṭhati || 116 ||

116. Ignorance, lassitude, dullness, sleep, inadvertence, stupidity, etc., are attributes of Tamas. One tied to these does not comprehend anything, but remains like one asleep or like a stock or stone.

सत्त्वं विशुद्धं जलवत्तथापि
ताभ्यां मिलित्वा सरणाय कल्पते ।
यत्रात्मबिम्बः प्रतिबिम्बितः सन्
प्रकाशयत्यर्क इवाखिलं जडम् ॥ ११७ ॥

sattvaṃ viśuddhaṃ jalavattathāpi
tābhyāṃ militvā saraṇāya kalpate |
yatrātmabimbaḥ pratibimbitaḥ san
prakāśayatyarka ivākhilaṃ jaḍam || 117 ||

117. Pure Sattva is (clear) like water, yet in conjunction with Rajas and Tamas it makes for transmigration. The reality of the Ātman becomes reflected in Sattva and like the sun reveals the entire world of matter.

मिश्रस्य सत्त्वस्य भवन्ति धर्माः
त्वमानिताद्या नियमा यमाद्याः ।
श्रद्धा च भक्तिश्च मुमुक्षता च
दैवी च सम्पत्तिरसन्निवृत्तिः ॥ ११८ ॥

miśrasya sattvasya bhavanti dharmāḥ
tvamānitādyā niyamā yamādyāḥ |
śraddhā ca bhaktiśca mumukṣatā ca
daivī ca sampattirasannivṛttiḥ || 118 ||

118. The traits of mixed Sattva are an utter absence of pride etc., and Niyama, Yama, etc., as well as faith, devotion, yearning for Liberation, the divine tendencies and turning away from the unreal.

विशुद्धसत्त्वस्य गुणाः प्रसादः
स्वात्मानुभूतिः परमा प्रशान्तिः ।
तृप्तिः प्रहर्षः परमात्मनिष्ठा
यया सदानन्दरसं समृच्छति ॥ ११९ ॥

viśuddhasattvasya guṇāḥ prasādaḥ
svātmānubhūtiḥ paramā praśāntiḥ |
tṛptiḥ praharṣaḥ paramātmaniṣṭhā
yayā sadānandarasaṃ samṛcchati || 119 ||

119. The traits of pure Sattva are cheerfulness, the realisation of one’s own Self, supreme peace, contentment, bliss, and steady devotion to the Ātman, by which the aspirant enjoys bliss everlasting.

अव्यक्तमेतत्त्रिगुणैर्निरुक्तं
तत्कारणं नाम शरीरमात्मनः ।
सुषुप्तिरेतस्य विभक्त्यवस्था
प्रलीनसर्वेन्द्रियबुद्धिवृत्तिः ॥ १२0 ॥

avyaktametattriguṇairniruktaṃ
tatkāraṇaṃ nāma śarīramātmanaḥ |
suṣuptiretasya vibhaktyavasthā
pralīnasarvendriyabuddhivṛttiḥ || 120 ||

120. This Undifferentiated, spoken of as the compound of the three Guṇas, is the causal body of the soul. Profound sleep is its special state, in which the functions of the mind and all its organs are suspended.

सर्वप्रकारप्रमितिप्रशान्तिः
बीजात्मनावस्थितिरेव बुद्धेः ।
सुषुप्तिरेतस्य किल प्रतीतिः
किंचिन्न वेद्मीति जगत्प्रसिद्धेः ॥ १२१ ॥

sarvaprakārapramitipraśāntiḥ
bījātmanāvasthitireva buddheḥ |
suṣuptiretasya kila pratītiḥ
kiṃcinna vedmīti jagatprasiddheḥ || 121 ||

121. Profound sleep is the cessation of all kinds of perception, in which the mind remains in a subtle seed-like form. The test of this is the universal verdict, "I did not know anything then".

देहेन्द्रियप्राणमनोऽहमादयः
सर्वे विकारा विषयाः सुखादयः ।
व्योमादिभूतान्यखिलं न विश्वं
अव्यक्तपर्यन्तमिदं ह्यनात्मा ॥ १२२ ॥

dehendriyaprāṇamano'hamādayaḥ
sarve vikārā viṣayāḥ sukhādayaḥ |
vyomādibhūtānyakhilaṃ na viśvaṃ
avyaktaparyantamidaṃ hyanātmā || 122 ||

122. The body, organs, Prāṇas, Manas, egoism, etc., all modifications, the sense-objects, pleasure and the rest, the gross elements such as the ether, in fact, the whole universe, up to the Undifferentiated – all this is the non-Self.

माया मायाकार्यं सर्वं महदादिदेहपर्यन्तम् ।
असदिदमनात्मतत्त्वं विद्धि त्वं मरुमरीचिकाकल्पम् ॥ १२३ ॥

māyā māyākāryaṃ sarvaṃ mahadādidehaparyantam |
asadidamanātmatattvaṃ viddhi tvaṃ marumarīcikākalpam || 123 ||

123. From Mahat down to the gross body everything is the effect of Māyā: These and Māyā itself know thou to be the non-Self, and therefore unreal like the mirage in a desert.

अथ ते संप्रवक्ष्यामि स्वरूपं परमात्मनः ।
यद्विज्ञाय नरो बन्धान्मुक्तः कैवल्यमश्नुते ॥ १२४ ॥

atha te saṃpravakṣyāmi svarūpaṃ paramātmanaḥ |
yadvijñāya naro bandhānmuktaḥ kaivalyamaśnute || 124 ||

124. Now I am going to tell thee of the real nature of the supreme Self, realising which man is freed from bondage and attains Liberation.

अस्ति कश्चित्स्वयं नित्यमहंप्रत्ययलम्बनः ।
अवस्थात्रयसाक्षी संपञ्चकोशविलक्षणः ॥ १२५ ॥

asti kaścitsvayaṃ nityamahaṃpratyayalambanaḥ |
avasthātrayasākṣī saṃpañcakośavilakṣaṇaḥ || 125 ||

125. There is some Absolute Entity, the eternal substratum of the consciousness of egoism, the witness of the three states, and distinct from the five sheaths or coverings:

यो विजानाति सकलं जाग्रत्स्वप्नसुषुप्तिषु ।
बुद्धितद्वृत्तिसद्भावमभावमहमित्ययम् ॥ १२६ ॥

yo vijānāti sakalaṃ jāgratsvapnasuṣuptiṣu |
buddhitadvṛttisadbhāvamabhāvamahamityayam || 126 ||

126. Which knows everything that happens in the waking state, in dream and in profound sleep; which is aware of the presence or absence of the mind and its functions; and which is the background of the notion of egoism. – This is That.

यः पश्यति स्वयं सर्वं यं न पश्यति कश्चन ।
यश्चेतयति बुद्ध्यादि न तद्यं चेतयत्ययम् ॥ १२७ ॥

yaḥ paśyati svayaṃ sarvaṃ yaṃ na paśyati kaścana |
yaścetayati buddhyādi na tadyaṃ cetayatyayam || 127 ||

127. Which Itself sees all, but which no one beholds, which illumines the intellect etc., but which they cannot illumine. – This is That.

येन विश्वमिदं व्याप्तं यं न व्याप्नोति किंचन ।
अभारूपमिदं सर्वं यं भान्त्यमनुभात्ययम् ॥ १२८ ॥

yena viśvamidaṃ vyāptaṃ yaṃ na vyāpnoti kiṃcana |
abhārūpamidaṃ sarvaṃ yaṃ bhāntyamanubhātyayam || 128 ||

128. By which this universe is pervaded, but which nothing pervades, which shining, all this (universe) shines as Its reflection. – This is That.

यस्य सन्निधिमात्रेण देहेन्द्रियमनोधियः ।
विषयेषु स्वकीयेषु वर्तन्ते प्रेरिता इव ॥ १२९ ॥

yasya sannidhimātreṇa dehendriyamanodhiyaḥ |
viṣayeṣu svakīyeṣu vartante preritā iva || 129 ||

129. By whose very presence the body, the organs, mind and intellect keep to their respective spheres of action, like servants!

अहङ्कारादिदेहान्ता विषयाश्च सुखादयः ।
वेद्यन्ते घटवद्येन नित्यबोधस्वरूपिणा ॥ १३0 ॥

ahaṅkārādidehāntā viṣayāśca sukhādayaḥ |
vedyante ghaṭavadyena nityabodhasvarūpiṇā || 130 ||

130. By which everything from egoism down to the body, the sense-objects and pleasure etc., is known as palpably as a jar – for It is the essence of Eternal Knowledge!

एषोऽन्तरात्मा पुरुषः पुराणो
निरन्तराखण्डसुखानुभूतिः ।
सदैकरूपः प्रतिबोधमात्रो
येनेषिता वागसवश्चरन्ति ॥ १३१ ॥

eṣo'ntarātmā puruṣaḥ purāṇo
nirantarākhaṇḍasukhānubhūtiḥ |
sadaikarūpaḥ pratibodhamātro
yeneṣitā vāgasavaścaranti || 131 ||

131. This is the innermost Self, the primeval Purusha (Being), whose essence is the constant realisation of infinite Bliss, which is ever the same, yet reflecting through the different mental modifications, and commanded by which the organs and Prāṇas perform their functions.

अत्रैव सत्त्वात्मनि धीगुहायां
अव्याकृताकाश उशत्प्रकाशः ।
आकाश उच्चै रविवत्प्रकाशते
स्वतेजसा विश्वमिदं प्रकाशयन् ॥ १३२ ॥

atraiva sattvātmani dhīguhāyāṃ
avyākṛtākāśa uśatprakāśaḥ |
ākāśa uccai ravivatprakāśate
svatejasā viśvamidaṃ prakāśayan || 132 ||

132. In this very body, in the mind full of Sattva, in the secret chamber of the intellect, in the Akasha known as the Unmanifested, the Ātman, of charming splendour, shines like the sun aloft, manifesting this universe through Its own effulgence.

ज्ञाता मनोऽहंकृतिविक्रियाणां
देहेन्द्रियप्राणकृतक्रियाणाम् ।
अयोऽग्निवत्ताननुवर्तमानो
न चेष्टते नो विकरोति किंचन ॥ १३३ ॥

jñātā mano'haṃkṛtivikriyāṇāṃ
dehendriyaprāṇakṛtakriyāṇām |
ayo'gnivattānanuvartamāno
na ceṣṭate no vikaroti kiṃcana || 133 ||

133. The Knower of the modifications of mind and egoism, and of the activities of the body, the organs and Prāṇas, apparently taking their forms, like the fire in a ball of iron; It neither acts nor is subject to change in the least.

न जायते नो म्रियते न वर्धते
न क्षीयते नो विकरोति नित्यः ।
विलीयमानेऽपि वपुष्यमुष्मिन्
न लीयते कुम्भ इवाम्बरं स्वयम् ॥ १३४ ॥

na jāyate no mriyate na vardhate
na kṣīyate no vikaroti nityaḥ |
vilīyamāne'pi vapuṣyamuṣmin
na līyate kumbha ivāmbaraṃ svayam || 134 ||

134. It is neither born nor dies, It neither grows nor decays, nor does It undergo any change, being eternal. It does not cease to exist even when this body is destroyed, like the sky in a jar (after it is broken), for It is independent.

प्रकृतिविकृतिभिन्नः शुद्धबोधस्वभावः
सदसदिदमशेषं भासयन्निर्विशेषः ।
विलसति परमात्मा जाग्रदादिष्ववस्था
स्वहमहमिति साक्षात्साक्षिरूपेण बुद्धेः ॥ १३५ ॥

prakṛtivikṛtibhinnaḥ śuddhabodhasvabhāvaḥ
sadasadidamaśeṣaṃ bhāsayannirviśeṣaḥ |
vilasati paramātmā jāgradādiṣvavasthā
svahamahamiti sākṣātsākṣirūpeṇa buddheḥ || 135 ||

135. The Supreme Self, different from the Prakriti and its modifications, of the essence of Pure Knowledge, and Absolute, directly manifests this entire gross and subtle universe, in the waking and other states, as the substratum of the persistent sense of egoism, and manifests Itself as the Witness of the Buddhi, the determinative faculty.

नियमितमनसामुं त्वं स्वमात्मानमात्मन्य्
अयमहमिति साक्षाद्विद्धि बुद्धिप्रसादात् ।
जनिमरणतरङ्गापारसंसारसिन्धुं
प्रतर भव कृतार्थो ब्रह्मरूपेण संस्थः ॥ १३६ ॥

niyamitamanasāmuṃ tvaṃ svamātmānamātmany
ayamahamiti sākṣādviddhi buddhiprasādāt |
janimaraṇataraṅgāpārasaṃsārasindhuṃ
pratara bhava kṛtārtho brahmarūpeṇa saṃsthaḥ || 136 ||

136. By means of a regulated mind and the purified intellect (Buddhi), realise directly thy own Self in the body so as to identify thyself with It, cross the boundless ocean of Samsara whose waves are birth and death, and firmly established in Brahman as thy own essence, be blessed.

अत्रानात्मन्यहमिति मतिर्बन्ध एषोऽस्य पुंसः
प्राप्तोऽज्ञानाज्जननमरणक्लेशसंपातहेतुः ।
येनैवायं वपुरिदमसत्सत्यमित्यात्मबुद्ध्या
पुष्यत्युक्षत्यवति विषयैस्तन्तुभिः कोशकृद्वत् ॥ १३७ ॥

atrānātmanyahamiti matirbandha eṣo'sya puṃsaḥ
prāpto'jñānājjananamaraṇakleśasaṃpātahetuḥ |
yenaivāyaṃ vapuridamasatsatyamityātmabuddhyā
puṣyatyukṣatyavati viṣayaistantubhiḥ kośakṛdvat || 137 ||

137. Identifying the Self with this non-Self – this is the bondage of man, which is due to his ignorance, and brings in its train the miseries of birth and death. It is through this that one considers this evanescent body as real, and identifying oneself with it, nourishes, bathes, and preserves it by means of (agreeable) sense-objects, by which he becomes bound as the caterpillar by the threads of its cocoon.

अतस्मिंस्तद्बुद्धिः प्रभवति विमूढस्य तमसा
विवेकाभावाद्वै स्फुरति भुजगे रज्जुधिषणा ।
ततोऽनर्थव्रातो निपतति समादातुरधिकः
ततो योऽसद्ग्राहः स हि भवति बन्धः शृणु सखे ॥ १३८ ॥

atasmiṃstadbuddhiḥ prabhavati vimūḍhasya tamasā
vivekābhāvādvai sphurati bhujage rajjudhiṣaṇā |
tato'narthavrāto nipatati samādāturadhikaḥ
tato yo'sadgrāhaḥ sa hi bhavati bandhaḥ śṛṇu sakhe || 138 ||

138. One who is overpowered by ignorance mistakes a thing for what it is not; It is the absence of discrimination that causes one to mistake a snake for a rope, and great dangers overtake him when he seizes it through that wrong notion. Hence, listen, my friend, it is the mistaking of transitory things as real that constitutes bondage.

अखण्डनित्याद्वयबोधशक्त्या
स्फुरन्तमात्मानमनन्तवैभवम् ।
समावृणोत्यावृतिशक्तिरेषा
तमोमयी राहुरिवार्कबिम्बम् ॥ १३९ ॥

akhaṇḍanityādvayabodhaśaktyā
sphurantamātmānamanantavaibhavam |
samāvṛṇotyāvṛtiśaktireṣā
tamomayī rāhurivārkabimbam || 139 ||

139. This veiling power (Avriti), which preponderates in ignorance, covers the Self, whose glories are infinite and which manifests Itself through the power of knowledge, indivisible, eternal and one without a second – as Rāhu does the orb of the sun.

तिरोभूते स्वात्मन्यमलतरतेजोवति पुमान्
अनात्मानं मोहादहमिति शरीरं कलयति ।
ततः कामक्रोधप्रभृतिभिरमुं बन्धनगुणैः
परं विक्षेपाख्या रजस उरुशक्तिर्व्यथयति ॥ १४0 ॥

tirobhūte svātmanyamalataratejovati pumān
anātmānaṃ mohādahamiti śarīraṃ kalayati |
tataḥ kāmakrodhaprabhṛtibhiramuṃ bandhanaguṇaiḥ
paraṃ vikṣepākhyā rajasa uruśaktirvyathayati || 140 ||

140. When his own Self, endowed with the purest splendour, is hidden from view, a man through ignorance falsely identifies himself with this body, which is the non-Self. And then the great power of rajas called the projecting power sorely afflicts him through the binding fetters of lust, anger, etc.,

महामोहग्राहग्रसनगलितात्मावगमनो
धियो नानावस्थां स्वयमभिनयंस्तद्गुणतया ।
अपारे संसरे विषयविषपूरे जलनिधौ
निमज्योन्मज्यायं भ्रमति कुमतिः कुत्सितगतिः ॥ १४१ ॥

mahāmohagrāhagrasanagalitātmāvagamano
dhiyo nānāvasthāṃ svayamabhinayaṃstadguṇatayā |
apāre saṃsare viṣayaviṣapūre jalanidhau
nimajyonmajyāyaṃ bhramati kumatiḥ kutsitagatiḥ || 141 ||

141. The man of perverted intellect, having his Self-knowledge swallowed up by the shark of utter ignorance, himself imitates the various states of the intellect (Buddhi), as that is Its superimposed attribute, and drifts up and down in this boundless ocean of Samsara which is full of the poison of sense-enjoyment, now sinking, now rising – a miserable fate indeed!

भानुप्रभासंजनिताभ्रपङ्क्तिः
भानुं तिरोधाय विजृम्भते यथा ।
आत्मोदिताहंकृतिरात्मतत्त्वं
तथा तिरोधाय विजृम्भते स्वयम् ॥ १४२ ॥

bhānuprabhāsaṃjanitābhrapaṅktiḥ
bhānuṃ tirodhāya vijṛmbhate yathā |
ātmoditāhaṃkṛtirātmatattvaṃ
tathā tirodhāya vijṛmbhate svayam || 142 ||

142. As layers of clouds generated by the sun’s rays cover the sun and alone appear (in the sky), so egoism generated by the Self, covers the reality of the Self and appears by itself.

कवलितदिननार्थे दुर्दिने सान्द्रमेघैः
व्यथयति हिमझंझावायुरुग्रो यथैतान् ।
अविरततमसात्मन्यावृते मूढबुद्धिं
क्षपयति बहुदुःखैस्तीव्रविक्षेपशक्तिः ॥ १४३ ॥

kavalitadinanārthe durdine sāndrameghaiḥ
vyathayati himajhaṃjhāvāyurugro yathaitān |
aviratatamasātmanyāvṛte mūḍhabuddhiṃ
kṣapayati bahuduḥkhaistīvravikṣepaśaktiḥ || 143 ||

143. Just as, on a cloudy day, when the sun is swallowed up by dense clouds, violent cold blasts trouble them, so when the Ātman is hidden by intense ignorance, the dreadful Vikṣepa Shakti (projecting power) afflicts the foolish man with numerous griefs.

एताभ्यामेव शक्तिभ्यां बन्धः पुंसः समागतः ।
याभ्यां विमोहितो देहं मत्वात्मानं भ्रमत्ययम् ॥ १४४ ॥

etābhyāmeva śaktibhyāṃ bandhaḥ puṃsaḥ samāgataḥ |
yābhyāṃ vimohito dehaṃ matvātmānaṃ bhramatyayam || 144 ||

144. It is from these two powers that man’s bondage has proceeded – beguiled by which he mistakes the body for the Self and wanders (from body to body).

बीजं संसृतिभूमिजस्य तु तमो देहात्मधीरङ्कुरो
रागः पल्लवमम्बु कर्म तु वपुः स्कन्धोओऽसवः शाखिकाः ।
अग्राणीन्द्रियसंहतिश्च विषयाः पुष्पाणि दुःखं फलं
नानाकर्मसमुद्भवं बहुविधं भोक्तात्र जीवः खगः ॥ १४५ ॥

bījaṃ saṃsṛtibhūmijasya tu tamo dehātmadhīraṅkuro
rāgaḥ pallavamambu karma tu vapuḥ skandhoo'savaḥ śākhikāḥ |
agrāṇīndriyasaṃhatiśca viṣayāḥ puṣpāṇi duḥkhaṃ phalaṃ
nānākarmasamudbhavaṃ bahuvidhaṃ bhoktātra jīvaḥ khagaḥ || 145 ||

145. Of the tree of Samsara ignorance is the seed, the identification with the body is its sprout, attachment its tender leaves, work its water, the body its trunk, the vital forces its branches, the organs its twigs, the sense-objects its flowers, various miseries due to diverse works are its fruits, and the individual soul is the bird on it.

अज्ञानमूलोऽयमनात्मबन्धो
नैसर्गिकोऽनादिरनन्त ईरितः ।
जन्माप्ययव्याधिजरादिदुःख
प्रवाहपातं जनयत्यमुष्य ॥ १४६ ॥

ajñānamūlo'yamanātmabandho
naisargiko'nādirananta īritaḥ |
janmāpyayavyādhijarādiduḥkha
pravāhapātaṃ janayatyamuṣya || 146 ||

146. This bondage of the non-Self springs from ignorance, is self-caused, and is described as without beginning and end. It subjects one to the long train of miseries such as birth, death, disease and decrepitude.

नास्त्रैर्न शस्त्रैरनिलेन वन्हिना
छेत्तुं न शक्यो न च कर्मकोटिभिः ।
विवेकविज्ञानमहासिना विना
धातुः प्रसादेन शितेन मञ्जुना ॥ १४७ ॥

nāstrairna śastrairanilena vanhinā
chettuṃ na śakyo na ca karmakoṭibhiḥ |
vivekavijñānamahāsinā vinā
dhātuḥ prasādena śitena mañjunā || 147 ||

147. This bondage can be destroyed neither by weapons nor by wind, nor by fire, nor by millions of acts – by nothing except the wonderful sword of knowledge that comes of discrimination, sharpened by the grace of the Lord.

श्रुतिप्रमाणैकमतेः स्वधर्म
निष्ठा तयैवात्मविशुद्धिरस्य ।
विशुद्धबुद्धेः परमात्मवेदनं
तेनैव संसारसमूलनाशः ॥ १४८ ॥

śrutipramāṇaikamateḥ svadharma
niṣṭhā tayaivātmaviśuddhirasya |
viśuddhabuddheḥ paramātmavedanaṃ
tenaiva saṃsārasamūlanāśaḥ || 148 ||

148. One who is passionately devoted to the authority of the Śrutis acquires steadiness in his Svadharma, which alone conduces to the purity of his mind. The man of pure mind realises the Supreme Self, and by this alone Samsara with its root is destroyed.

कोशैरन्नमयाद्यैः पञ्चभिरात्मा न संवृतो भाति ।
निजशक्तिसमुत्पन्नैः शैवालपटलैरिवाम्बु वापीस्थम् ॥ १४९ ॥

kośairannamayādyaiḥ pañcabhirātmā na saṃvṛto bhāti |
nijaśaktisamutpannaiḥ śaivālapaṭalairivāmbu vāpīstham || 149 ||

149. Covered by the five sheaths – the material one and the rest – which are the products of Its own power, the Self ceases to appear, like the water of a tank by its accumulation of sedge.

तच्छैवालापनये सम्यक्सलिलं प्रतीयते शुद्धम् ।
तृष्णासन्तापहरं सद्यः सौख्यप्रदं परं पुंसः ॥ १५0 ॥

tacchaivālāpanaye samyaksalilaṃ pratīyate śuddham |
tṛṣṇāsantāpaharaṃ sadyaḥ saukhyapradaṃ paraṃ puṃsaḥ || 150 ||

150. On the removal of that sedge the perfectly pure water that allays the pangs of thirst and gives immediate joy, appears unobstructed before the man. 

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