GAMABALI | Tradisi Bali dan Budaya Bali


GAMABALI | Tradisi Bali dan Budaya Bali

2021-11-29 11:41:15

SB 6.2 Ajamila diantar oleh Utusan Wisnu

Srimad-Bhagavatam  6.2 Ajamila diantar oleh Viṣṇudūta


Srimad-Bhagavatam  6.2 Ajamila diantar oleh Viṣṇudūta


 In this chapter the messengers from Vaikuṇṭha explain to the Yamadūtas the glories of chanting the holy name of the Lord. The Viṣṇudūtas said, “Now impious acts are being performed even in an assembly of devotees, for a person who is not punishable is going to be punished in the assembly of Yamarāja. The mass of people are helpless and must depend upon the government for their safety and security, but if the government takes advantage of this to harm the citizens, where will they go? We see perfectly that Ajāmila should not be punished, although you are attempting to take him to Yamarāja for punishment.” 


 It was due to Ajāmila’s glorifying the holy name of the Supreme Lord that he was not punishable. The Viṣṇudūtas explained this as follows: “Simply by once chanting the holy name of Nārāyaṇa, this brāhmaṇa has become free from the reactions of sinful life. Indeed, he has been freed not only from the sins of this life, but from the sins of many, many thousands of other lives. He has already undergone true atonement for all his sinful actions. If one atones according to the directions of the śāstras, one does not actually become free from sinful reactions, but if one chants the holy name of the Lord, even a glimpse of such chanting can immediately free one from all sins. Chanting the glories of the Lord’s holy name awakens all good fortune. Therefore there is no doubt that Ajāmila, being completely free from all sinful reactions, should not be punished by Yamarāja.”


As they were saying this, the Viṣṇudūtas released Ajāmila from the ropes of the Yamadūtas and left for their own abode. The brāhmaṇa Ajāmila, however, offered his respectful obeisances to the Viṣṇudūtas. He could understand how fortunate he was to have chanted the holy name of Nārāyaṇa at the end of his life. Indeed, he could realize the full significance of this good fortune. Having thoroughly understood the discussion between the Yamadūtas and the Viṣṇudūtas, he became a pure devotee of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He lamented very much for how very sinful he had been, and he condemned himself again and again.


Finally, because of his association with the Viṣṇudūtas, Ajāmila, his original consciousness aroused, gave up everything and went to Hardwar, where he engaged in devotional service without deviation, always thinking of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Thus the Viṣṇudūtas went there, seated him on a golden throne and took him away to Vaikuṇṭhaloka.


In summary, although the sinful Ajāmila meant to call his son, the holy name of Lord Nārāyaṇa, even though chanted in the preliminary stage, nāmābhāsa, was able to give him liberation. Therefore one who chants the holy name of the Lord with faith and devotion is certainly exalted. He is protected even in his material, conditional life. 




śrī-bādarāyaṇir uvāca


evaṁ te bhagavad-dūtā




upadhāryātha tān rājan


pratyāhur naya-kovidāḥ




śrī-bādarāyaṇiḥ uvāca—Śukadeva Gosvāmī, the son of Vyāsadeva, said; evam—thus; te—they; bhagavat-dūtāḥ—the servants of Lord Viṣṇu; yamadūta—by the servants of Yamarāja; abhibhāṣitam—what was spoken; upadhārya—hearing; atha—then; tān—unto them; rājan—O King; pratyāhuḥ—replied properly; naya-kovidāḥ—being conversant in good arguments or good logic.




Śukadeva Gosvāmī said: My dear King, the servants of Lord Viṣṇu are always very expert in logic and arguments. After hearing the statements of the Yamadūtas, they replied as follows.




śrī-viṣṇudūtā ūcuḥ


aho kaṣṭaṁ dharma-dṛśām


adharmaḥ spṛśate sabhām


yatrādaṇḍyeṣv apāpeṣu


daṇḍo yair dhriyate vṛthā




śrī-viṣṇudūtāḥ ūcuḥ—the Viṣṇudūtas said; aho—alas; kaṣṭam—how painful it is; dharma-dṛśām—of persons interested in maintaining religion; adharmaḥ—irreligion; spṛśate—is affecting; sabhām—the assembly; yatra—wherein; adaṇḍyeṣu—upon persons not to be punished; apāpeṣu—who are sinless; daṇḍaḥ—punishment; yaiḥ—by whom; dhriyate—is being allotted; vṛthā—unnecessarily.




The Viṣṇudūtas said: Alas, how painful it is that irreligion is being introduced into an assembly where religion should be maintained. Indeed, those in charge of maintaining the religious principles are needlessly punishing a sinless, unpunishable person.




The Viṣṇudūtas accused the Yamadūtas of violating the religious principles by attempting to drag Ajāmila to Yamarāja for punishment. Yamarāja is the officer appointed by the Supreme Personality of Godhead to judge religious and irreligious principles and to punish people who are irreligious. However, if completely sinless people are punished, the entire assembly of Yamarāja is contaminated. This principle applies not only in the assembly of Yamarāja, but throughout human society also.


In human society, properly maintaining religious principles is the duty of the king’s court or the government. Unfortunately, in this yuga, Kali-yuga, the religious principles are tampered with, and the government cannot properly judge who is to be punished and who is not. It is said that in the Kali-yuga if one cannot spend money in court, one cannot get justice. Indeed, in courts of justice it is often found that magistrates are bribed for favorable judgments. Sometimes religious men who preach the Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement for the benefit of the entire populace are arrested and harassed by the police and courts. The Viṣṇudūtas, who are Vaiṣṇavas, lamented for these very regrettable facts. Because of their spiritual compassion for all the fallen souls, Vaiṣṇavas go out to preach according to the standard method of all religious principles, but unfortunately, because of the influence of Kali-yuga, Vaiṣṇavas who have dedicated their lives to preaching the glories of the Lord are sometimes harassed and punished by courts on false charges of disturbing the peace.




prajānāṁ pitaro ye ca


śāstāraḥ sādhavaḥ samāḥ


yadi syāt teṣu vaiṣamyaṁ


kaṁ yānti śaraṇaṁ prajāḥ




prajānām—of the citizens; pitaraḥ—protectors, guardians (kings or government servants); ye—they who; ca—and; śāstāraḥ—give instructions concerning law and order; sādhavaḥ—endowed with all good qualities; samāḥ—equal to everyone; yadi—if; syāt—there is; teṣu—among them; vaiṣamyam—partiality; kam—what; yānti—will go to; śaraṇam—shelter; prajāḥ—the citizens.




A king or governmental official should be so well qualified that he acts as a father, maintainer and protector of the citizens because of affection and love. He should give the citizens good advice and instructions according to the standard scriptures and should be equal to everyone. Yamarāja does this, for he is the supreme master of justice, and so do those who follow in his footsteps. However, if such persons become polluted and exhibit partiality by punishing an innocent, blameless person, where will the citizens go to take shelter for their maintenance and security?




The king, or in modern times the government, should act as the guardian of the citizens by teaching them the proper goal of life. The human form of life is especially meant for realization of one’s self and one’s relationship with the Supreme Personality of Godhead because this cannot be realized in animal life. The duty of the government, therefore, is to take charge of training all the citizens in such a way that by a gradual process they will be elevated to the spiritual platform and will realize the self and his relationship with God. This principle was followed by kings like Mahārāja Yudhiṣṭhira, Mahārāja Parīkṣit, Lord Rāmacandra, Mahārāja Ambarīṣa and Prahlāda Mahārāja. The leaders of the government must be very honest and religious because otherwise all the affairs of the state will suffer. Unfortunately, in the name of democracy, rogues and thieves are electing other rogues and thieves to the most important posts in the government. Recently this has been proven in America, where the president had to be condemned and dragged down from his post by the citizens. This is only one case, but there are many others. Because of the importance of the Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement, people should be Kṛṣṇa conscious and should not vote for anyone who is not Kṛṣṇa conscious. Then there will be actual peace and prosperity in the state. When a Vaiṣṇava sees mismanagement in the government, he feels great compassion in his heart and tries his best to purify the situation by spreading the Hare Kṛṣṇa movement.




yad yad ācarati śreyān


itaras tat tad īhate


sa yat pramāṇaṁ kurute


lokas tad anuvartate




yat yat—whatever; ācarati—executes; śreyān—a first-class man with full knowledge of religious principles; itaraḥ—the subordinate man; tat tat—that; īhate—performs; saḥ—he (the great man); yat—whatever; pramāṇam—as evidence or as the right thing; kurute—accepts; lokaḥ—the general public; tat—that; anuvartate—follows.




The mass of people follow the example of a leader in society and imitate his behavior. They accept as evidence whatever the leader accepts.




Although Ajāmila was not punishable, the Yamadūtas were insisting on taking him away to Yamarāja for punishment. This was adharma, contrary to religious principles. The Viṣṇudūtas feared that if such irreligious acts were allowed, the management of human society would be spoiled. In modern times, the Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement is trying to introduce the right principles of management for human society, but unfortunately the governments of Kali-yuga do not properly support the Hare Kṛṣṇa movement because they do not appreciate its valuable service. The Hare Kṛṣṇa movement is the right movement for ameliorating the fallen condition of human society, and therefore governments and public leaders in every part of the world should support this movement to completely rectify humanity’s sinful condition.




yasyāṅke śira ādhāya


lokaḥ svapiti nirvṛtaḥ


svayaṁ dharmam adharmaṁ vā


na hi veda yathā paśuḥ


sa kathaṁ nyarpitātmānaṁ


kṛta-maitram acetanam


visrambhaṇīyo bhūtānāṁ


saghṛṇo dogdhum arhati




yasya—of whom; aṅke—on the lap; śiraḥ—the head; ādhāya—placing; lokaḥ—the general mass of people; svapiti—sleep; nirvṛtaḥ—in peace; svayam—personally; dharmam—religious principles or the goal of life; adharmam—irreligious principles; vā—or; na—not; hi—indeed; veda—know; yathā—exactly like; paśuḥ—an animal; saḥ—such a person; katham—how; nyarpita-ātmānam—unto the living entity who has fully surrendered; kṛta-maitram—endowed with good faith and friendship; acetanam—with undeveloped consciousness, foolish; visrambhaṇīyaḥ—deserving to be the object of faith; bhūtānām—of the living entities; sa-ghṛṇaḥ—who has a soft heart for the good of all people; dogdhum—to give pain; arhati—is able.




People in general are not very advanced in knowledge by which to discriminate between religion and irreligion. The innocent, unenlightened citizen is like an ignorant animal sleeping in peace with its head on the lap of its master, faithfully believing in the master’s protection. If a leader is actually kindhearted and deserves to be the object of a living entity’s faith, how can he punish or kill a foolish person who has fully surrendered in good faith and friendship?




The Sanskrit word viśvasta-ghāta refers to one who breaks faith or causes a breach of trust. The mass of people should always feel security because of the government’s protection. Therefore, how regrettable it is for the government itself to cause a breach of trust and put the citizens in difficulty for political reasons. We actually saw during the partition days in India that although Hindus and Muslims were living together peacefully, manipulation by politicians suddenly aroused feelings of hatred between them, and thus the Hindus and Muslims killed one another over politics. This is a sign of Kali-yuga. In this age, animals are kept nicely sheltered, completely confident that their masters will protect them, but unfortunately as soon as the animals are fat, they are immediately sent for slaughter. Such cruelty is condemned by Vaiṣṇavas like the Viṣṇudūtas. Indeed, the hellish conditions already described await the sinful men responsible for such suffering. One who betrays the confidence of a living entity who takes shelter of him in good faith, whether that living entity be a human being or an animal, is extremely sinful. Because such betrayals now go unpunished by the government, all of human society is terribly contaminated. The people of this age are therefore described as mandāḥ sumanda-matayo manda-bhāgyā hy upadrutāḥ [SB 1.1.10]. As a consequence of such sinfulness, men are condemned (mandāḥ), their intelligence is unclear (sumanda-matayaḥ), they are unfortunate (manda-bhāgyāḥ), and therefore they are always disturbed by many problems (upadrutāḥ). This is their situation in this life, and after death they are punished in hellish conditions.




ayaṁ hi kṛta-nirveśo


janma-koṭy-aṁhasām api


yad vyājahāra vivaśo


nāma svasty-ayanaṁ hareḥ




ayam—this person (Ajāmila); hi—indeed; kṛta-nirveśaḥ—has undergone all kinds of atonement; janma—of births; koṭi—of millions; aṁhasām—for the sinful activities; api—even; yat—because; vyājahāra—he has chanted; vivaśaḥ—in a helpless condition; nāma—the holy name; svasti-ayanam—the means of liberation; hareḥ—of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.




Ajāmila has already atoned for all his sinful actions. Indeed, he has atoned not only for sins performed in one life but for those performed in millions of lives, for in a helpless condition he chanted the holy name of Nārāyaṇa. Even though he did not chant purely, he chanted without offense, and therefore he is now pure and eligible for liberation.




The Yamadūtas had considered only the external situation of Ajāmila. Since he was extremely sinful throughout his life, they thought he should be taken to Yamarāja and did not know that he had become free from the reactions of all his sins. The Viṣṇudūtas therefore instructed that because he had chanted the four syllables of the name Nārāyaṇa at the time of his death, he was freed from all sinful reactions. In this regard Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī Ṭhākura quotes the following verses from the smṛti-śāstra:


nāmno hi yāvatī śaktiḥ


pāpa-nirharaṇe hareḥ


tāvat kartuṁ na śaknoti


pātakaṁ pātakī naraḥ


“Simply by chanting one holy name of Hari, a sinful man can counteract the reactions to more sins than he is able to commit.” (Bṛhad-viṣṇu Purāṇa)


avaśenāpi yan-nāmni


kīrtite sarva-pātakaiḥ


pumān vimucyate sadyaḥ


siṁha-trastair mṛgair iva


“If one chants the holy name of the Lord, even in a helpless condition or without desiring to do so, all the reactions of his sinful life depart, just as when a lion roars, all the small animals flee in fear.” (Garuḍa Purāṇa)


sakṛd uccāritaṁ yena


harir ity akṣara-dvayam


baddha-parikaras tena


mokṣāya gamanaṁ prati


“By once chanting the holy name of the Lord, which consists of the two syllables ha-ri, one guarantees his path to liberation.” (Skanda Purāṇa)


These are some of the reasons why the Viṣṇudūtas objected to the Yamadūtas’ taking Ajāmila to the court of Yamarāja.




etenaiva hy aghono ’sya


kṛtaṁ syād agha-niṣkṛtam


yadā nārāyaṇāyeti


jagāda catur-akṣaram




etena—by this (chanting); eva—indeed; hi—certainly; aghonaḥ—who possesses sinful reactions; asya—of this (Ajāmila); kṛtam—performed; syāt—is; agha—of sins; niṣkṛtam—complete atonement; yadā—when; nārāyaṇa—O Nārāyaṇa (the name of his son); āya—please come; iti—thus; jagāda—he chanted; catuḥ-akṣaram—the four syllables (nā-rā-ya-ṇa).




The Viṣṇudūtas continued: Even previously, while eating and at other times, this Ajāmila would call his son, saying, “My dear Nārāyaṇa, please come here.” Although calling the name of his son, he nevertheless uttered the four syllables nā-rā-ya-ṇa. Simply by chanting the name of Nārāyaṇa in this way, he sufficiently atoned for the sinful reactions of millions of lives.




Previously, when engaged in sinful activities to maintain his family, Ajāmila chanted the name of Nārāyaṇa without offenses. To chant the holy name of the Lord just to counteract one’s sinful activities, or to commit sinful activities on the strength of chanting the holy name, is offensive (nāmno balād yasya hi pāpa-buddhiḥ). But although Ajāmila engaged in sinful activities, he never chanted the holy name of Nārāyaṇa to counteract them; he simply chanted the name Nārāyaṇa to call his son. Therefore his chanting was effective. Because of chanting the holy name of Nārāyaṇa in this way, he had already vanquished the accumulated sinful reactions of many, many lives. In the beginning he was pure, but although he later committed many sinful acts, he was offenseless because he did not chant the holy name of Nārāyaṇa to counteract them. One who always chants the holy name of the Lord without offenses is always pure. As confirmed in this verse Ajāmila was already sinless, and because he chanted the name of Nārāyaṇa he remained sinless. It did not matter that he was calling his son; the name itself was effective.


TEXTS 9–10


stenaḥ surā-po mitra-dhrug


brahma-hā guru-talpa-gaḥ




ye ca pātakino ’pare


sarveṣām apy aghavatām


idam eva suniṣkṛtam


nāma-vyāharaṇaṁ viṣṇor


yatas tad-viṣayā matiḥ




stenaḥ—one who steals; surā-paḥ—a drunkard; mitra-dhruk—one who turns against a friend or relative; brahma-hā—one who kills a brāhmaṇa; guru-talpa-gaḥ—one who indulges in sex with the wife of his teacher or guru; strī—women; rāja—king; pitṛ—father; go—of cows; hantā—the killer; ye—those who; ca—also; pātakinaḥ—committed sinful activities; apare—many others; sarveṣām—of all of them; api—although; agha-vatām—persons who have committed many sins; idam—this; eva—certainly; su-niṣkṛtam—perfect atonement; nāma-vyāharaṇam—chanting of the holy name; viṣṇoḥ—of Lord Viṣṇu; yataḥ—because of which; tat-viṣayā—on the person who chants the holy name; matiḥ—His attention.




The chanting of the holy name of Lord Viṣṇu is the best process of atonement for a thief of gold or other valuables, for a drunkard, for one who betrays a friend or relative, for one who kills a brāhmaṇa, or for one who indulges in sex with the wife of his guru or another superior. It is also the best method of atonement for one who murders women, the king or his father, for one who slaughters cows, and for all other sinful men. Simply by chanting the holy name of Lord Viṣṇu, such sinful persons may attract the attention of the Supreme Lord, who therefore considers, “Because this man has chanted My holy name, My duty is to give him protection.”




na niṣkṛtair uditair brahma-vādibhis


tathā viśuddhyaty aghavān vratādibhiḥ


yathā harer nāma-padair udāhṛtais


tad uttamaśloka-guṇopalambhakam




na—not; niṣkṛtaiḥ—by the processes of atonement; uditaiḥ—prescribed; brahma-vādibhiḥ—by learned scholars such as Manu; tathā—to that extent; viśuddhyati—becomes purified; agha-vān—a sinful man; vrata-ādibhiḥ—by observing the vows and regulative principles; yathā—as; hareḥ—of Lord Hari; nāma-padaiḥ—by the syllables of the holy name; udāhṛtaiḥ—chanted; tat—that; uttamaśloka—of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; guṇa—of the transcendental qualities; upalambhakam—reminding one.




By following the Vedic ritualistic ceremonies or undergoing atonement, sinful men do not become as purified as by chanting once the holy name of Lord Hari. Although ritualistic atonement may free one from sinful reactions, it does not awaken devotional service, unlike the chanting of the Lord’s names, which reminds one of the Lord’s fame, qualities, attributes, pastimes and paraphernalia.




Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī Ṭhākura comments that the chanting of the holy name of the Lord has special significance that distinguishes it from the Vedic ritualistic ceremonies of atonement for severe, more severe or most severe sinful actions. There are twenty types of religious scriptures called dharma-śāstras, beginning with the Manu-saṁhitā and parāśara-saṁhitā, but herein it is stressed that although one may become free from the reactions of the most sinful activities by following the religious principles of these scriptures, this cannot promote a sinful man to the stage of loving service to the Lord. On the other hand, chanting the holy name of the Lord even once not only frees one immediately from the reactions of the greatest sins, but also raises one to the platform of rendering loving service to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is described as uttamaśloka because He is famous for His glorious activities. Thus one serves the Lord by remembering His form, His attributes and pastimes. Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī Ṭhākura explains that this is all possible simply by chanting the Lord’s holy name because of the Lord’s omnipotence. What cannot be achieved through the performance of Vedic rituals can be easily achieved through the chanting of the Lord’s holy name. To chant the holy name and dance in ecstasy is so easy and sublime that one can achieve all the benefits of spiritual life simply by following this process. Therefore Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu declares, paraṁ vijayate śrī-kṛṣṇa-saṅkīrtanam: “All glories to Śrī Kṛṣṇa saṅkīrtana!” The saṅkīrtana movement we have started offers the best process for becoming purified of all sinful reactions and coming immediately to the platform of spiritual life.




naikāntikaṁ tad dhi kṛte ’pi niṣkṛte


manaḥ punar dhāvati ced asat-pathe


tat karma-nirhāram abhīpsatāṁ harer


guṇānuvādaḥ khalu sattva-bhāvanaḥ




na—not; aikāntikam—absolutely cleansed; tat—the heart; hi—because; kṛte—very nicely performed; api—although; niṣkṛte—atonement; manaḥ—the mind; punaḥ—again; dhāvati—runs; cet—if; asat-pathe—on the path of material activities; tat—therefore; karma-nirhāram—cessation of the fruitive reactions of material activities; abhīpsatām—for those who seriously want; hareḥ—of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; guṇa-anuvādaḥ—constant chanting of the glories; khalu—indeed; sattva-bhāvanaḥ—actually purifying one’s existence.




The ritualistic ceremonies of atonement recommended in the religious scriptures are insufficient to cleanse the heart absolutely because after atonement one’s mind again runs toward material activities. Consequently, for one who wants liberation from the fruitive reactions of material activities, the chanting of the Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra, or glorification of the name, fame and pastimes of the Lord, is recommended as the most perfect process of atonement because such chanting eradicates the dirt from one’s heart completely.




The statements in this verse have been confirmed previously in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (1.2.17):


śṛṇvatāṁ sva-kathāḥ kṛṣṇaḥ




hṛdy antaḥ-stho hy abhadrāṇi


vidhunoti suhṛt satām


“Śrī Kṛṣṇa, the Personality of Godhead, who is the Paramātmā [Supersoul] in everyone’s heart and the benefactor of the truthful devotee, cleanses desire for material enjoyment from the heart of the devotee who relishes His messages, which are in themselves virtuous when properly heard and chanted.” It is the special mercy of the Supreme Lord that as soon as He knows that one is glorifying His name, fame and attributes, He personally helps cleanse the dirt from one’s heart. Therefore simply by such glorification one not only becomes purified, but also achieves the results of pious activities (puṇya-śravaṇa-kīrtana). Puṇya-śravaṇa-kīrtana refers to the process of devotional service. Even if one does not understand the meaning of the Lord’s name, pastimes or attributes, one is purified simply by hearing or chanting of them. Such purification is called sattva-bhāvana.


One’s main purpose in human life should be to purify his existence and achieve liberation. As long as one has a material body, one is understood to be impure. In such an impure, material condition, one cannot enjoy a truly blissful life, although everyone seeks it. Therefore Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (5.5.1) says, tapo divyaṁ putrakā yena sattvaṁ śuddhyet: one must perform tapasya, austerity, to purify his existence in order to come to the spiritual platform. The tapasya of chanting and glorifying the name, fame and attributes of the Lord is a very easy purifying process by which everyone can be happy. Therefore everyone who desires the ultimate cleansing of his heart must adopt this process. Other processes, such as karma, jñāna and yoga, cannot cleanse the heart absolutely.




athainaṁ māpanayata




yad asau bhagavan-nāma


mriyamāṇaḥ samagrahīt




atha—therefore; enam—him (Ajāmila); mā—do not; apanayata—try to take; kṛta—already done; aśeṣa—unlimited; agha-niṣkṛtam—atonement for his sinful actions; yat—because; asau—he; bhagavat-nāma—the holy name of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; mriyamāṇaḥ—while dying; samagrahīt—perfectly chanted.




At the time of death, this Ajāmila helplessly and very loudly chanted the holy name of the Lord, Nārāyaṇa. That chanting alone has already freed him from the reactions of all sinful life. Therefore, O servants of Yamarāja, do not try to take him to your master for punishment in hellish conditions.




The Viṣṇudūtas, who are superior authorities, gave orders to the Yamadūtas, who did not know that Ajāmila was no longer subject to tribulation in hellish life for his past sins. Although he had chanted the holy name Nārāyaṇa to indicate his son, the holy name is so transcendentally powerful that he was automatically freed because he had chanted the holy name while dying (ante nārāyaṇa-smṛtiḥ). As Kṛṣṇa confirms in Bhagavad-gītā (7.28):


yeṣāṁ tv anta-gataṁ pāpaṁ


janānāṁ puṇya-karmaṇām


te dvandva-moha-nirmuktā


bhajante māṁ dṛḍha-vratāḥ


“Persons who have acted piously in previous lives and in this life, whose sinful actions are completely eradicated and who are freed from the duality of delusion, engage themselves in My service with determination.” Unless one is freed from all sinful reactions, one cannot be promoted to the platform of devotional service. Elsewhere in Bhagavad-gītā (8.5) it is stated:


anta-kāle ca mām eva


smaran muktvā kalevaram


yaḥ prayāti sa mad-bhāvaṁ


yāti nāsty atra saṁśayaḥ


If one remembers Kṛṣṇa, Nārāyaṇa, at the time of death, one is certainly eligible to return immediately home, back to Godhead.




sāṅketyaṁ pārihāsyaṁ vā


stobhaṁ helanam eva vā




aśeṣāgha-haraṁ viduḥ




sāṅketyam—as an assignation; pārihāsyam—jokingly; vā—or; stobham—as musical entertainment; helanam—neglectfully; eva—certainly; vā—or; vaikuṇṭha—of the Lord; nāma-grahaṇam—chanting the holy name; aśeṣa—unlimited; agha-haram—neutralizing the effect of sinful life; viduḥ—advanced transcendentalists know.




One who chants the holy name of the Lord is immediately freed from the reactions of unlimited sins, even if he chants indirectly [to indicate something else], jokingly, for musical entertainment, or even neglectfully. This is accepted by all the learned scholars of the scriptures.




patitaḥ skhalito bhagnaḥ


sandaṣṭas tapta āhataḥ


harir ity avaśenāha


pumān nārhati yātanāḥ




patitaḥ—fallen down; skhalitaḥ—slipped; bhagnaḥ—having broken his bones; sandaṣṭaḥ—bitten; taptaḥ—severely attacked by fever or similar painful conditions; āhataḥ—injured; hariḥ—Lord Kṛṣṇa; iti—thus; avaśena—accidentally; āha—chants; pumān—a person; na—not; arhati—deserves; yātanāḥ—hellish conditions.




If one chants the holy name of Hari and then dies because of an accidental misfortune, such as falling from the top of a house, slipping and suffering broken bones while traveling on the road, being bitten by a serpent, being afflicted with pain and high fever, or being injured by a weapon, one is immediately absolved from having to enter hellish life, even though he is sinful.




As stated in Bhagavad-gītā (8.6):


yaṁ yaṁ vāpi smaran bhāvaṁ


tyajaty ante kalevaram


taṁ tam evaiti kaunteya


sadā tad-bhāva-bhāvitaḥ


“Whatever state of being one remembers when he quits his body, that state he will attain without fail.” If one practices chanting the Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra, he is naturally expected to chant Hare Kṛṣṇa when he meets with some accident. Even without such practice, however, if one somehow or other chants the holy name of the Lord (Hare Kṛṣṇa) when he meets with an accident and dies, he will be saved from hellish life after death.




gurūṇāṁ ca laghūnāṁ ca


gurūṇi ca laghūni ca


prāyaścittāni pāpānāṁ


jñātvoktāni maharṣibhiḥ




gurūṇām—heavy; ca—and; laghūnām—light; ca—also; gurūṇi—heavy; ca—and; laghūni—light; ca—also; prāyaścittāni—the processes of atonement; pāpānām—of sinful activities; jñātvā—knowing perfectly well; uktāni—have been prescribed; mahā-ṛṣibhiḥ—by great sages.




Authorities who are learned scholars and sages have carefully ascertained that one should atone for the heaviest sins by undergoing a heavy process of atonement and one should atone for lighter sins by undergoing lighter atonement. Chanting the Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra, however, vanquishes all the effects of sinful activities, regardless of whether heavy or light.




In this regard, Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī Ṭhākura describes an incident that took place when Sāmba was rescued from the punishment of the Kauravas. Sāmba fell in love with the daughter of Duryodhana, and since according to kṣatriya custom one is not offered a kṣatriya’s daughter unless he displays his chivalrous valor, Sāmba abducted her. Consequently Sāmba was arrested by the Kauravas. Later, when Lord Balarāma came to rescue him, there was an argument about Sāmba’s release. Since the argument was not settled, Balarāma showed His power in such a way that all of Hastināpura trembled and would have been vanquished as if by a great earthquake. Then the matter was settled, and Sāmba married Duryodhana’s daughter. The purport is that one should take shelter of Kṛṣṇa-Balarāma, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, whose protective power is so great that it cannot be equaled in the material world. However powerful the reactions of one’s sins, they will immediately be vanquished if one chants the name of Hari, Kṛṣṇa, Balarāma or Nārāyaṇa.




tais tāny aghāni pūyante




nādharmajaṁ tad-dhṛdayaṁ


tad apīśāṅghri-sevayā




taiḥ—by those; tāni—all those; aghāni—sinful activities and their results; pūyante—become vanquished; tapaḥ—austerity; dāna—charity; vrata-ādibhiḥ—by vows and other such activities; na—not; adharma-jam—produced from irreligious actions; tat—of that; hṛdayam—the heart; tat—that; api—also; īśa-aṅghri—of the lotus feet of the Lord; sevayā—by service.




Although one may neutralize the reactions of sinful life through austerity, charity, vows and other such methods, these pious activities cannot uproot the material desires in one’s heart. However, if one serves the lotus feet of the Personality of Godhead, he is immediately freed from all such contaminations.




As stated in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (11.2.42), bhaktiḥ pareśānubhavo viraktir anyatra ca: devotional service is so powerful that one who performs devotional service is immediately freed from all sinful desires. All desires within this material world are sinful because material desire means sense gratification, which always involves action that is more or less sinful. Pure bhakti, however, is anyābhilāṣitā-śūnya; in other words, it is free from material desires, which result from karma and jñāna. One who is situated in devotional service no longer has material desires, and therefore he is beyond sinful life. Material desires should be completely stopped. Otherwise, although one’s austerities, penances and charity may free one from sin for the time being, one’s desires will reappear because his heart is impure. Thus he will act sinfully and suffer.




ajñānād athavā jñānād


uttamaśloka-nāma yat


saṅkīrtitam aghaṁ puṁso


dahed edho yathānalaḥ




ajñānāt—out of ignorance; athavā—or; jñānāt—with knowledge; uttamaśloka—of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; nāma—the holy name; yat—that which; saṅkīrtitam—chanted; agham—sin; puṁsaḥ—of a person; dahet—burns to ashes; edhaḥ—dry grass; yathā—just as; analaḥ—fire.




As a fire burns dry grass to ashes, so the holy name of the Lord, whether chanted knowingly or unknowingly, burns to ashes, without fail, all the reactions of one’s sinful activities.




Fire will act, regardless of whether handled by an innocent child or by someone well aware of its power. For example, if a field of straw or dry grass is set afire, either by an elderly man who knows the power of fire or by a child who does not, the grass will be burned to ashes. Similarly, one may or may not know the power of chanting the Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra, but if one chants the holy name he will become free from all sinful reactions.




yathāgadaṁ vīryatamam


upayuktaṁ yadṛcchayā


ajānato ’py ātma-guṇaṁ


kuryān mantro ’py udāhṛtaḥ




yathā—just like; agadam—medicine; vīrya-tamam—very powerful; upayuktam—properly taken; yadṛcchayā—somehow or other; ajānataḥ—by a person without knowledge; api—even; ātma-guṇam—its own potency; kuryāt—manifests; mantraḥ—the Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra; api—also; udāhṛtaḥ—chanted.




If a person unaware of the effective potency of a certain medicine takes that medicine or is forced to take it, it will act even without his knowledge because its potency does not depend on the patient’s understanding. Similarly, even though one does not know the value of chanting the holy name of the Lord, if one chants knowingly or unknowingly, the chanting will be very effective.




In the Western countries, where the Hare Kṛṣṇa movement is spreading, learned scholars and other thoughtful men are realizing its effectiveness. For example, Dr. J. Stillson Judah, a learned scholar, has been very much attracted to this movement because he has actually seen that it is turning hippies addicted to drugs into pure Vaiṣṇavas who voluntarily become servants of Kṛṣṇa and humanity. Even a few years ago, such hippies did not know the Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra, but now they are chanting it and becoming pure Vaiṣṇavas. Thus they are becoming free from all sinful activities, such as illicit sex, intoxication, meat-eating and gambling. This is practical proof of the effectiveness of the Hare Kṛṣṇa movement, which is supported in this verse. One may or may not know the value of chanting the Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra, but if one somehow or other chants it, he will immediately be purified, just as one who takes a potent medicine will feel its effects, regardless of whether he takes it knowingly or unknowingly.




śrī-śuka uvāca


ta evaṁ suvinirṇīya


dharmaṁ bhāgavataṁ nṛpa


taṁ yāmya-pāśān nirmucya


vipraṁ mṛtyor amūmucan




śrī-śukaḥ uvāca—Śrī Śukadeva Gosvāmī said; te—they (the order carriers of Lord Viṣṇu); evam—thus; su-vinirṇīya—perfectly ascertaining; dharmam—real religion; bhāgavatam—in terms of devotional service; nṛpa—O King; tam—him (Ajāmila); yāmya-pāśāt—from the bondage of the order carriers of Yamarāja; nirmucya—releasing; vipram—the brāhmaṇa; mṛtyoḥ—from death; amūmucan—rescued.




Śrī Śukadeva Gosvāmī continued: My dear King, having thus perfectly judged the principles of devotional service with reasoning and arguments, the order carriers of Lord Viṣṇu released the brāhmaṇa Ajāmila from the bondage of the Yamadūtas and saved him from imminent death.




iti pratyuditā yāmyā


dūtā yātvā yamāntikam


yama-rājñe yathā sarvam


ācacakṣur arindama




iti—thus; pratyuditāḥ—having been replied to (by the order carriers of Viṣṇu); yāmyāḥ—the servants of Yamarāja; dūtāḥ—the messengers; yātvā—going; yama-antikam—to the abode of Lord Yamarāja; yama-rājñe—unto King Yamarāja; yathā—duly; sarvam—everything; ācacakṣuḥ—informed in full detail; arindama—O subduer of the enemies.




My dear Mahārāja Parīkṣit, O subduer of all enemies, after the servants of Yamarāja had been answered by the order carriers of Lord Viṣṇu, they went to Yamarāja and explained to him everything that had happened.




In this verse the word pratyuditāḥ is very significant. The servants of Yamarāja are so powerful that they can never be hindered anywhere, but this time they were baffled and disappointed in their attempt to take away a man they considered sinful. Therefore they immediately returned to Yamarāja and described to him everything that had happened.




dvijaḥ pāśād vinirmukto


gata-bhīḥ prakṛtiṁ gataḥ


vavande śirasā viṣṇoḥ


kiṅkarān darśanotsavaḥ




dvijaḥ—the brāhmaṇa (Ajāmila); pāśāt—from the noose; vinirmuktaḥ—being released; gata-bhīḥ—freed from fear; prakṛtim gataḥ—came to his senses; vavande—offered his respectful obeisances; śirasā—by bowing his head; viṣṇoḥ—of Lord Viṣṇu; kiṅkarān—unto the servants; darśana-utsavaḥ—very pleased by seeing them.




Having been released from the nooses of Yamarāja’s servants, the brāhmaṇa Ajāmila, now free from fear, came to his senses and immediately offered obeisances to the Viṣṇudūtas by bowing his head at their lotus feet. He was extremely pleased by their presence, for he had seen them save his life from the hands of the servants of Yamarāja.




Vaiṣṇavas are also Viṣṇudūtas because they carry out the orders of Kṛṣṇa. Lord Kṛṣṇa is very eager for all the conditioned souls rotting in this material world to surrender to Him and be saved from material pangs in this life and punishment in hellish conditions after death. A Vaiṣṇava therefore tries to bring conditioned souls to their senses. Those who are fortunate like Ajāmila are saved by the Viṣṇudūtas, or Vaiṣṇavas, and thus they return back home, back to Godhead.




taṁ vivakṣum abhipretya




sahasā paśyatas tasya


tatrāntardadhire ’nagha




tam—him (Ajāmila); vivakṣum—desiring to speak; abhipretya—understanding; mahāpuruṣa-kiṅkarāḥ—the order carriers of Lord Viṣṇu; sahasā—suddenly; paśyataḥ tasya—while he looked on; tatra—there; antardadhire—disappeared; anagha—O sinless Mahārāja Parīkṣit.




O sinless Mahārāja Parīkṣit, the order carriers of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the Viṣṇudūtas, saw that Ajāmila was attempting to say something, and thus they suddenly disappeared from his presence.




The śāstras say:


pāpiṣṭhā ye durācārā




apathya-bhojanās teṣām


akāle maraṇaṁ dhruvam


“For persons who are pāpiṣṭha, very sinful, and durācāra, misbehaved or very unclean in their habits, who are against the existence of God, who disrespect Vaiṣṇavas and brāhmaṇas, and who eat anything and everything, untimely death is sure.” It is said that in Kali-yuga one has a maximum lifetime of one hundred years, but as people become degraded, the duration of their lives decreases (prāyeṇālpāyuṣaḥ). Because Ajāmila was now free from all sinful reactions, his lifetime was extended, even though he was to have died immediately. When the Viṣṇudūtas saw Ajāmila trying to say something to them, they disappeared to give him a chance to glorify the Supreme Lord. Since all his sinful reactions had been vanquished, he was now prepared to glorify the Lord. Indeed, one cannot glorify the Lord unless one is completely free from all sinful activities. This is confirmed by Kṛṣṇa Himself in Bhagavad-gītā (7.28):


yeṣāṁ tv anta-gataṁ pāpaṁ


janānāṁ puṇya-karmaṇām


te dvandva-moha-nirmuktā


bhajante māṁ dṛḍha-vratāḥ


“Persons who have acted piously in previous lives and in this life, whose sinful actions are completely eradicated and who are freed from the duality of delusion, engage themselves in My service with determination.” The Viṣṇudūtas made Ajāmila aware of devotional service so that He might immediately become fit to return home, back to Godhead. To increase his eagerness to glorify the Lord, they disappeared so that he would feel separation in their absence. In the mode of separation, glorification of the Lord is very intense.


TEXTS 24–25


ajāmilo ’py athākarṇya


dūtānāṁ yama-kṛṣṇayoḥ


dharmaṁ bhāgavataṁ śuddhaṁ


trai-vedyaṁ ca guṇāśrayam


bhaktimān bhagavaty āśu


māhātmya-śravaṇād dhareḥ


anutāpo mahān āsīt


smarato ’śubham ātmanaḥ




ajāmilaḥ—Ajāmila; api—also; atha—thereafter; ākarṇya—hearing; dūtānām—of the order carriers; yama-kṛṣṇayoḥ—of Yamarāja and Lord Kṛṣṇa; dharmam—actual religious principles; bhāgavatam—as described in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, or concerning the relationship between the living being and the Supreme Personality of Godhead; śuddham—pure; trai-vedyam—mentioned in three Vedas; ca—also; guṇa-aśrayam—material religion, under the modes of material nature; bhakti-mān—a pure devotee (cleansed of the modes of material nature); bhagavati—unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead; āśu—immediately; māhātmya—glorification of the name, fame, etc.; śravaṇāt—because of hearing; hareḥ—of Lord Hari; anutāpaḥ—regret; mahān—very great; āsīt—there was; smarataḥ—remembering; aśubham—all the inglorious activities; ātmanaḥ—done by himself.




After hearing the discourses between the Yamadūtas and the Viṣṇudūtas, Ajāmila could understand the religious principles that act under the three modes of material nature. These principles are mentioned in the three Vedas. He could also understand the transcendental religious principles, which are above the modes of material nature and which concern the relationship between the living being and the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Furthermore, Ajāmila heard glorification of the name, fame, qualities and pastimes of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He thus became a perfectly pure devotee. He could then remember his past sinful activities, which he greatly regretted having performed.




In Bhagavad-gītā (2.45) Lord Kṛṣṇa told Arjuna:


traiguṇya-viṣayā vedā


nistraiguṇyo bhavārjuna


nirdvandvo nitya-sattva-stho


niryoga-kṣema ātmavān


“The Vedas mainly deal with the subject of the three modes of material nature. Rise above these modes, O Arjuna. Be transcendental to all of them. Be free from all dualities and from all anxieties for gain and safety, and be established in the Self.” The Vedic principles certainly prescribe a gradual process for rising to the spiritual platform, but if one remains attached to the Vedic principles, there is no chance of his being elevated to spiritual life. Kṛṣṇa therefore advised Arjuna to perform devotional service, which is the process of transcendental religion. The transcendental position of devotional service is also confirmed in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (1.2.6). Sa vai puṁsāṁ paro dharmo yato bhaktir adhokṣaje. Bhakti, devotional service, is paro dharmaḥ, transcendental dharma; it is not material dharma. People generally think that religion should be pursued for material profit. This may be suitable for persons interested in material life, but one who is interested in spiritual life should be attached to paro dharmaḥ, the religious principles by which one becomes a devotee of the Supreme Lord (yato bhaktir adhokṣaje). The bhāgavata religion teaches that the Lord and the living entity are eternally related and that the duty of the living entity is to surrender to the Lord. When one is situated on the platform of devotional service, one is freed from impediments and completely satisfied (ahaituky apratihatā yayātmā suprasīdati). Having been elevated to that platform, Ajāmila began to lament for his past materialistic activities and glorify the name, fame, form and pastimes of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.




aho me paramaṁ kaṣṭam


abhūd avijitātmanaḥ


yena viplāvitaṁ brahma


vṛṣalyāṁ jāyatātmanā




aho—alas; me—my; paramam—extreme; kaṣṭam—miserable condition; abhūt—became; avijita-ātmanaḥ—because my senses were uncontrolled; yena—by which; viplāvitam—destroyed; brahma—all my brahminical qualifications; vṛṣalyām—through a śūdrāṇī, a maidservant; jāyatā—being born; ātmanā—by me.




Ajāmila said: Alas, being a servant of my senses, how degraded I became! I fell down from my position as a duly qualified brāhmaṇa and begot children in the womb of a prostitute.




The men of the hig